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Full text of "Howell Arabic Grammar all 7 books"

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NIVERSAL POSTAL UNION • UNION POSTALE UNDERSELL! 

BRITISH fNDIA *!>. INDE BRiTANNIQUF. 

POSTCARD SSI CARTE POSTALE 

THE ADDRESS ONLY TO BE WRITTEN ON THIS SIDE. 





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A GRAMMAR 



aw THS 



CLASSICAL ARABIC LANGUAGE, 

TRANSLATED AND COMPILED FROM THE WOBKS 



Of TBI 



MOST APPROVED NATIVE OR NATURALIZED AUTHORITIES. 



By MORTIMER SLOPER HOWELL, CLE , 

H. M.'s Bbhoal Civil MIviob, 
Member of UU Atiatic Society of JftfoZ, amd Fellow of the Univertity of OtleuUa, and of 



FDBUSHSD 

OTDBB THE AUTHOHTY OP THE GOVERNMENT, H.-W. PROVINCES. 



IN AH INTRODUCTION AND FOUB PABT8. 

The Introduction : and Part I.— The Noun. 



.—•*-." •> ***** 



ALLAHABAD: 

NUKTID At TBI HOITH-WESTBBK FBOTIWOBS AND OVDH OOTBRRJtBNT PRBSS, 

188 6. 

rr» "■"■— — — ninitiypH i^ Kiftno I p 





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NOTICE. 

Pages XXV-XXYI of the Contents and 87A-88A 
of the Notes are to be substituted for the corresponding 
pages given in the 1st Fasciculus of Part I. 

M. S. HOWELL. 
The Utk July, 1886. 



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ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS, 



P. xxv,/. 23, Bead "cop" 
P. xxvii, I 2. Read " met." 

A/A 

P. xxviii, Z. Z. Read " explanation" — ibid. Read jJ*Jl . 

P. xxix, Z. 21. Read "latent"— J. 29. Read "pro*."— I 31. Read 
"gen."— 1. 1. Read";wW 

P. xxxi, J. 19. Bead " in the"— ibid. Read " 674". 

$ A/ 

P. xli, 2. 16. Read w^j . 

$ A/ 

P. xlii, J. 22. Read w£-*i;. 

P. li, Z. 1. Read " form of the ting." 

P. 638, Z. 2. R here enters upon the discussion of the methods 

A / 

allowable in interrogation with ^ about a mentioned rational det. f 
in which case the ordinary method is to repeat the det, putting it in 

A • *A/ 3 his A/ • f 

the nom. after ^; so that, when a man says Uij ^>l; or «*>j fcL*, 

*$A/ ***/#* 

you say ±i) &* or &t) j^l Who w Zaid or Ike brother of Zaid % 

P. 698> J. 12. Before u proper" insert " [generic] "— tt. 1.4 and 17. 
For " [proper] " read "[personal pToper]". 

P. 709, Z. 16. " their likes " are preps. 

P. 760, Z. IS. For " (Le." read " [i.e." 

P. 93A, Z. 20 and Z. 29. Read " I Z." 

P. 94A, Z. 10. Read " Z. Z." 

P. 95A, Z. 19. Redd " if her". 

P. 96A, U. 2-3. Read " AlYaman" and " dependent"—*. 19. Read 

i^AJl; and Ij£U! . 

P. 98A f Z. I Read " transmits". 

P. 104A, Z. Z. Read " and inceptive [423], an answer". 

P. 1HA, Z. 17. Read "context"—*. Z. Read "not an". 
P. 115A, Z. 1. Read "^ron. as". 

P. 117A, J. 13. Read " His"— U. 13-14. Put "His name .... 
my knowledge " within marks of quotation. 

P. 130 A, Z. Z. Put a comma after " him". 
P. 131A, I. 1. Read "One of". 
P. 132A, Z. 25. Read " AlMan?ur". 



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Additions and Corrections to the Abbreviations of 
References. 



• AKB. The KkizdruU alAdab wa Lubb Lubab Lisan .aVArah (c. 
1073 — 1079), an Exposition of the evidentiary verses "cited in the Com- 
mentary of R upon the IH, by the Shaikh 'Abo AlK&dir lbn 'Umar 
alBaghdadi, resident of Cairo, the Philologist (6. 1030, d. 1093), 
printed at Bfilfifc in 1292. 

• Amr. The Gloss (c. 1188) of the Shaikh Muhammad alAmIb 
alAzharl upon the ML, printed in Egypt in 1299. 

• CD. The Commentary of Khfj upon the D, cited from extracts 
given in Thorbecke's Notes on the D, and latterly from the edition 
printed at Constantinople in 1300. 

• D. The Durrat alGhauwd§ by H, edited by Thorbecke, and 
printed at Constantinople with the Commentary of Khfj, 

• EC. The Commentary of the Sayyid Muhammad lbn 'All Iba 
Aigasain alMusawI al'Amill alJuba'I, the Philologist (b. 946, d. 1009), 
upon the evidentiary verses of the C, cited from an incomplete MS. 

[The Author is so named in the LB, p. 42, and in the preface to the 
EC. The AmcU alAmil, as noticed in the LB, wrongly attributes the 
work to the Sayyid ljusain (rf. 1069), son of the Sayyid Muhammad.] 

• FA. The FawSid alKalatid fi Mukhtasar Shark ashShaicahid, 
commonly called AshShawahid asfjfughrb, an abridgment of the MN, 
by its Author, cited from a MS. 

[The HKh. IV. 393 calls it the Fara'id alFawa'id.] 

• Khfj. The Raifranat aHAlibbd wa Zahrai alHayat adDunyb, a 
Biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Celebrities, by Maulana the 
$&£l Shihab adDln Afcmad lbn Muhammad alKhafAji alMisrl alljanaft, 
the Philologist (d. 1069), printed in Egypt in 1294. 

• Rhls. The Khuldioi alAthar f\ A'yan alKarn alHadi-'Ashar, a 
Biographical Dictionary of the Celebrities of the 11th Century, by the 
Maula Muhammad AmIn lbn Fatfl Allah alMuhibbi, great-grandson of 
MDE, al^amawl by origin, adpimashl^l by birth and abode, alHa- 
naft, the Historian and Philologist (6. 1061, rf. 11U), printed in Egypt 
in 1284. 



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( H ) 

* LB. The Lu'lu'ata al Bahrain fi-lljdzat UKurratayi-l'Ain (c. 
1182), a Series of Biographies of the Learned Men of AlBafcrain, by the 
Shaikh YtteUF Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim adDar&zl alBa^ban! , the 
Philologist (b. 1107), lithographed at Bombay. 

MDE. The Kadi Mufcibb adDln Abu-1 Fa^l Muhammad Ibn Tafcl 
adDln Abi Bakr al'Ulw&nl alQamawI by birth and education, adDi- 
ma8hVl al Qanaft, known as Muhibb adDin Efpendi, the Philologist 
{b. 949, d. 1016), great-grandfather of the Author of the Ehls. 

* MN\ The Commentary named AlMakdtid anNahwya fi Shark 
Shawahid Shuruh alAlfiya, commonly called A&hShawOhid alKubr* (c. 
806), by the Kadi Badr adDln Abu Muhammad MaI>mQd Ibn Afemad 
asSarqjI alljanaft, known as Al'Aini, born at 'A in Tib, the Jurist and 
Grammarian (b. 762, d. 856), upon the evidentiary verses cited in the 
Commentaries of BD, IUK, IA, and IHsh upon the IM, printed upon 
the margin of the AKB. 

• N. The Commentary named TanzU alAydt 'alashShawdhid min 
dlAbydt, by MDE, upon the evidentiary versos of the K, edited by 
Abu-lWaft Na§r aiHttrinl, and printed at Bttlalf; in 1281. 

" • NA. The Nuthat alAlibbd f\ Tabakdt alUdabd, a Treatise on the 
Classes of the Philologists, by EIAmb, printed in Egypt in 1294. 

* SD. The Silk adDurar fi A'ydn alKarn athThanl-'Ashar, a 
Biographical Dictionary of the Celebrities of the 12th Century, by the 
Sayyid§adr adDln Abu-lFadl Mu?ammad Khali l Efpendi Ibn 'All 
Effendl alMoridl alBukhirl adDimashkl auNakshbaudl, the Historian 
and Philologist, printed at Bttl&V in 1301 from a MS written at Da- 
mascus in 1211. 



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CONTENTS. XXV. 

Page. 

agreement of the pre. and post, ns. in number 

and gender is a condition of such government ... 451— 405 

§ 150. The subst — definition given bylH — the«*ta*. after 
a 
|J how included in this definition — definition 

given by IM and IHsh — classification — best 
construction in the case of the mist, of blunder— 
the subst. of pure blunder or of forgetfulness not 
allowable in poetry ... ... ... 465—468 

§ 151. The ant. is subsidiary to the mention of the subst 
—but is not meant to be rejected— -refutation of 
the theory that it is virtually rejected as regards 
the sense — and as regards the letter ... 468 — 469 

§ 152. The op. of the ant. is virtually repeated with the 

subst. ... ... ... ... 469 

§ 153. The subst and ant. need not agree in determinate- 
ness and indeterminateness — but may be both 
det, both indet., or one det. and the other indet. 
— the indet. subst. for a det. ought to be qualified 
— application of this rule ... ... 469 — 4 7 1 

§154, The subst and ant are both explicit ns. t both 
prons., or one an explioit n. and the other a pron. 
— the partial subst, and the subst. of implication 
need a pronominal cofi. — omission of the cop.— 
theory that the J may supply the place of the 
pron.— or that the suppression of the pron. may 
be explained by holding the subst to be treated 
as a eorrob. — the total subst. does not need a 
cop. — the interrog. Hamsa prefixed to the subst 
for an interrog. n. — the v. a subst. for the v. — 
anacoluthon— order of the subst. and other 
apposs. — suppression of the ant ... ... 471—478 

§ 155. Syndesis — the synd. expl. — the other apposs. how 
excluded by this definition— the synd. expl. must 
be prim. — its concord with the ant.— dispute as 
to whether the synd. expl. and its ant. may be 
indets. — the synd. expl, being like the ep. 9 must 

contain the generic f| when its ant is a dent. 



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XXYi. CONTENTS. 



Page. 



— but is allowed by S to be anarthrous when 
the dem. is a voc. — aud by S and Zd to consist of 
2 sings, coupled together when the dem. is a du. — 
the latter construction disallowed by S, Zd, and 
others in the ep.— but allowed by S when the 
du. is a voc. ... ... ... 478 — 481 

§ 156. The synd. expl. how distinguishable from the wist. 
—either allowable — the synd es^pl. necessary — 
the subst. necessary — differences between them 
— R's theory of their ideutity — explanation of 
their alleged differences — exs. where either is 
admissible — suppression of the ant. ... 481 — 491 

§157. Definition of the coupled — defence of the defini- 
tion — the coupled is separated from its ant. by 
a C(Wg ^-the ep. is sometimes coupled to an ep. ... 491 — 492 

§ 158. Coupling to the attached noun, pron. — to the 
detached nom. pron., and attached or detached 
ace. pron.— to the gen. pron.— dieouseion as to 
whether the gen. is coupled to the gen., or the 
op. and gen. to the op. and gen. — and whether the 
coupled is governed in the gen. by the first op. 
or the second— repetition of the genitival op. 
not necessary in a case of necessity— nor, accor- 
ding to some, in a case of choice ... 492—498 



CHAPTER V.— The Uninflected Noun. 

| 159. Definition of uninflectednoBB— definitions of the 
uninfl. n. — its predicament — it is permanent or 
accidental— the cause of its uninflectedness ac- 
cording to Z— and acoording to 1M— when the 
pre. n. gains uninflectedness from the uninJL 
post.— allowable uninflectedness of the vague n. 
of time pre. to a prop. — permanent. uninflected- 
ness of ns. necessarily pre. to a prop.— termina- 
tions of the uninfl. n. — names of the termina- 
tions— distribution of the terminations — classi- 
fication of the uninfl. ns. ... ... 499—505 



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CONTENTS. jxvii. 

Pago. 
Thb Pronouns. 

§ 160. The pron. is called emt. by the KK — its definition 
— its exponent — positions where it relates to an 
expression posterior literally and in natural 
order— choice of exponent when determined by 
proximity — the explicit n. substituted for the 
pron. — the pron. is (1) attached, (a) prominent 
or (b) latent, (2) detached ... ... 506—51 1 

§ 161. The pron. is uninJL — its terminations— reason of 
its luuofleotedness — some pron*. are common to 
2 or more cases — there are prone, for all 3 cases 
— which are attached, and which detached- 
assortment of the prone, with reference to oase 
and attachment or detachment — meanings of 
each sort — expressions constituted for the 
attached nom. prone, of each pere. — and for the 
remaining sorts of prone, of each pere. — aggregate 
of words and meanings — the «t>— its variations 

— the«> in the variations of <-&>!; 1 — attached 
nom, pron. of the 3rd pere. — the «y in u>J)<* and 
U*j** a p., not a pron. — the T , y , and ^ —the ^ 
sometimes used for irrational objects — the 1 9 y , 
and |j seldom pe. — the^ — attached nom. pron. in 
theaor.,imp., aadprohib. — intheepe., i. e. act. and 
paee. parte, and assimilate ep., and in the verbal 

>5 3 h s 

tit. and adve. — detached nom. pron* — 1>! — k)»* 
— u^i t to tf* i — j* and ^*> — their ) and ^ 

vocalized, elided, made quiescent, or doubled— 
du. and pi. of the detached nom. pron. of the 
3rd pere. — the detached nom. prone, are common 
to the pret. 9 aor., imp., and epe. — expressions 
constituted for the attached ace. and gen. 
prone, of each pere. — vowel of the * in the eing. 
maec.— impletion, slurring, or elision of this vowel 
after a mobile— slurring or impletion of the vowel * 



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XXVlll. CONTENTS. 



Page. 



after a quiescent—summary of the dial. van. in 
the g of the sing. masc. after a Kasra or quiescent 

^ — impletion, slurring, or elision of the vowel 
of the 8 in the sing. masc. when a soft letter is 
elided before the s— vowel of the « in the du. 
and pi. — quiescence or vocalization of the * of 
the pi. after the * pronounced with Kasr, and im- 
pletion of its vowel when it is followed by a 
mobile -summary of the states of the f after 
the * pronounced with Kasr — states of the 
after the * pronounced with Pamm — detached 
ace. pron. — its constitution — gen. pron. — it must 
be attached, and is exactly like the attached 
ace.— the ^ } lJ , and s when objs. and when 

post. — the lJ* in !^J i— $*&)) when a p. and when 
a post. n. — pi. of magnification— pi. masc. for 
sing. masc. or sing. fern. — sing, for pi. — the pron. 
treated like the dem. ... ... ... 511- 



-532 



§162. ,^1 and its variations ... ... ... 532 — 533 

£ 

§ 163. Detachment of now. or ace. pron. not allowable 
except when attachment is impossible — rules for 
attachment and detachment when nom. or ace. 
pron. is governed (1) by a v.— ^-(2) by something 
else ... ... ... ... 533—539 

§ 161. Rules for attachment and detachment when 2 
prons. follow an op., (1) when the op. is a v., (a) 
if the 2nd pron. be an appos. — (b) if the 2nd 
pron. be not an appos. — (2) when the op. is 
a n. — attachment or detachment of pronominal 
pred. of ijf , etc. ... ... ... 540—544 

§ 165. No pron. latent except attached nom. — cause of its 
latency — attached nom. pron. when not apparent 
— ag. 9 explicit or pronominal, when not apparent 

A/A 

— xplanation of instance where- ag. of jJ*M 



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CONTENTS. XXUC 

Page, 

seems to be apparent as a detached pron. — ag. 
when apparent as an explicit it. or detached 
pron. — explanation of instances where ag. of 

A/A 

1 J**I seems to be apparent as an explicit n., and 

' S/h/ 

ag. of ^JaaJ as a detached pron, of the 2nd pers. 

or as an explicit n. ... ... ... 514—546 

1 66. Form of detaohed nam. pron. in terrenes between 
inch, and enunc. before and after profixion of 
their lit. ops.— is named distinctive by the BB, 
and support by the KK — the J of inception is 
prefixed to it — the inch, ought to be del., and the 
enunc. synarthrous — the distinctive remains fixed 
in case, but varies in number, gender, and 
per*. — is introduced where the enunc. is anar- 

throus/out an jj**l of superiority — conditions of 
the pron* named distinctive and support — its 
import — some Arabs make it an inch., and what 
follows it its enunc. «... .. ... 546—551 

§ 167. The pron. of the case or fact — named pron. of the 
unknown by the KK — is (1) attached, (a) pro- 
minent or (6) latest, (2) detached — when/wi». — 
may not be suppressed, except when an ace. — 

ss 
ex*, of its suppression when sub. of ^1 —its 

- irregularities — the expos, prop, after it must 

have both its terms expressed — must be nominal, 
except when an annuller of inchoation is prefixed 
to the pron. — and must be enunciatory, except 

A* 

when pred. of the contracted ^1 ... 551—554 

§. 168. The prop, in **>; sj m) and ** ; f*i ... 554 

•A/ • / ,/A* 

§ 169. The pron. after ty and ^^ —analysis of V 

followed by a gen pron. — and of L y* followed 

by an ace. prop. ... ... ... 555—557 



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XXX. COHTBNTS. 



Page. 



§ 170. The ^) of protection or support— why introduced 
into the v. — inseparable from all paradigms of • 
the v. except the 5 paradigms of the aor. con- 
taining the (j of inflection — may be elided with 
the (j of inflection, but not with the ^ of the 

pron., nor with the single or double ^ of cor- 
roboration — dispute whether the elided be the 
^ of protection or the ^ of inflection— the ^ 
of the pron., or the single or double ^ of cor- 
roboration not elided with the ^ of protection 
— the ^ of protection elided with the gj of the 
pron. by poetic license— methods allowable with 
the tf of inflection — expression or omission 

/ A/ * * 

of the ^ of protection with ( j»§f and ^y** — 

• •A* 

with the <J**I of wonder — with verbal »*.— 
with ^1 , ^ , ^ and ^a — with J*J — Wlth 

• Ay A A • A/ A/ 

«Hk* — with ^ , ^ , & , and bS — with 

JA—mihJs* ... ... ... 557—562 

§ 170 A. Degrees of particularity in the prons. — the more 

particular prevails over the less ... ... 562 



The Demonstratives. 

§ 171. Definitions — the dems. contain the sense of vs. — 
demonstrate orig. only sensible and visible 
objects — their numbers, genders, and cases— 
the sing. maso. used for the sing. fern, or du.fem. 
— similar usage in the pron. — the dans, are 
vninfl. — their terminations— reason of their 
uninfleotedness — dispute on the uninflectedness 
of the du. — similar dispute on the du. of the 

conjunct— ^/i , ^UUJ , and theliko are quasi- 



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CONTENTS. X1X». 

Tage. 

du. ns. f not real dus. — t .jJ»i , ^ B , ^^t , and 

JUJJI occur in all 3 cases— the dems. are vague, 
and must therefore be explained by an ep. 
when they are likely to confuse ... ... 563—570 

§ 172. The i-S of allocution is affixed to them to notify 
[by its variations] the number and gender of the 
person addressed— it is ap., not &pron.— does not 
indicate person, but only allocution— varies with . 
the number and gender of the person addressed 
—aggregate of dems. so formed— the lJ is in- 

variable in one dial— <*-&* for fit ... 570—572 

§ 173. The J is inserted before the u* to indioate the 

distance of the demonstrated— distinction in - 

• ^ * * ! 

meaning between & , <-*!«* , and <-&* — some 

make no distinction between «^U and <-*b — 
numbers and genders of the dems. importing 

MJ * 

distance— reduplication of the & in ^w and 

Jjjt — and inL-iiii andt-x>tf —the J when 
omitted-wdways omitted int he dial of Tamlm 572—674 

§ 174. The premonitory p. U is prefixed to the <fem*.~ 
U* and its variations—*-^ and its variations 
—the U is not part of the dm.— explanation of 
^Uilasan ace. ... ... -'I "4-576 

§ 175. D«u. of pfaw- U» and U» — *» is a^ays 

' 53/ 

used as an <*.'*.- and so ^S — the <-* of allocu- 



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XXXU CONTENTS." 



Tub Conjuncts. 

2/ 



Page. 



tion is affixed, and the premonitory U prefixed, 
to U* and U*> , but not to f — and the J is 
inserted — distinction in meaning between to* , 

• • * • /.# 82/ 2/ • /.p 

cJUjb , and c-WUa — J and Ua are like i~&U* 

in meaning— lJUa ; lJJUa , and U«> some- 

times denote time — dispute as to whether they 

are then pre. to the prop. ... ... 575^578 



§ 176. ^$^ 1 and its variations — the sing. — reduplication 

or elision of the ^ in the sing. — the I and J in 
all 3 numbers are red. — added to impart the form 
of the det.— the du. — reduplication of the ^ in 
the du>— similar reduplication in the du. of 
the dems. — elision of the ^ in the du. — dispute 
as to whether the dus. are infl. or uninfl. — 

joltUJJ and ^*W| occur in all 3 oases— the pi 

/ is/ 
mase. — ^tiJ I written with one J — elision of 

the ^) from ^^1 and ^ciJ I —other forms of 
the pi. mase. — the pk fern. — conjuncts common 

hf / A • 

to all genders and numbers— JI-— ^ — ^ — 

It 

^Ji expressly or constructively pre. to a del. — 

sometimes femininized, dualized, and pluralized 

? ' 

—the Wl y* — its dial. van. — li — the con- 
juncts, with some exceptions, are uninfl.— their 
terminations — reason of their uninflectedness — 
the conjunct ought to be infl. — the conj. has 
not a place in inflection — nor have the conjunct 
and its conj. together — the conjuncts are vague 579 — 590 



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-CONTENTS. XXXiH. 

Page. 
§ 177. Definition of the conjunct — its conj., except the conj. 

As 

of Jf — the reL — the conj. is a verbal, nominal, 
concL, or adverbial prop^ — this prop, must be 
enunciatory — and needs a cop. — the ptrz. of the 

AS 

rtL pron. — the conj. of Jf —it is constructively 
a verbal prop, containing a rel. pron. — its o. f. — it 

AS 

receives the inflection properly belonging to Jf 

As As 

— anomalous conjs. of jjl — they prove Jf not 
to be a p. of determination, but are peculiar to 
poetry — the prim, synarthrous substantive as a 
conjunct — the conj. or part of it does not precede 
the conjunct — nor does the conj. or any thing 
depending upon it govern what precedes the 
conjunct — nor does the conj. depend upon mt 
precedes the conjunct— nor is the conjunct se- 
parated from the conj., or part of the conj. from 
part, by an appos. or ennnc of, or exc from, the 
conjunct — in poetry a conjunct occurs coupled 
to a conjunct before the conj. — sometimes a 
conjunct is separated from its conj. by a reg. 
of the conj. — such separation is not allowable 

with a conjunct/)., nor with the conjunct Ji — 
part of the conj. may be separated from part 
by something coupled to the conj. — part of the 
conj precedes part — suppression of the conjunct 

A* 

n. other than Jl — of the conj. of the conjunct 

AS as 

n. other than Jl — the rel of Jl may not be 
suppressed — nor may one of two rels. when 
combined in the conj. — suppression of the rcl. in 
other cases ... ... ... 590—606 

mf 

§ 178. ^^I is a connective to the qualification of deU. 

by prop**— the fact announced by the co^j. 
prop, ought to be known to the person addressed .< 



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XXXif. .CONTENTS. 



Page. 



— distinction between the eohj. and the attri- 

£5/ 

bate— ^^ I and its fern, are lightened by elision 

of the ^ alone or with the preoeding vowel— 
the g) is elided from its du. and pi. — its sing, is 
used to indicate the pi. — number of the rel. 
pron. in that case ... ... ,.. 606 — 608 



enunoi- 



§ 179. ij&\ has a wider range in the process of 

' As 

ation than J I — an enune. is not made to Jl 
except from a n. in a verbal prop. — conditions 
requisite in the v. — enunoiation is a process 
instituted for examination and exercise of the 
student — when permissible — method of effecting 
it— concord of the conjunct in number and 
genjyr with the n. made an enune. — latency or 
detachment of the pron. governed in the notn. 

As 

by the qual occurring as eonj. of jjl —conditions 
of the n. that an enune. is made from— enunoi- 
ation when disallowed <„ ... 608—614 

§ 180. *• iBM 'the U that follows an indet. to import 
vagueness and corroboration of indeterminateness 

— - U denotes mostly the irrational, sometimes 
the rational, often the qualities of the rational, 
sometimes the unknown in quiddity and essence. 614 — 619 

§ 18L Its I is subject to conversion aud elision— conver* 

•As A sAs sAs 

sionof the! — * W* -— &+%* — W* is simple, 
not compounded — its meanings — elision of the 
I with retention or elision of the Fat^a — the ! is 
elided in interrogation, but expressed in enuncia- 
tion — the ) is expressed in interrogation in extraor- 
dinary readings and poetic licenses, not inordinary 
readings— the t is not elided when the interrog. 

U is compounded with US — U when written 

tonjoined and when disjoined ... ... 619«*»627 



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CONTENTS, XXXV. 

Page, 



h * h * 



a * 



§ 182. ^ — ^ as a complete indet. or red. — ^ 
mostly denotes the rational, sometimes the 

a s • 

irrational— &• and I** are literally sing. mcuc. % 
but are applied to all numbers and genders— 
observance of the letter is more frequent in ex- 
pressions made to accord with them than 
observance of the sense— observance preferable 
or necessary— precedence of, and reversion to, 
observance of the letter when the two observances 

a • 
are combined — ^ when written disjoined, and 

when conjoined ... ... ... 627—638 

§ 183. In interrogation with &+ about a mentioned 
rational indet. 3 methods are allowable in pause 

A / As 

upon tf* , (1) to imitate in ^ the inflection 
of the indet. and the signs of its number and 
gender — the letters of prolongation are added 
in the sing, maso.— imitation of the inflection is 
omitted in the ting. fern, and pi fern. — the ^ 
before the *&> is made quiescent in the du. fem t% 
and sometimes in the sing, fern., but is some- 
times mobilized in the du. fern. — (2) to add the 
letters of prolongation, imitating only the inflec- 
tion appropriate to the sing. tnasc, t whatever be 
the number and gender of the indet. — (3) to put 

g* alone in every state without imitation — imi~ 

a, 
tation allowed by Y in continuity — &" is injL 

in some dials. — the signs mentioned are affixed 
only at the end of the sentence— question how 
put when the rational and irrational are com- 
bined — methods allowable in interrogation with 

A 

\$* about a mentioned rational <fe/.— and about 

a ret ep. of a proper name „ # ,„ 634—643 



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XXXvi. CONTENT*. 



Pag«, 



mt Sit ml 

§ 184. ^1 —* J as a qualified sncfct. — J when deci- 
dedly aprothetio — ^1 is wi/!., except In vocation 
— the interrog. or cond. ^\ is infl. unrestrictedly 

ml 

—the conjunct ^1 has 4 states— the conjunct 

mi 

^\ when i»#., and when unitrfl. upon Pamm— 

conditions of the op. of the conjunct ^ ... 643— 646 

it 

§ 185. In interrogation with ^1 about a mentioned indet. 

it 
2 methods are allowable, (1) to imitate in ^ 

the inflection of the indet. and the signs of its 
number and gender — reason and pause why 

a • 
required as conditions of imitation with ^ , and 

ii 

not with ^1 — (2) to restrict oneself in conti- 

it 
nuity to inflecting ^1 in the ting., whatever be 

the number and gender of the indet. — the 

a , it 

vowels and other signs affixed to &* and J in 

the state of imitation are imitative alliterations, 
these words being in the place of a nom. by 

il 
inohoation — in interrogation with ^ about 
deis. what follows it is not imitated — the n. is 
sometimes imitated without a question — imita- 
tion is allowable, aooording to this cftal., in deU. 
s, il 



after &* or J ... ... ... 646—648 

§ 186. The denu. as oonjunota— !•> — li U ... 648—651 



The Verbal Nouns and Ejaculations. 

§ 187. Definition of the verbal n. given by IH— defini- 
tion given by IM and Fk— expressions excluded by 
the latter definition — mood and tense indicated 
by the verbal a,— the verbal m, are twin/*.— 



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CONTENTS. ^XXXvii. 

Page, 

their terminations— -reason of their uninflected- 
ness — meaning of the term " verbal ns. 1 * — object 
of using them — they are shorter and more 
intensive than vs. — what they indicate — why 
they are not called vs. — their o. fs. — they are 
all transferred from original inf. ns., from inf. 
ns. orig. ejs„ from advs , or from preps, and 

yen*.— tfkA or ^^1 —its forms — the prep. 

and gen. why called a verbal n. — the verbal n. 
has no place in inflection — it is not in the place 
of the nom. — it has lost its original place in 
inflection — nor is it in the place of the ace. — it 
is transferred from its original meaning to the 
meaning of the v. in the same way as proper 
names are transferred — it denotes the meaning, 
not merely the expression, of the v. — the v. 

sometimes becomes a verbal n. — <~w and 

t— £&lfi u-xtf — government of the verbal ns. — the 
V is often red. in their obj.— dispute as to whether 
they may be preceded by their aces. — the verbal 
n. is not pre. — the aor. is noUgoverned in the 
subj. in the correl. of the requisitive verbal n., 
but is governed in the apoc. — the verbal ns. 
are mostly i. q. the ffltp.^-are more intensive 
and corrob, in meaning than the corresponding 
ns. — and, when enunoiatory, contain the sense 
of wonder — they have no sign for the attached 
pron. governed by them in the nom. — amxion 
of the ^S of allocution and of the Tanwln 
to - them is restricted to hearsay— the L-f 
attached to them is sometimes a n. governed 
in the gen., and sometimes a p. of allocution 
— according to the majority, the Tanwln affixed 
to them indicates indeterminateness— the verbal 
ns. in the state of determination belong to the 



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XXXV1U. 



CONTENTS, 



A/ 

class of n. made det. by the Jl denoting hnovh 
J«fye— according to ISk and Jh, the Tanwin 
affixed to verbal ns. indicates that they are 
continuous with what follows them, not paused 

£a, 
upon— classification of the verbal n*.— *jl — 



A// 



*• 



A • 



•A/ 



"^ "£ « " ' ^ • A • ,/A 

*»— W — Jay— I,— Ul, — LfJ — uJ*, 

■5* /A/ C*/ A s 

~ C>' *-*** or Jt ^3 

§ 188. ±ly) — ambiguous constructions and various 
versions 

m9fi 

§ 189. (X* — is made uniform by the Bijazls in all num- 
bers and genders, but conjugated by the Banu 
Tamlm as an imp. v.— is trans, and intrans. — 

lS) fl* — fl*\ and *Jm I 

§ 190. U —its dial. vars. — three of these are aplastic 
"•• ••• ••• ••• ... 



% 191. \}n^ mmm its di<*1> win. — forms peculiar to pause 

— {Jtbr* —sense and government of ^Jtit* — 

//•S»/ ss • 

its assumption of the pron.~— lJJ^^ — • ^^ 

a^ a y 

and |J» why combined— ^^ used alone— 

// A/ 

to or J* used alone 

/Ay /A/ 

§ 192. *** is (1) a verbal a.— (2) an *n/. »,— • Jt* — . 

/A* 

(3) a n. i. q. «*-*6* —case of what follows it— 
nature of its Fatfc— ex. with versions exhibiting 

/A/ A /A/ A 

all 3 constructions — *1* ^ or ,U* .^y* — 
h, a w ' ^ w ' 

*1* .♦** occurs in tradition — different versions of 

this tradition— (4) *$rep. 



Page. 



652—674 
674—676 



676—678 



679-680 



680—684 



684-686 



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CONTENTS, XXXlX. 

Page- 

§ 193. JU* — it is (1) an imp. verbal n. — universal, or, at 

all events, freqnent, in the tril. — its occurrence 
in the Revelation — it is rare in the quad., being 

then #}*•* — refutation of the theory that it 

is made to deviate from the verbal imp. for the 
sake of intennveness and is fern — it is intensive, 

however, like all verbal iw. — so are L Y** the inf. 

n. and jjt** the ep. — (2) an inf. n. — refutation of 

the theory that it is made to deviate from&def.fem. 
inf. n. — there Is no evidence of determinateness 

in jba* — nor in other instances of this JW 
— vacillation of the GG about the gender of all 

the measures of Jl** , imp., inf. n., ep., and pro- 
per name — (3) a fern. ep. — this ep. does not occur 
in the masc, is always used without a qualified, 
and is of 2 kinds, (a) used only in the voc. f 
except by poetic license — this kind, like the 

imp. jJUi , may be regularly formed from every 

trU. att. completely plastic v. — and does not 
occur as a generic proper name — (b) used in 
the ncnvoc.y (a) mostly as generic proper names, 
and therefore <JUt. — (b) sometimes merely as 
eps. — (4) a personal proper name of a Jem. — 
this kind of proper name is coined — difference 
between it and the generic proper name men- 
tioned in 3, b, a — it is always fern. — but is 
sometimes used as a name for a man ... 687 — 698 

} 194. JU* when an imp. 9 inf. n., or ep. 9 has its J pro- 
nounced with Kasr— unless it be used as a per- 
sonal proper name, in which case, if a name for 
a mew., it is declined as a diptote, and some- 



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XL CONTENTS. 

Page. 

times as a triptote, and, if a name for a fem. % ifc 

is treated like JUJ when a personal proper 

name — the <J in the imp. is pronounced with 
Fat^ by the Banu Asad — the inf. ns. and eps. 
are uninfl. by common consent — the generic 
proper names are wunfl. — the personal proper 
names of ferns, have 3 dial. vars. ... ... 698—701 

• /A/ 

§ 195. «yl$6* — its dial. vars. — its number — reasons for 
the different vowels of the «y — the final how 
written when pronounced with l?amm ... 701 — 703 

§ 196. ^.iA — requires 2 ags. — U ^U^ i 8 allowable 

/A/ y • 2/ 

— and ^ I* ^^ , though it is less frequent 

/A^ /5' 

and chaste — but not ^« ^^ ... ... 703 — 706 

§ 197. <— *l — - its dial. vars. — its final vowel, and its 

Tanwln . M ... ... ... 706—707 

§ 198. These ns. are del. and indet. — signs of the det. and 
indet. — classification of these ns. as (1) always 

det.— (2) always indet. — 1#! or *>! — *** and 
l^* — j\a* _ (3) ^ ^d wkto. — **! — 

the Tanwln affixed to these ns. — theory that 

the verbal ns. are all det ... 707 — 709 

§ 199. Advs. and preps, as verbal ns. — their gen. ishpron. 
—pers. of the pron. — lJ*& , *S*±) , and 
L-£y3 — lJ> I ;j and L-fc« U| — lSAC* — 
question whether tJJl&* and the like are verbal 

£ A// /A^ £ 25 ss 

w . — uiftlc and L-laJ) — ^1 and ^U — an 
explicit n. governed in the $m by ^$1* — dis- • 



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CONTEXTS. Xii. 

Page, 

pute whether mttigatim by adn. of place and 
by preps, is regular or restricted to hearsay- 
position of the prom, attached to these words — 
their ay.— case of the corrob. after them ... 709 — 713 

S 200. Definition of the ej. — classification of the V*- — these 
expressions m by named <y«. — they are treated as 
words, and coordinated with n$< — the Tanwln 
affixed to some of them — they are all uninJL — 
reason of their uninflectedness — when they occur 
constructed, they may be inJL or unimJL, in- 

A* 

flection being frequent with Jl , and necessary 
with Tanwtn— cj$. imitating the sounds of 
human beings, dumb animals, or inanimate 
substances — t§t* wherewith brutes are cried to 
— 9#. indicative of the speaker's mental states — 

S A/ f as Sh* % As m*h* m As 

*S$sAs A?sAS *t /A/ 

— 4^3 <* jte) or ^1 « — ^£> ... ... 713—720 

Tab Uninflected Adverbs. 

§ 201. Some adv$. are vninJL — their terminations — the 
adv. cut off from prothesis— enumeration of the 
advt. so cut off— others may not be added by 
Analogy — the post. n. or prop, when suppressive 
—reason of the uninflectedness of the advs. cut 

.» as a~ s 

off from prothesis — and of v^f> , it , and tot 

* . * 

— reason of the inflectedness of yja*t and J? 
when the post, is suppressed — these advs. are 
preferably wdnfl., but allowably infl. when pro- 
nounced with Tanwln as a compensation for the 
post. — there is no difference in sense between 
their imJL and uniafU forms — contrary opinion- 
that their mfl. forms do not imply the sense of 
protheiis— these n*. are umnfl. upon Pamm in 



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Xlii, CONTENTS. 



*Z* A 2*i A 

1 state, and infl. in 3 — f\t£ &* — Jji ^ — 
s / • ' 

Tan win with the sign of the nom. or ace. in 
these adfo*. — they are named " finals" — J? and 

§ A, 

(j&ju , when cut off from prothesis, are not so 
named — J* — it is uninfl. upon Pamm or infl* 
— its dial. vars. — the ^ of ^ i s elided in ^J* — 

^A Ay 

vowel of the cJ in jU — and of the J in ^ — • 

' *A/ * 

the finals why wnwi/f. upon Daram — ^i 5f or 

,*Ay /Ay S h S 

2& jj**6^ and u-***^ are treated like the advs. 
cut off from prothesis — yh* — constructions 

A/ • AX JA/ y 

allowable with y>£ preceded by ,j*»*J — ^a£ I 

— ^fi is assimilated to the final ados. — but 

/ /Ay #Ay y fs, 

only after * and <j«>J — ^ after ^jmJ is i.q. 

Si $ a y 

I| — u^%ma^ — it is used as an vndet. ep. — and 

as a prim, substantive — objection to its being 

3 A y 

a verbal ».— v«»"^ — its post, why suppressed 

^ A / 

— u^ma^ why uninfl, upon Pamm — advs. pre. 
to jwops,— the **. of time is generally ^r«. to the 
verbal prop., sometimes to the nominal—the w. 
of time, when not in sense an adv. to the in/, n. 
of the prop., is not used except with an infinitival 

$ A/ §*m0 * 

p. before the prop, — vs^^ and fj t — .3 — 
order of the two terms of the prop, immediately 

S A/ , 

following <^4^ and ISI when one of these terms 

$Ay $a £ 

is a i>* — ^£ an d ^Ji* are sometimes pre. to a 



Page, 



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CONTENTS. Xliil. 

Page. 

prop, headed by an infinitival p. — the advs. also 

are sai4 by the KK to be pre, to ^1 and ^1 — alleg- 
ed qualifiability of the adv. pre.to props. — determi* 

nateness or indeterminateness of this aiv.— the 

* a / 
n, of time or <^^ , even if not an adv., is pre* 

to the prop. — *&•*£ * i*^6^ > and *W*U — 

, ***'**'' *' 

|^5 _ the 2> M ^ # prop, may not contain a pron. 

* 

relating to the pre, adv. — the cop. when neces- 
sary in the prop, following an adv. — anomalous 
insertion of a cop. in the prop. post, to an adv. — 
the advs. necessarily pre. to props, must be uninfl. 
—the sing, and pl. f but not the du., of the advs. 

A 

allowably pre. to the prop, or to *Sf may be 

$A / 

vninfl. upon Fatt — so may Ji* with U — and 

$ A / a* sf. 

^c with ^1 or ^1 ... ... ... 721— 744 

< 

£ A/ £ A • .PA* 

§ 202. ^*^ or v*>^ is wmn/l — its terminations — v£*^ 

is wi/2. by some— its meaning— how parsed — it 

does not occur as sub. of #ot — is always pre. to 

*>prop. } more often verbal — extraordinary pre- 
fixion to a single term — more extraordinary 

. * a # 

prefixion to a suppressed prop. — ^^i^ , when 

pre. to a Bingle term, is infl. by some — 1**& — ■ 

proof that v£*A^ sometimes denotes tfaw •.. 744—748 

§ 203. «i* and *3** — are peculiar to time — their meanings 
when they are w.— what follows them—how 
parsed when followed by a n. in the gen.— are ns. 
when governing a single n. in the worn., or when 
followed by a prop.— how parsed when followed 



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xEv, CONTENT*. 



Pags* 



by a n.in the worn. — or by a verbal or nominal 
prop. — are uninfl. — reason of their joninfleeted- 

Bees — their terminations — the o.f. of ±+ ... 748 — 752 

A 

J 204. $ is (1 ) a n. denoting past time—- how used— (2) a * 

denoting /towre time— (3) causative— a p. or <*fa, 
according to different opinions — ear* in favor of 
the 1st opinion — (4) denotative of suddenness of 

occurrence— generally ocetarring after U# or Uu> 

and variously said to be an adv. of place or time, 

up. denoting suddenness of occurrence, and a red* 

a 
p.— 2 other meanings mentioned for if , in both 

A 

e? whieh it appears to be a p. — il ia always 

pre. to a prop., nominal or verbal — but is not 
prefixed to a n. followed by a.pret 9 v. — suppression 

' ' * •* A/ A 

ef one term of thejwop; — uJl*3 $ and ,^s»j i| — 

f # ,a, * 

and of thewholeprop.— *Sf or !iSl and *&«*» — it 

does not denote condition unless it be restrained by 
U from prenwion— Uil — a jp. or adv., according 
todifferent opinions— its government of the apoc. 
is rare, but not a poetic Moens*— Jo! (1) denotes 
suddenness of occurrence— this differs from the 
0Md. lil in being peculiar tonominalprops., kino* 

needing acorrefc, nor occurring at the beginning 
ef the sentence, and in meaning thepresent— and 
m variously said to-be up., an adv. of place, and an 
mdv. of time— its ©p., if it be an adv.— the emm* 

with it— |j| itself the enunc.— &k *L4>')£ 
U-J^ **j or UJt* — & regarded as am 



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CONTENTS. Xlv, 

Page. 

advroi time, but still apparently made enunc. of 

a concrete*. — .«* %* KWor l*l»| — this 131 is 

used like the ^i in the corrd. of the condition 
— (2) denotes something else — this differs from 

the 1st W in being an adv. ofthe future, in imply- 

ing the sense of condition, and in being peouliar 
to prefixion to verbal props. — tense of the v. after 

it — the cond. 13! is not prefixed to an inch., 

whether the inch, be, or be not, followed by a t\ 
— and does not govern the apoc, except in 

poetry— exclusion of this 131 from adverbiatity, 

futurity, and condkionality — when no longer 
cond., it may still be followed by 2 props. — what 
governs it in the ace., whether it be cond. or 
non-cond. — the *— J in the correL of the non-conek 

IS? — the cond. 13! may have for its apod, a 

nominal jTrop. without a*— * — and be followed 

by a nominal prop, devoid of v.— IS! ^s^ — 

' f * ,f * 

U 131— '3J and 131 denoting*tuftfefifie*« of occurrence 

/A/ //A/ sAs 

in the corrd. of W* and U*W — formation of U« 

,/A* 'A/ 

and tJ^e — sense and government of &*> in 

,£# *A/ *,h* 

th em — Ub — tense of the v. after *« , Ui# , 

/S/ / a/ a* 

ftnd Uif — tftl and J> here may be uninfl. 

*h' //A/ /S* 

—construction of ^ » ***« , and Utf with 
their 2 two©*.— !3J and 3! why prefixed to the 

/A/ //A/ fi/ '*' . /S# 

«*r£ of U« and U« — J* and ^ in U* 



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Xlvi- CONTENTS. 



Page. 



and L*ig may be infl. — parsing of *>l and W in 

/ A/ /•A/' / 

the correl. of U** and U*« —and of lit in the 

• 5/ A A^ 

eorreJ. of !*SI , U , and ^l — &\ denoting sud- 
denness of occurrence elsewhere than in the correl. 

/A/ V /A/ / A/ 

of l*W and l**6* — I*** may be pre. to an inf. n., 

• /A/ 

contrary to U*# .... ... ... 752—778 

A*/ #/A.# A »' 

§ 205, ^^J — its dial, vars.— its government — *>«** ^.J 

/A# 

— no n. but 85^ is governed in the ace. after 

A s* •/ A*/ 

^jJ — ^a) — difference between it and ^^ 

/A 

—and between it and «*** —there is no proof 

of its uninflectedness— its I ... ... 778—784 

§ 206, ^ ' I mmmm is an <i<fo. of time, uninfl. upon Fatfo — the 

Ax 

ijt prefixed to it — how it is made deU — reason of 
its uninflectedness — it is sometimes infl. — its vars. 

a* 
~~ o^ — ' * ts termination when it means a spe- 
cified day, and is not pre., nor synarthrotis, nor 
formed into a du. or broken pi. or dim. — its inflec- 
tion when it is used as a name for a man — and 
when it means some day or other of the past days, 
or is pre. or synarthrous, or is formed into a du. or 
broken jpZ. or dim. — its uninflectedness when it is 
anarthrous, and means a specified day, but is used 

as an adv. — k* — its usages — it is uninfl. — reason 
of its uninflectedness — its terminations — its dial. 

S A/ • A# 

pars. — tff or ^f —its usages — when it is infl. 
and when uninfl. — reason of its uninflectedness 

— its terminations — ^ —it is a p. — or an arftv 



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CONTENTS. Xlvii. 

Page. 

of time — reason of its uninflectedness —attempted 
refutation of its nominality — the v. following it 
— its corrd. — apparent omission of its 2 w. — 

^ — its formation— ** and *J — g* said 
to be uninfl. — reason for its uninflectedness — it is 
really *w/L— the ! in U* — ^ \ — i 3 umnfl. — ' 

its termination— ^J*** — is also a p or a n. syn, 

with l**^ — is umnfl. — its termination — t^» ) . 

and U ^yU -— distinction between Jf>* and • 

!6I — ^b| — is vmn/?. — reason of its uninflec- 
tedness— its termination — its derivation — its 
dial* vars. — parsing of cond. and mterrog. ns. and 
the like — the enunc. of the cond. inch. — the 
corrd. of the cond. inch, needs a cop. — the interrog. 
or cond. reg. of the *. or its like must precede its 

op. — the op. of s y^ and every cond. adv. ... 785 — 804 

i 207. «— *** is a ». — treated as an adv. by many — dispute 
as to whether it be an adv. or a plain n. — how 
renderable — its usages — said to occur as a con* 
— is umnfl. — reason of its uninflectedness — its 

termination— ^J — ■ ^1 —condition of its oc- 

currence in the sense of v-i^J or i J^ — it is uninfl. 

— reason of its uninflectedness — its termination 801—810 



The Compounds. 

A// 

Iffs definition — includes such as f»%*6*" — ex- 

eludes suoh as * J ! *** and lj£ la* tf — excludes 

part of the defined also— amendment of the 
definition— • classification of the comps. — dispute 
as to classification of certain comps. ... 811—812 



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Xlviil CONTENTS. 

Page. 
§ 209. Distinction between the 2 kinds of comp. ... 812—813 

§ 210. The nwn. exceeding 10— the £ of y&* sometimes 
made quiescent— this num., when synarthrous or 
pre., remains uninjl. — dispute as to uninflected- 
ness of the pre. — treatment of this num. when 
used as a name for a man ... ... 813 — 814 

§211. Classification of the synthetic cotnps. uninjl. upon 
Fatfc — all. synthetic comp*. used as ds. s. — synthe- 
tic) composition in what is not an adv. or d. s. — 

S A* * A * 

o.f. of L fiH tj*it*> — its dial vars. ... 814—818 






§ 212. )W )^ — • its dial. vars. and meanings ... 818—820 



§ 213. L 5«^ ^W or b* ^W — is used as a d. *. — its 

dial. van. ... ... ... 820 

§ 214. If* l^I or l*«* ^y — its dial. vars. — is a d. s. 

'f„ 
—the Hamza of W-* omitted ... ... 820—821 

# / AS •/ • * A// A • 

§ 215. v-*/*** 4 — to *'<**• w*— * c/ 5 > «*rV-^ » 

«S SsA/ A/ 

i-**W , and the like— the ^ of ^j*** , when 
l>re., is made quiescent in the ace. — <-y * tt 

• Ay * * * * A/ 

•-*/ i_***** "" ^r * n Vr l^-^* -—dispute 

as to classification of & ,J& ... ... 821—822 



Thb Uninflbctkd Mbtontms. 

§ 216. Definition of metonymy— signification of the met. 
denoting an txprcuion — all the interrog. and cond* 
m. ore mete.— being used for uMmiitd particular 



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CONTEKTS. 



things— all tnets. are not umnfl. — the uninfl. mets. 
— the interrog. and cond. n$. why not reckoned 
here — the mets. are like the advs. in being infl. 
and tmtR/Z. 



A# 



| 217. ^ — 18 interrog. and enunciatory — both denote 
number and numbered, and eaoh needs a ap.— » 
case and number of the «p. — points of agreement 
between the interrog. and enunciatory — and of 
difference ... ... 



A/ 



] 216. Parsing of^ 

| 219. Suppression of the sp. 



A/ 



| 220. Number of the sp. of the interrog. £ — of the a. 
coupled to the sp. of the interrog.— of the sp. of 
the enunciatory ... ... ... 

As 

f 221. Separation of £ from its 9.— case of the sp. of the 
separated interrog. f — and of the «p. of the 

A/ 

separated enunciatory £ —treatment of the sp. 

of the separated enunciatory f? , when the separa- 
tion is by a trans, r.— and of the sp. of the 

A/ A/ 

separated interrog. fi , when the sp. f if f were 

not separated from it, would be governed in the 
gen% ... ••• ... ... 

A/ 

1 222. Number and gender of fi —and of the pron. relat- 
ing to it— this pron. ought not to a be du. 

I 22S. fS is peculiar to tfufel*. — apparent determination of 
its jp.— -and of the n. coupled to its sp, 

A/ 

f 224. Case of the sp. of the interrog. ff — the gen. when 
allowable in this sp.— the 9. of the enunciatory 



Page. 



823—825 



825—827 
827—828 
828—829 

829—830 



830-831 



832 



832—833 



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Y f CONTENTS. 



Page, 



f> is sometimes goyerned in the ace. without 

separation — &+* f ... ... ... 833 — 835 

V 

§ 225, The sp. how governed in the^n. when ^ is interrog. 

*' a 

—and when f is enunciatory — ^^ prefixed to 

A* 

the $p. — {$ when construed to be pronounced 

with Tanwln ... ... ... 835—838 

§ 226. lo£ and ^f — points of agreement between l*P * 

A/ / / 

and |^ — and of difference — !i£ as a.tnel. for 
the expression occurring m narration — the un- 

compounded !*>£ — l*iC* — points of agree- 

Aui$s A/ 

ment between ^X and ^ — and of difference — 

A*£s 

#a^. var*. of && ... ... ... 836—840 

' A/ • Ax 

{ 227. *^h£ and ^>*S — * their terminations — their pausal 
form — they are often used according to the o.f. — 
'*' 
**£ — reason of their uninflectedness — they are 

always repeated with the con. 3 — distinction^ 

between them ... ... ... 840 — 841 



CHAPTER VI. 
The Dual Noun. 
5 228. Definition of dualization — and of the du. — o.f. of 
the du. and pi. — corresponding definition of the 
Ju.— demonstration of the theory that the'o. f. 
is coupling — coupling when allowable instead 
of dualization — multiplication sometimes denoted 
by repetition without coupling or by dualization 
— conditions of dualization — ns. not dualized — 
exceptions to some of these conditions— classifi- 



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CONTENTS. 



eation of the <&.— the formfo the smg. is generally 
preserved— elision of the * of femininization — 
of the ^ of the Ju.— and of its I 

§ 229. The form of the sing, when unaltered in the d*.— 
and when altered — dualization of the abbreviat- 
ed, when its \ is 3rd — different opinions on the 
mode of converting the rarf. I and the I whose 
o. f. is unknown — modes allowable when the I 
has 2 o. /«. — dualization of the abbreviated 

//A 

when its ! is 4th or upwards — d % ,fi* "^elision 
of the I in the du. of the abbreviated transcend- 

//Ay **A * 

ing 4 letters — d)*& and d')f* — summary 

of the rules for converting the I of tho abbreviat- 
ed in the du, — summary of the anomalous dus% 
in the abbreviated ... ... " ... 

$ 230. The iw. whose final is Hamza are prolonged and 
unprolonged — definition of the prolonged — its 
Hamza — dualization of the prolonged when its 
Hamza is (1) substituted for the I of feminini- 
zation — (2) rod. — (3) denotative of co-ordination 

and (4) converted from a rod. y or ^ — ^i^ 

and joW^ — elision of the I and Hamza of 

femininization— summary of the anomalous dus. 
in the prolonged— definition and dualization of 
the unprolonged 

§ 231. Dualization of the *t. arbitrarily curtailed of its 
final — the n. whose <J is elided for a neces- 
sitating cause 

5 232. Dualization of the quasi-pl. and of the broken, but 
not ultimate, pi. — dualization is easier in the 
quasi-pl. than in the broken pi — and is not 
allowable in the ultimate pi. 



Page. 



842— 846 



846—850 



850—853 



853—855 



855—856 



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lii. CONTENTS. 



Page. 



§ 233. Number preferred in the pre., (1) when 2 parts 
are literally or ideally pre. to their 2 wholes, (a) 
if the 2 wholes be uniform in letter — the du, 
disapproved unless omission of dualization 
would lead to ambiguity — the pi. why preferred 
to the ting.— difference of opinion as to the 
number allowable when eaoh whole contains 
more than one of each part — ex. of the du. and 
pl. 9 and ex. of the du.— (b) if * the 2 wholes bo 
separated by a eon. — (2) when the pre. is not 
part of the post. du. — number of the pron., qwd., 
dcm.y and the like, belonging to the pre. n. whose 
letter differs from its sense — the sing, substitut- 
ed for the du. or pi. — the du. for the am?.— the 
pi for the*wy. or du. — ex. of the ting, and pL 
fortheifo. ... ... ... 856— 86X 



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CHAPTER V. 
THE UNINFLEOTED NOUN. 



§ 159, Uninflectedness is the inseparability of the 
termination of the word from one state, literally or eon* 

Btructively, like the inseparability of s)iip> from Kasra, 

JJU from Damma, and ^J from Fatha (Sh). The un- 
infl. n. is the one whose final's quiescence or vowel is 
not by reason of an op. (M,MM). The uninfl. [n. (Jm)] 
is what (1) is related to the orig. uninfl., [vid. the p., pret 
v., and imp. without the <J , which relation is detailed 
(below) by the author of the M(Jm)] ; (2) occurs uncon- 
structed: [being of 2 kinds, either uninfl. from the lack of 
the motive for inflection, vid. construction, like ns. enume- 

Ajf f/ A *h A s / s / A £ A AS 

rated, as 6& ^jUSl j^fj (321), t? G b cill 9 and *i) 

AAx AA/ ' ' ' 

j& ))+* ; or uninfl. from the presence of the preventive 
of inflection, notwithstanding the existence of the motive 
for it, that preventive being resemblance (of the n.) to 
the p., pret., or imp., or its being a verbal n. (187) 
(R):] and its predicament is that its termination does 
not vary because of the variation of the ops. (IH). It is 
(1) permanent, vid. (a) what implies the sense of the 

p., like ^J [206], JZ> [below], and UUT [207]; (b) 
what resembles it, like gMS [below], ^*M , and the 
like : (2) accidental, vid. (a) the [nJ] pre. to the ^ of the 
1st per*. [129], as ^U [below] ; (b) the aprothetic dee. 



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( 500 ) 



roc, as ±t) k [48] ; (c) the aprothetic indet with the 
generic neg. V , as ;foJ| ^ J*>; V [99] ; (d) the comp., as 

• • • • • A / 

j£* &,M<a, [210] ; (e) what the post, is suppressed from, 

*** Sh* Sh/ $ h f 

▼id. J-o % oju , JJ ji , c^aaj , and the rest of the 6 rela- 
tive locations [128, 201] (MM). The cause of its unin- 
fected n ess is its relation to what has [prig. (AAz)] no 
declinability in any way, near or remote, [like the pret. vs., 
imp. of the 2nd per 8., and ps. 9 which are orig. so constitu- 
ted as to have no declinability, contrary to the uninfl. ns ., 
whose indeclinability is adventitious, not original (AAz),] 

through (1) implying its sense, like ^jif and «~*f [206] j 
(2) resembling it, like the [prons. (161) and] vague ns. 
[262]; (3) occurring in its place, like j£ [193] ; (4) 
conforming to what occurs in its place, like jt»» and 
tUi [194] ; (5) occurring in the place of what resembles 
it, like the voc. pronounced with Damm [48] ; (6) being 
prefixed to it, as in LXX. 11. [below] and V fyt f*ifc 
^jSlab LXXVIL 35. This will be a day when they 



shall not speak in the readings with Fatji [of the * 
(AAz)], £Jf v^&fT «I^ JJ [90], and 



* * * AS ft * si a,i * *», 



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( 501 ) 

by AnNlbigha (M) adhDhubySnl, At the time when I 
reproved hoariness for the passing away of youth, and 
said, Wkatt have I not yet become sober when hoariness 
is hindering (from q>ort)t (J). The cause of uninflec* 
tedness is restricted to resemblance to the p., according 
to IM, who mentions that the n. resembles the p. in (1) 
constitution, as when the n. is constituted of (a) one letter, 

like the «*> in cs^tyi [161] ; (b) two letters, like the U in 
lUjTf : (2) sense, vid. what resembles a p (a) existing, 
like L 5** [206], which is used to denote interrogation^ 
like the Hamza, and condition, like ^1 ; (b) non-existent, 

like CUD , because demonstration^ being a meaning, ought 
to have a p. constituted to indicate it [171], so that the 
dems. are uninfl. because of their resemblance to a sup* 
plied p. : (3) acting as a subst. for the v. and not being 
impressible by the op., like the verbal ns., as l^o [193], 
which is uninfl. because of its resemblance to the p. in 
governing and not being governed by anything else ; but 
this is based upon the opinion that the verbal ns. have 
no place in inflection [187] : (4) permanent need, like the 

conjunct n*., as ^jJI [176], which, always needing the 
conj. [177], resemble the p. in permanence of need [497] 
(IA). The [pre. (DM)] n. gains uninflectedness [from 
the post., when uninfl. (DM),] by pro thesis [111], when 
the pre. is (1) vague, [but not a n. of time (DM),] like 

68 



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( &M J 

f A/ IAz I* I # /A//A#/A/ > > 

[ jW>] >**> J**> aad ^o, whence ^jf^ J^., 

• */ A/ • ' ' 

^jS^Ai U XXXIV. 53. And tkeir Union and the union 
of what they shall long fbr thall be obstructed and 
LXjj ^^ tL» ; LXXII. 11. And of us is the inferior 

A** A/ / tf s/ A •/ 

of that, as Akh says, the reading JCJuu ^laju oSJ VI. 94. 
Assuredly your union hath become dissevered, as Akh 
says, which is confirmed by the reading with the nom., 

LI. 23. [518], the reading iu\ i jL J£^ J XL 
93. That the like of what befell [the people of Noah fyc] 

m» A.#,A • A • , Ax Ay 

should befall you, £lf f$±+ U ol ; [107], and £JU* J 

£M ^^SJt : whereas, if the pre. be not vague, it is not 
uninfl.\ while the saying of Jj and those who agree with 
him, that [thepr*. n. in] ^lU [above] and the like is 

uninfl., is refuted, [because ^lte is not a vague rc. (DM),] 
and [because it (DM)] entails uninflectedness of [the pre. 
n. in] lX*1U and &*U£ , which no one maintains : (2) 

A A A x 

a vagne [w. of] time, the />os£ being (a) of , as ^)sL **. 

•A/ # ' ' ' 

iSX«^ XI. 69. <*4wd We saved them from the ignominy 
of that day and oi#^ ^Se ~* LXX. 11. Jfom the 
chastisement of that day, both read with the gen. and 

A/ ° 

Fatfc of f j£ ; (b) an uninfl. v. $ whether the uninfected- 
mess be original, as in jJ\ u»^?U ^a, J* , or adventi- 
tious [402, 406], as in 



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< 503 ) 

8 h h // *«8 / S K0 m Sk A / / A £/ 

> • **• *~ ~ 

[ / aritf «ure/^ rfraco away from them my heart, by endea- 
vouring to acquire staidness, at the time when they seek 

to befool every staid man ( Jsh) ], both related with Fatji [of 



vc* (DM)], which is superior to inflection according to 

IM, and inferior according to IU : whereas, if the post. 

be an infl. v. or nominal prop., the BB say that inflection 

is necessary ; but the correct view is that uninflectedness 

4* /A/ s f 

is allowable, whence the reading of Nsfi' ^11 ^ f JJD 
V. 119. [1], the reading of others than Abb ' Amr and 

Ibn Kathir jJJ uCU3 V ^ LXXXIL 19- (It is) the 

' 9 /A/ 00 

day when a soul shall not have in its power, [i. e. ^ y& 
^ (DM),] 

0t& j\ h* 

^T A gJ t j^f ^jji^ f** **>£ KM 
' ' ' * 

A sh*** tf / # A/ A s (S#« * • 

j^afilf £Uoj> t^*A^ ^* U^alf *x*J 

[by Abii gakhr alHudhali, When I say " This is the time 
when I sliall forget* , the breeze of the east wind from 
where the dawn rises stirs me (Jsh)], and 

# ^00 A^ 00 % mt ski* 0A0 0k0 A/f 

jip T \fs\ ^ j* ff * j±\ m ^ i> ^ fii 

[Didst thou not know (0,1 pray Ood to prolong thy 
life !) that I am generous at the time when the generous 
are few t (Jsb)], both [verses] being related with Fath 



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( 504 ) 

(ML) of >6^ (DM). The vague [n. of] time, i. e. what 
does not indicate any time particularly, as ^^ } c**ij , 

S*L* , and ^^j, ma y ^ e ^ m *° *^ e P ro P*> an d *^ en 
may be infi. or uninfl. upon Fath, uoinflectedness being 
preferable to inflection when the post, is a verbal prop. 
whose v. is uninfl., and the converse being the case when 
the post, is a verbal prop, whose v. is infi. or a nominal 
prop. (Sh), Such «$. as are necessarily pre. to the prop. 
are permanently uninfl., because of their resemblance to 

* A * A s 

the p. in needing the prop., like u^**- , of , and f*M 

[115] (IA). Uninflectedness upon quiescence is the 
general rule (M, I A), because it is lighter than the vowel 
(IA) : and deviation from it to the vowel is only for one 
of three causes, (1) to avoid [irregular (AAz)] concur- 

rence of two quiescents [663], as in 'V%*> ; (2) not to 

begin with a quiescent, literally or predicamentally, as 

*A 

in the two u£ s, that which is L q. j£* [509], and that 
which is a pron., [as in uC*jft , because it is in the pre- 
dicament of detachment, as being an objective comple- 
ment, without which the v. and ag. are complete (AAz)]; 
(3) [to indicate (AAz)] accidental uninflectedness, as in 

ffe. b , ; bJf J J^ ; V , JaX ^ , and ;£**&«*£», 

[because, being orig. infl., they are vocalized to distin- 
guish between the permanently and accidentally uninfl. 
(AAz)]. The quiescence of uninflectedness is named 



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( 505 ) 

pause ; and its rowels Damm, Fat$i, and Kasr (M). Un- 
infleetedness upon Kasr and Damm is found in the n. 
and p. [497] ; and uninflectedness upon Fath and quies- 
cence in the n., v. [402], and p. [497] (IA). The uninfl. 
it*, [except such as may he anomalous or hare heen 
previously mentioned (M)] comprise [7 cat*. (M),] the 
prons., the dents., the conjunets, the verbal ns. and ejs. y 
some of the odvs. } the comps. y and the met*. (M, IH). 



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THE PRONOUNS. 



§ 160. The pron., named by the KK met., is what 
indicates (1) a 1st per*., as U| / an d J& We: (2) a, 
2nd pers., as e^Jf TAow and UI»'f Fg two: (3) a 3rd 



•.# 



* * 



pers., as y& He or /< and U4> They two, (a) known, as' 
Ktf/f Uf XCVII. 1. Verily We sent it down [433]: (b) 
prior, (a) unrestrictedly, as XXXVI. 39. [504] ; (6) 
literally, but not in natural order, as Jty fAfcjff J&f 6U 
II. 118. Jnrf wfon At* Lord tried Abraham ; (c) in in- 
tention, as ^~ r &Ai &~fc J lljtt XX. 70. And 
Moses conceived fear in his mind : (c) posterior, unrestric- 

tedly, in such as o*4 &«f yb J* CXIL 1. Say thou, It, 
i. e. The case [167], w this [27], God is one [609], 

XLV. 23. [539], *H) **■> f*> Most excellent is he as a 

man, Zaid [469], V*.] «Tj [168], Jrf^Ll j.*^ U? [22), 

*A/ **A/ • *» .##• / • 

f^i) **,<* [154], and £l| **; 3 fr [20] ; but the sound- 
est opinion is that this [last] is a poetic license. The 
pron. must have an exponent explaining what is meant by 
it. If it denote a 1st or 2nd pers ., its exponent is the 
presence of the person that it belongs to. If it denote a 
3rd pers. , its exponent is (1) not an expression, as 
XCVII. 1., i. e. the Kur'Sn, whose celebrity and inde- 
pendence of exposition are thus attested : (2) an expres- 



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( 507 ) 

#ioto, (a) mostly prior, (a) literally and constructively, as 
XXXVI. 39.; (b) literally, but not constructively, as II* 
118.; (c) constructively, but not literally, as XX. 70.: be- 

cause f&&yf , being an obj., is meant to be understood as 

* ' * 
postpos. ; and ^y* , being an ag., is meant to be under- 
stood as prepos. : (b) sometimes posterior literally and in 
natural order (Sh). Tbe positions where the pron. relates 
to an expression posterior literally and in natural order 
are 7, vid. where the pron. is (1) governed in the nom. by 

•A /A 

**j or #-if , in which case it is expounded only by the 

|A* *» / yA #Ay #*/ yA /<# , 

sp., as J<3 **J f** an( * J>** ^*-> J"** 5 w ^ e the 4)*^ 
that />rawe or 6/ame is intended by [468] is coordinated 
with them, as VII. 176. [(475), orig. £ (DM;], >L'£r 
£j&w £+lf XVIII. 4. /7ot0 grea/ it is as a word that pro- 

ceedeth /, and i>&j Ua»; Ojk fjfotc? cfet?$r he is a* a man, 
Zaidli but, according to Fr and Ks, the particularized is 
the ag. 9 and there is no pron. in the t?., which is refuted 

^ A/ y / * *s /A 

by J>&3 ^ ^; (*** £kc& Ma/ mo*/ excellent was he as a 
man was Zaid /, the annuller not being prefixed to the 
&£., [but to tbe s'ncA. (DM)]; and by the particularized's 

being sometimes suppressed [473], as lfj* # t*+ftbV «J[> 
XVIIL 48. JI/o*/ etif is it, I e. the substitute [469], as a 

* A 

substitute for God, (i&/ir and his offspring), [i. e. ««&M 
*a£j3j (B), the a^. not being suppressed (DM)]: (2) 



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< 508 ) 
governed in the nom. by the 1st of 2 contending ops. 
the 2nd of which is made to govern, as 

S /9*Z %*<* 3 A t A// A/ / 

* A* 8 • A • A/ 

[ J%£y behaved unkindly to me, and I behaved not un- 
kindly to the friend*: verily lam indifferent to unkindness 
from my friends (Jah)] : (3) predicated of [by a single term 
(DM)], in whicb case it is expounded by its enunc. or 

pred. } as uJoiT USul If! jb J XXIII. 39. It, i. e. 

* ' * 
ii/fe, w no* aught *aw owr totter /(/*, orig., says Z 

[followed by B], £« Vl S^bJI J : (4) the pron. of 
the caw andyac/, [which is the pron. predicated of by a 

prop, expos, of it (DM),] as CXIL L and i*SAA ^ toti 
\lJ6 'jj*\'£>y XXI. 97. Let, <i. e. th*jact t will be 
this, staring will be the eyes of them that havr disbelieved: 

(5) governed in the gen. by ^^ [505], in which case its 

•A 

predicament is the same as that of the pron. of **> and 

y A 

«Ju in that its exponent most be a sp., and it itself must 
be Jtfigr., a* 

<#/$'**" sA'A<«.# # s • i A// ^/A >ff* 

[Many youths have I called to what entails glory perpe- 
tually, and they have answered/ (Jsh)] ; but it is always 



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( 509 ) 

-„-... _ #«> ... „..„- 

mkmc, m *fj*f &*) , not ($*j , whereas oJLfc Sl^»l 

• *> 

[474] is said: (6) followed by an explicit snbsL expos, of 

*h, ***** 00 m*\, 

it, as 1oij *!*>-* ; and thus ate explained gS ^S him, 

m* **hr A • • A$ A * 

*A* pitiful, the merciful and £M ^/^ u>aw| «jj Aim, 



/ * *9 * * 



the wretch [156], «-flyU Ul» (21], uC^I f r t», and 

> *A h , h* i 

uC^J ^jJf : (7) attached to a prior ag 9 , its exponent 

' *s* ****** * 

being a posterior oftf ., as f J*j **^ VT* > allowed by 

*» * A • S £ h*r +t Jjh / , 

Akh and IJ, whence jJ\ lo^u ^f fa and iJf **!*. l^/ 
[20]; but the majority hold that in prose the obj. in the 
case of that [pron. attached to the ag. and relating to 
the obj. (DM)] must be prior, as II. 118. (ML). When 
2 or more possible exponents precede, the exponent is 

**h* ** §*** %hr *m* * 

the nearest, as 6l>y£i jO^ oj>j ^ s ^t > i- ©• I beat Bakr; 

* 

but with [an explanatory] context may be the farthest, 

**h,hi* % ** S * *tm P ****** 

u «I*/t» JW*j fR* J t \*. (R). In £lf oU« U, 

{149] the o. f. is ^ U 5 , the explicit n being then 

made to act as a subst. for the pron., which is facilitated 

by their being in 2 opposite props., [nominal and verbal,] 

e*t k * * 
and in 2 verses, [the 1st of which jel\ ts»*>'b is in § 22.,] 

*# h** 
and separated by a prop [ g\ ^3* ] ; and by the fact 

that repetition of the beloved's name is delighted in : and 

inferior to it is the saying of AlQufai'a 

69 



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( 510 ) 

#A y $ A*y § A y 8 / /i 

JVbw dearly loved are Hind and a land that Hind is in I, 
because they are in one prop., repetition of the explicit 
n. in one prop, being good only on the occasion of mag- 

nifying, as ^^\ v b=u*l U y j£+A\ ^Ls^fj LVI. 26. 

And the companions of the right hand, what etc. f [29] ; 
or aweing, as LXIX. 1. 2. [27] (BS). AlFind aiZira- 
manl says 

S * A y 9 AS! *<0y • • A5 ^ • • A /A// 

^L^ fc^M; fji ♦ i^JJf &*£* tJL>JU 

• y 

fP<? stalked (towards them) with the stalk of the lion, when 
he has come forth early, the lion being torathful (from 

AS5 

hunger), repeating i^JJt in the [same] verse, and not 
putting its pron., for the sake of solemnity and awe ; and 
tbey do that in tbe case of generic ns. and proper names, 
as says 'Adl Ibn Zaid 

§ A y / AsAs* S A / y AyA^ s£ y 

i^& tttStjtfJf J}**»2 UL>jJ| ^£)f V 



y 
y A^ • S A*A^ / S^ 



(T) / #00 not death to be such that aught outstrips deaths 
death has troubled the life of the wealthy and the poor 
(Jsh). The pron. is (1) attached, [which is {inseparably 
(M) } attached (M, R) to its op. before it, being like a sup- 
plement to that op. and like some of its letters (R) : and 
is (a) prominent, ?id. what is expressed, like the lJ in 

y *t 

C$f»\ ; ( b ) latent, vid. what if meant to be understood, 



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( 511 ) 
like that which is in 'Jyb o^j (21) (M)] : (2) detached 



(M, IH), which is like the explicit n. (M, R) in its 
dependence (M), whether it be separated from its op., 
in «-*b! »| ^jyi U ; or contiguous to it, as in i»Jf U 



in- 

as 



fiUaJU (R). 

§ 161. The prons. are [all (IA)] uninfl. (R, LA, Sh) 
*pon quiescence, as ^^ , Uf , and f^y ; Fat^, as 

' *£ A' 3 h* 

%*~*i Kasr,as ut^> ; and Damm, as oJ> (Sh): (1) 
from their resemblance to ps. (a) in constitution, like the 

tv in »*-ir» L 159 3 and «-* in «-*?/*, whil e the rest of 
the proiw., as Uf , «*Jf , c) aaJ , and LJof , are similarly 
treated for the sake of uniformity ; or (b) in need of the 
exponent [160], as the p. needs an expression by means 
of which its sense may be intelligible [4J>7] : or (2) from 
lack of the motive for inflection in them, because the- 
requirer of inflection in ns. is the concentration of vari- 
ous meanings upon one form, while the prom, are inde- 
pendent of inflection through the variation of their forms 
on account of the variation of meanings, since the nom., 
acc m} and gen. have each a special pron. (R). Some of 
them, however, are common to (1) the ace. and gen. y vid. 

/ -#A/A* # Ay/ 

every attached ace. or gen. pron., as lX*+/\ and ^>)y 
OO , Hi and fi : (2) the worn., acc. f and gen. f vid. (a) 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 51* ) 
U , as W; , UJtf , and U? ; (b) the s , as -.^il [402J, 

J^'fS [170], and ^ ^; (c) £, as J^SB £, 



fgA*/f , and fgf : but denotes the rcotf*., ace, and gets, 
while the meaning is one, and is an attached pron. in 
the 3 cases j whereas the ^ , though used to denote the 
«om., ace., and gen. y and an attached j^ron. in the 3 cases, 
is not of one meaning in the 3 cases, because in the notn. 
it denotes the 2nd pers., and in the ace. and gen. the 1st; 

A 

and ffr , though of one meaning in the. 3 cases,, is in the 
nom. a detached pron. r and in the ace. and gen. an at- 
tached /?ran. (IA). The pro/i. is mm. f acc. } and #*n., 
[because it occupies the place of tlie explicit n. (R, Jm)]: 
the 2 first being [each (Jm)] attached and detached ; 
and the 3rd only attached, [because the attached is like 
the last part of its op. in that they are not separable (ISO), 
while the gen. i& so likewise (158), since separation of 
the pre. and post. r though allowable in poetry (125), 
being bad with the explicit n. f is not regarded in the 
constitution of the pron. (R)]. The pron. is, therefore* of 
5 sorts, (1) [the attached nom. f ^like) the pron. of the 

pret. act. (Jm)] xa~>yb , [ \x>ya , «t*<^ , «h^ , UI^ , 

to j!y* ; and [analogously of the pass, (Jm)] *a^* to 
a^r* : (2) [the detached nam. (Jm),] Of f [^ii f iJf , 



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( 513 ) 

kt • SA* hPht »SA? /S / /* AS 

ui^J , UX;| , sZif , ^Wf , jfc , ^ f Ufl> , ^ ( J m ),] to 
Jt> : (3) [the attached acc. % which is attached to the v., as 

" ' •/• / • •• / /• / • ■*•/ / A*// / 

(Jm)] J4y° , [ ^r« , L^iyi , uX*^ , UX*^ , fiyZ, 

g #// / S// / /•/ / / */• • AS// / Si 3/' ' 

J*r* » *i^ f *#r* » u «r* . f#r* ( Jm )»3 *> ^r* J 

and [to something else, as (Jm)] ^i>J , [UH , «-X»f » 

* * * 

uXJt , C2f , 2 ? f , ^S , £| (Jm), etc.,] to "$ : (4) 
' * # # * * # 

[the detached ace. (Jm)] ^y , [ Uty , ufl*f , ^Of , LTtrf , 

4 £ * ' * 4 

A# 8 53 s S3 s S3 CSS 

JTlj , Jty , *ty (Jm), etc.,] to JbbJ s (5) [the attached 
gen., which is attached to the n., as ( Jm)] ^M* 9 [IJulU f 

/ S/S 3**** ' 

lX«1U (Jm), etc.,] to ^jfl*^ ; and [to the p.> as (Jm)] 

// • / 53 S/ 

^, [ Uf , uCl (Jm), etc.,] to ^ (IH). Each of these 5 

sorts denotes 18 meanings, because each of them denotes 
a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd pert. ; and these 3, being each sing., 
du. y or pi., become 9 ; and each of the 9 is masc. or /em.: 
so that 6 [meanings] belong to the 1st pers., 6 to the 2nd, 
and 6 to the 3rd (R) ; and by analogy the prons. of each 
pers. should be 6 in number (Jm). But the Arabs con- 
stitute (1) for the 1st pers. 2 expressions, that indicate 

S A/ > 

[the (R)] 6 meanings [mentioned (R)], as ct^^ and 

/A/ S S A/.S 

Ufj-*, [the pron. of (Jm)] %^jyi being common to 
the sing. masc. and fern., and [the pron. of (Jm)]- 

/ A/ / 

&>y* to the du. and pl. } masc. and /em.: [(a) they make 



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( 5U ) 
Jthe 1st pers., sing, or otherwise, common to the mate. 
and fem n because of the rarity of ambiguity in the 
1st pers. 2 (b) they coin a form, vid. b f as likewise 

* A • 

is the case with ^f^ , for the du. and pi. of the 1st 
pers., and do not add an I for the du. and y for the 
pf. f as they do in the du. and pU of the 2nd and 3rd 

/*a£ a#a* 

per*., because, when told to distribute UXJf and J^f, 

*A / y , A$/ iA/ / y A* y A*s -fAy y y A* 

you say jj** b «>Jf ^ uj>j b c^j\ and e^Jlj JJij 'd *Jf 

# • y y A*/ * Ay • 

tfJti. b tis^Jf^ j^ b , whereas, when told to distribute 

* A y | A// y* y* 

^j^aJ , you say, when you mean the du., *i)j bf or bf 

y ht* ,S y .$ $ A •/ ,% 

c^JI^ or^fcj bf, and, when you mean the pi, J^jj bf 

$ Ayy y* 

))**) , each of its individuals not being bf ; so that, since 
the condition of the du. and pi., vid. agreement of the 2 
or more ns. in letter is not realized (in the 1st pers.), 
the constituents of its du. and pi. do not agree with those 
of the other dus. and pis. ; and therefore they coin a form 
for the du., and make it common to the pi. because of the 
security from ambiguity owing to the sight (of the persons 

•A// $ A y 

meant): (c) the great man sometimes says bJUi, ^», 
and tfbl , reckoning himself to be like a multitude (R)J: 
(2) for the 2nd pers. 5 expressions, 4 proper, [rid. us^vi , 

A y y A#A yy S#Ay y 

c^/* , f*fj* , and jw^ (R)] . and 1 common to the du. 
moje. and/em., [vid. Ufy^ (R)] : (3) f or t h e $ r( i ^^ 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 515 ) 



the same assortment as for the 2nd, [as s^yi , c^^ , 
ty-*» ^r* , fj*;^, and yj?^ (R),] the />r<w. [in by* 
and l^/^ (J m )] being the f common to the 2 <fa*.; 

• • • A • • • 

[whereas the 2 prons. supplied in v/^ an( * ^0** 

must be different one from the other, like the detached 

pron*. y& and ^ (R)]- The rest of the 5 sorts follow 

this course, i. e. the 1st pern, has 2 expressions, the 2nd 
5, and the 3rd 5, the total being 12 words denoting 18 
meanings (R, Jm); so that the aggregate of the 5 sorts is 
60 words denoting 90 meanings ( Jm). The ut> made 

mobile in the endings of vs. is apron., as ts^+», ct~J>, 

A# 

and %&~£ (ML). They pronounce the u&s (1) of the 1st 

per j. sing, with Damm, because of the affinity of Dam ma 
to the vowel of the ag.i (2) of the 2nd pers. sing, (a) in 
the masc. with Fatb, for distinction between it and the 1st 

pers. sing, and for alleviation ; (b) in the fern, with Kasr. 

• * 

They add f before the ( of the du. in L? and j of the 

j>/. [maw.] in ^ , in order that the du. may not be con- 
founded with the 2nd pers. sing. masc. when its Fatha is 
impleted because of unbinding, nor the/)/, with the 1st pers. 
sing, whose Damma is impleted : the ^ being the letter 
most suitable for addition, because the unsound letters 
are deemed heavy before the I and j ; while the f is the 
nearest of the sound letters to the unsound ones, because 
it is nasal and labial like the j , for which reason what 



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( 516 ) 
precedes it ia pronounced with Damm, like what precedes 
the j . Elision of the . of the pi. with quiescence of the 
* , if not immediately followed by a pron. } is commoner 
than retention of the ^ preceded by Damm, because the 
y at the end preceded by Damm is deemed heavy [721]; 
whereas, if the ^ of the pi. be followed immediately by a 

pron.j as Xj+*iy£> , the Damm and j must be restored, 
because, the [subsequent] pron. being through its attach- 
meot like one of the letters of the word, the j as it were 
does not occur at the end. The f of the pl. t when met 
by a quiescent after it, is pronounced with Damm, because 
it is restored to its o.f.; but Kasr of it is allowed, as will 

be shown [in the 2nd **>y* below]. A * doubled to 
correspond with the f and ) in the masc. is added for 
the [pi] fem., the ^ being chosen from its resemblance, 
as being nasal, to the f and j together, while all 3 are 
letters of augmentation [671] (R). A strange fact about the 
at; is tbat it is divested of allocution, [the allocution 
understood from the lJ being held sufficient (DM),] and 
is invariably sing, masc, [even though the party addressed 
by the expression containing it be du. masc. or fern., pi. 

masc, sing, fern , or pi. fern., as (DM)] in UC^^f , *£uf jf 
[560], uKi^f , and ^j^J ;f , since, if they said LA^iy f 
they would combine 2 allocutions [in one sentence (DM)]; 
whereas, when they abstain from combining them in 
f£*U* k » so that they do not say it, as they say U#U# 1$ 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 317 ) 

and fG+V& k , notwithstanding that in the flU the allo- 
cution is adventitious because of the vocation, [not origi- 

nal (DM),] and that *C*U* k is an address to two [differ- 
ent parties], not to one, this is more fit [to be disallowed, 
because the allocution in it is original, not adventitious, 
And the parry addressed by it is one, not two (DM)], 

while **£*1U f^ [55] is allowable only because the la- 

menced is not really addressed (ML), but merely grieved 
over (DM). The [attached nom.] pron. of the 3rd per*, 
sing. masc. mdfem. is latent [165], because, since the 
exponent of the 3rd per*, is orig. a prior expression, con- 
trary to those of the 2nd and 3rd pers. r they mean the pron*. 
of the 3rd pers. to be shorter than those of the 2 others r. 
so that they begin in the 2 sings, with the extreme of 
abbreviation, vid. supplying without expressing anything ^ 
and restrict themselves in the du. masc. and Jem. to the 
!, which is the sign of dualizntion in every du.) and in 
the pi. masc. to the » r which is sometimes dispensed 
with by the aid of the Damma in poetic license, as. 

Sum sUAs e* js y * jf. js ll*Vi i y, 

[i4nrf, (fit were the case that the physicians were around 
me, and the surgeons were with the physicioarw, orig. 

fytf (Jsh)], because the j preceded by Damm is deemed 
heavy at the end ; and [in the pi. /em.] to a single ^ 

corresponding with the ; , since it is single. The *a# 

70 



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( 518 ) 



ib ya^yb and 11*^ j g Ap denoting femininiaation [607], 
not a pron. t as is proved by d**> u^* (R). The ! , , , 
and yj are attached nom. prong., denoting the 3rd per*., 
as U> ^l| [20], f r b ^j^f , and ^ ^^J . and 
the 2nd, as W*J , f^j f an d J^f . but not the 1st 

(IA). The j is sometimes used for irrational objects, when 

. .it., . ... * •" ' ' " *«• **=«• **» ' 

treated like rational beings, as JC*A-»* ( J&of J^JJf l$>( t 

XXVIII, 18. O ye anfr, enter etc. [611], because the 
allocution is addressed to them, [allocution being ad- 
dressed only to rational beings (DM)]; but the saying 
[of AnNsbigha alJa'dl (Jsh)] 

***** f±l uXdjJf . t# c^Jfc 

[ZHrf 1 drink of (the pron. in t# relating to the iUfr* 
mentioned ia the preceding verse ^j? iu^ ^ nrf man3r 
o rerf wine efc.), «**& the cock wot crowing in hie nom- 
ing t when the stare in the tail */ Urea Minor had drawn 
near to the west and set / (Jsh)] is anomalous, [because 
allocution is not found in it (DM),] what emboldens bim 
to that being his saying j* , not «*t£ (ML). The f , . , 
and ^ are seldom pe. [21, 497], like the *> of femini- 
nisation (R) . The j is a pron. denoting the [2nd pert.] 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 519 ) 



#• 



ring. fern. [402], as ^fi and ^f (ML). In the 
nor. the [attached itom.] jwon, is not made prominent in 

* shf > /A> 

J*M and J**i [165] > because the two aoristic letters 
[404] notify the o£., since J*il notifies that its ag. is 

A S * A/ * A # */A/ 

W , and J*te that its 0^. is u jonJ ; and similarly, J**d 
being proper to the 3rd pert. sing, masc., they do not 

>/A, 

need a prominent pron* for it ; and, though Ja& is com* 
mon to the 2nd pets. ring. masc. and 3rd pets. sing, fern*, 
still they do not make its pron. prominent, in order to 
treat the sings, of the aw. uniformly ; and perhaps this 

is what ito duces Akh to say that the 3 in ^£y& is not 
a pron., but a p. of femininization, and the pron. neces- 

A / A 

sarily latent : while the predicament of the imp. J*if 

A #A# # >/ A/ / 

and prokib. J*£ V is that of J*£ for the 2nd per*, 
ring. maso., because the imp. and prohib. are derived 
from the oar. [428, 419, 603]. The [attached] torn, 
prons. are not made prominent in the eps. % i. e. act and 
pass, parts, and assimilate g>., because, their requirement 
of the ag. not being radical, but due to resemblance to.the 
&, the pron. of the ag. does not appear in them, as like- 
wise is the case with the verbal ns. and advs. [168, 165, 
187] : and also because, the I and j in the dus. and pis. 

/AS * s 'A3 • 

of prim, substantives, like ^Wyi and ^yHfl > being 
undoubtedly letters added as a sign of the du. andp/i, 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 820 ) 
and tbe dus. and pis. of eps. being modelled upon the 
dus. and pis. of prims., the f becomes a sign of the du., 
and the y of the pi., so that it is impossible for the f 
and ) of the pron. to be conjoined with the du. and pL, 
lest two I s and two y s be combined, and therefore the 
2 prons. become covert, the t in the du. and the » in 
the/?/., the proof that the expressed I and y are not prons. 
being their convertibility [into g ] by the ops., as 

A/. / J / / ^ 

*# %L3 c^aI and ^M?.^ , whereas the ag. is not altered 
by the ops. prefixed to its op. ; while the ^ likewise 

is* $ • S A • 

becomes covert in cs^t* and c^b^yit in imitation of 

the pron. in the />/. masc, since it is the o.f.\ and, since 
the pron. is latent in the du. and pi., it is a fortiori latent 
in their sings. ; so that it is invariably latent in all [num- 
bers and genders] (R). The detached nom. is (1) 1st 

pers., (a) sing. 1>J ; (b) associated with or magnifying 

himself ^jsa* : (2) 2nd pers., (a) *ircg\, ma*c. ctJf and 

A* /.PA* 

/ew. c^f ; (b) rfw., m(Mc. or fern. UXJI ; (c) pi, masc. 

hPht MM *a£ ,* 

J^f and /em. ^jU! : (3) 3rd pers., (a) *mg., masc. JB 
and /em. ^fc ; (b) da., mate, or fern. Ufe ; (c) p/., 

A* ' S * ,* 

m(wc. ^2> and fern. Jb (IA). According to the BB, Uf i$ 
a Hamza and ^ pronounced with Fath ; and the I \% 
put after the ^ in pause to make the Fatha plain, 
because, if it were not for the f , the Fatha would drop 
off on account of the pause, so that it might be corf- 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 511 ) 

founded with the />. ^f ; and therefore it is written 
with the I , because orthography is based upon [the 
forms of] pause and inception : but sometimes its ^ 
is paused upon quiescent, or its Fatha is made \ lain in 
pause by the 8 of silence [615]; and the f is retained 
in continuity also by the Bauu Tamlm as matter of 
choice, but by others only as a poetic license, as 

[I am the sword of the paternal kins/oik; wherefore 
know ye me praisewortliy, having mounted vpon the sum- 
mit (Jsh)]. The KK, however, hold that the f after the 
^ is part of the word itself ; but its mostly dropping off 
[in pronunciation] in continuity, with Fath and some- 
times quiescence of the ^ , and the alternation of the 8 
of silence with it in pause are proofs that it is aug. and 
intended to make the vowel plain in pause. [The final 

S A • 

of] *5*> is vocalized because of the 2 quiescents ; and 

* A • 

is pronounced with Damm, either because ^sJ is a 
nom. pron.) or because it denotes the pl. } whose property 
is the j . The pron. in i*~>t to ^1 , according to the 

A* /* 

BB, is ^1 , its o. f. being Uf , which, according to them, 
is a pron. applicable to all the 2nd perss. and to the 1st 
pers. sing.) so that they begin with the 1st pers., and, 
though by analogy they ought to distinguish it by 
the \*> pronounced with Damm, as c^l , still, since the 
1st pers. is original, they make omission of the sign « 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( M* ) 
sign of it, and distinguish the 2nd per*, by up. smj [560] 

si 

after ^1 , like the n. [ «l> ] in letter and plasticity* 

But Fr holds that o«M in its entirety is a n., the *u 

being part of the word itself * while some say that the 

nom. pron. is the plastic & that is an attached now., 

and that, when they mean it to be detached, they support 

hi 
it with ^1 in order that it may be independent, as some 

of the KK and IK hold that the plastic kJ in uSty is 

[an] attached [ace J], and that, when they mean it to be 

literally independent, in order that it may become de* 

s 
tached, they make Of a support for it, so that the pron* 

* * 
is what follows <*f [162]; and I think this saying to be 

not far from right in both cases. The y and ^ in j* 

and ^ are, according to the BB, an original part of the 

word ; and, according to the KK, an impletion, the pron. 
being the 8 alone, on the evidence of the du. and p/., 
where you elide them : but the 1st is right, because the 
letter of impletion is not vocalized, nor even authorized 
except as a poetic license. The y and g are vooalized 
in order that the word, becoming independent by means 
of the Fatfra, may be fit to be a detached pron* } since, if 
it were not for the vowel, they would be as it were 
impletions, as the KK think ; for, when you mean the 
word not to be independent, you make the j and . j 

quiescent, as j&\ and ^1 [converted, as will be shown, 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 523 ) 
into tgjf ] : but the y and ^ are sometimes elided by 

* ~ hi* 

poetic license, as [ £J| SJS^ (501),] 
^ * * 

* • • A^0 # A % * * h * i ********* h * $ ** ** 

cj^su lelUI -5. ; J*a. >J * jilS JS &la. ; «,£* 8lU*» 



* * * 



Then, while he was selling his camel-saddle, a sayer said, 

Who has a he-camel soft in the side of the hump, well- 

~ § * 
bred?, and £H jfu> [333]; and are made quiescent by 

* 2 * 

Kais and Asad ; and doubled by Hamdan^ as J^i ^K 

* * K y 

jJI [498]. The rftf. and p/. are lightened by elision of 

the j and * ; and the addition of the r [in the A*, 
and />/. mascJ], the elision of the j in the f /. masc, and 
the addition of the two ^ s in the pi. fern., are exactly 
according to what we mentioned in the attached [nom.]. 
These detached nom. prons. are common to the pret., 
aor., imp., and eps. ; and are not like the attached nom*., 
none of which are common to the pret. and aor., except 



* S 85 * * * * * h* * 



the 1 , j , and ^ : you say y& V| ^/^ U , s->y*t U 
L>f Vt , and U& w>;M . They constitute for the 1st 

pers. sing, of the attached ace. and gen. a ^ either 

quiescent or pronounced with Fath [129]; and for the 

* 

1st pers. with others U , as in the attached nam. : and 
for the 2nd pers. the u£ , like the %&> in plasticity, as 

• •* A* fis 

%J , t** , UT , f t and ^ , while the elision of the y 

SSh** 

from [the pi. masc, as] y££* , and the quiescence of 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 524 ) 

the f are as we described in *»y0 : and they abridge 
the two sings, of the 3rd pers. from the detached nom. f 
eliding the vowel of the j and g from Jb and JS> , 
and converting the ^ of Jb into f , so that it becomes 
to • because, the pron. of the masc, when it immediately 
follows Kasr, having its j converted into * , as ^j , 
they fear confusion of the fern, with the masc. The 
vowel of the 5 in the sing. masc. is Damma, unless it be 
preceded by a [quiescent] ^ or a Kasra : and, if it be 
preceded by either of them, the people of AlHijaz pre- 
serve its Damma, saying y&J and ^ ; but others 
pronounce it with Kasr, because the S , being a light 
letter, is not an impassable barrier, so that the quiescent 
y as it were immediately follows the Kasra or ^ , and 
is therefore converted into ^ , while the S is pronounced 
with Kasr qn account of the g after it : whereas, if the 
quiescent be any other than the £ , Jpamm of the S 
is agreed upon, except that, as F transmits, a people of 
Bakr Ibn Wa'il pronounce it with Kasr in the sing, masc, 

A • A A A Si A 

du %9 and two pls. % as &i-# , L^i-* , *gJU , and t£ t^ i -* 

, [below]. If the « of the $i»g\ 2mi*c. immediately follow 

a mobile, its vowel is impleted, as y$ , y&y* , j$*tt* » 
an( * ^ > a ) being engeudered from the Damm, and a 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 525 ) 

£ from the Easr: though the Band 'Ukaii and Eilsb 
allow elision of the conj., i. e. the ; and g , after the 
mobile as matter of choice, with retention of the Damma 

or Easra of the K, as **U* and &>, and also with 

quiescence of the 8 ; while others allow both, i. e. slurring 
and elision of the vowel, as a poetic license, not as 
matter of choice. But, if the 8 of the sing. mate, imme- 
diately follow a quiescent, whether a soft letter, as in 
*aI* , or any other, as in &U , the vowel is preferably 
slurred, i. e. the conj. is omitted, because, the 8 being a 
feint letter, [if the conj. were put,] 2 quiescents would 
as it were meet together ; while Ibn Kathlr conjoins 

h/f . -PA 

unrestrictedly, as J(&e , jgl* , and the like. Thus in 
the 8 of the sing. masc. after the Easra or [quiescent] 
^ there are with respect to its Damm, Easr, slurring, 
and conjunction 4 dials., Easr being the commonest, 
(1) Easr of the 8 , (a) not conjoined with a ^ , [as 6j 
and &£** J which is more frequent after the c than 
after the Easra, because in the 1st case [if the V were 
conjoined with a ^ ] there would be a quasi-concurrence 
of 2 quiescents ; (b) conjoined with a ^ , as j# 

and j^Gftk, which is commoner after the Easra than 

after the ^ f because of what we have just mentioned : 

71 



Digitized by CjOOQI€ 



( »*« ) 



**•/ 



(2) Damm of the & , (a) with the y , as ;$ and y&S* j 

(b) without a ^ 9 as ft; and ft*U : while after the Kasra 

there is a 5th dial., vid. making the Kasr of the * to 
smack somewhat of Damma without conjunction. And, 
if a soft letter be elided before the 8 of the sing, masc, 

because of apocopation, as in Mji XXXIX. 9. He will 

approve it said ftl^Jj IV. J.15. And We will burn him, 

or pause [431], as in 6ii\i XXVII. 28. And cast thou it } 

* 

the vowel of the 8 may be impleted from regard to the 
mobile literally before it, or slurred from regard to the 
quiescent accidentally elided before it ; or the K may be 
made quiescent by treating continuity like pause : with 
all of which pronunciations the Kur'an is read. The ¥ 
in the du. and 2 ph., (1) if preceded by a Fatha or 

Damma, is pronounced with Damm, as Ugf and *g*U* : 
(2) if preceded by an f , y , or souqd quiescent, is like- 
wise so pronounced ; except in what F transmits [above], 

• A A A • A A AAA 

such as UgM , f$i* , U#y*l , and {Q>y*\ , because of 

the alliteration, and because the barrier is reckoned to 
be not impassable on account of its quiescence : (3) if 
preceded by a Kasra or [quiescent] ^ , is pronounced 
(a) with Damm by those who say in the sing. j# and 

*A*/ *S /* AS ,* 

j^U , yid. the people of AlBKjaz, as L$*Ui* and ffrtlU* 



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( 527 ) 

and d*J&ii and U&+&i J arid fflulU and ^Q+Ui 
while Hamza makes Damm in the pi. masc. peculiar 

A#*// A#As A#A/s 

to 3 words, f$A* , f&M , and f$> jJ , because, as is 

said, the ,5 in them, being a subst. for the I i is given 
the predicament of its o.f. ; but, according to this reason- 
ing, he* ought to read in the sing, masc, du. f and pi. fern. 

&aU $ Lgd* , and ^&h , whereas he does not do so : 
(b) with Easr unrestrictedly by others than the people 
of AlHijaz, as in the sing, masc, which is commoner. 
The {• of the pi after the * pronounced with Easr, (1) 
if paused upon, must be made quiescent after elision of 
its conj. : (2) if not paused upon, then, (a) if followed by 
•a quiescent, is more agreeably with analogy pronounced 
with Easr, because of the alliteration to the Easr of 
the * and because of the concurrence of 2 quiescents 

[664], as Mftty*! fVy* J* XXVIIL 23. Below them 

J>Ztu *° A// 

two women and &*JJf +#1* II. 58. [And] abjectnes* 

[and poverty were made to cleMe] to them, according to 
the reading of Abu 'Amr ; while the rest of the Readers 
pronounce the f with Damm from regard to the o. f. : 
(b) if followed by a mobile, is most commonly made 
quiescent, as I. 6. 7. [498]; while some itnplete the 

* A/* #A^^ A* $ Ass 

Damm of the r , as %« g * > ^yekJI $* y^dc f like 
the reading of Ibn Kathlr ; and impletiou of the Easr is 
more agreeable with analogy, because of the alliteration. 



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( 528 ) 

Thus the ~ after the 8 pronounced with Kasr has 5 
states, 2 before the quiescent, vid. Kasr and Damm, 
each with slurring, i. e. omission of the conj.; and 3 
before the mobile, vid. quiescence, impletion of Damm, 
and impletion of Kasr. And the f after the 8 pro- 
nounced with Damm in accordance with the practice of 

the people of AllJijSz in f$ and ^U , and with com- 

'a s/ b*$ sp n * ** 

mon consent in such as f$, f€*^, and ^^, and 

A* A 

with the commonest usage in * ^i* — as likewise [the j> 

of the pi.] in Juf , Jbye [above], and *£*U* — has. also 
5 states, 2 before the quiescent, vid. Damm, which 
is more agreeable with analogy and commoner, be* 
cause of the alliteration and from regard for the o. f. ; 
and Kasr, from regard to the 2 quiescents, which Is 
extremely rare, and is disallowed by F : and 3 before 
the mobile, vid. quiescence, which is the commonest; 
Damm and conjunction with a y ; and Kasr and conjunc- 
tion with a 3 1 which is peculiar to the ^ whose 8 is 
preceded by a Kasra or [quiescent] ^ , as lS ^i and 
^>$J* , the f» being pronounced with Kasr for homo- 
geneity with the Kasra or £ before the * , and the % 
converted into ^ on account of the Kasra of the * , 
which also is disallowed by F (R). The detached ace. 



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( 529 ) 

is (1) 1st pet*., (a) sing, gbj ; (b) associated with 
or magnifying himself Utj : (2) 2nd per«. 9 (a) w*g,, 
Jtto*c. u^ljf and/im. i^tj ; (b) cte., mo^c. or fern. 

UTbl ; (c) p/,, mewc. j/bl and /em. jfy * (3) 3rd pett., 

* s2 # /IS I 

(a) iing.y masc. 8l>l and /em. tobf ; (b) cfo., mtfjtf. or 

/ p& 2 A * & & S* # 25 

/fem. UfcOf ; , (c) p/., wwc. ^y and fern, ^fcbl (tA). 
To constitute the detached ace. they put tj followed by 
the form of the pron. of the attached ace. [162]. They 
make the pron. of the gen. accord with that of the ace, 
because the gen. is [also] an oft/., but through a medium; 
and make it accord with the expression of the attached 
ace*, because the gen. must be attached : so that the 
pron. of the gen. is exactly like that of the attached ace. 
(R). The g , lS , and 8 , when attached to the v. 
are objs.; and, when attached to the ft., are post. From 
the 1st [rule], however, are excepted such [phrases] as 

*•• • *A/ / Shift 

£L* U I *t) uKdf)l [560] : and from the 2nd two sorts, 
(1) one where these expressions have no [inflectional] 

place, as in uto and u03 [172], and Jji [162], Jrbf , 

and *y : (2) one where they are in the place of an 



,S 22 • ** S s 



ace., as in (a) ugjMf and *>>Ulf [113], according to 
S; (b) their saying ft«^;f Vj &** tt» r ifb ^ o^ V 
/ Aaw no knowledge of a baser fellow as to baok of the 



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( 530 ) 

head than him, nor of a viler as to it with Fatfr of the 

£ , the 8 being in the position of an ace., like the 8 in 

*^LoJ| 5 except that the latter [ 8 (DM)] is an obj\ 

and the former assimilated to the obj. } because the n. 
of superiority does not govern the obj. in the ace, and 

not being post., otherwise £^l would be put into the 
#cn. with Easra [17]; (c) the saying [of AlAhwas 

(jib)] 

[Assuredly, if wedlock be such that if makes lawjul a 
thing unlawful, verily Motor's wedding her is unlawful 

(Jsh)], in the version with jlo* in the gen., the pron. 
being in the ace. as an obj., and separating the pre. [inf. 

n. (DM)] and post. [ag. (DM)]. The i*S in W> <^*d;> 
Deal gently with Zaid [187, 188, 560], if you construe 
Oi^) to be a verbal n., [i. q. J**! (DM;,] is a p. of 
allocution, [ JJi) being an obj*, and the ag. a latent 
pron. (DM)]; but, if you construe it to be an inf. n., 

•A /A 

[i. q. ol j;t and Jl$*f , governed in the aee. by a sup- 

//A/* A AP 

pressed t'., i. e. u*»>i^ «^ j;t (DM),] is a post, n., [the 
in/I w. being pre. to its ag-. (DM),] whose place is the 
mm., because it is an ag. (ML). In XXIII. 101. [598] 
God is addressed with the pi. for magnification, like 



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( 581 ) 

** / /*■» * m 0* > A* • A Ay 

4$Sy» /LyJJf ta^mty^ o »aA *ti 

•A/ // *P h/hi \* A A / 

fby Al'Aql, -4nrf, $/ thou wish, I will forbid myself 
women, except you; and, if thou wish, I will not taste 
sweet cool water nor deep, a single woman being some- 
times addressed with the pi wise., as a man says of his 
wife \& tyLxi from taking such extraordinary pains to 
.conceal her that he does not even utter the proa, appli- 

ps hi* hi • ** 

cable to her, whence f J&.I SiSbV JlSi XX. 9. And 
said to his wife, Bide ye here (N),] and 

phi P* * hi, **£ h Pi h* h * m*'P *t , Psh^S *i 

(K) A<w, tfAeH, Awa Ye mercy upon me, God of 
Muhammad: for, if 1 be not worthy of mercy, Thou art 
worthy of having it (Jsh), it being a way of the Arabs 

PPhP 

to say to a great man and august sovereign J \%fhi] 

hi ' 

gy>S Look ye into mine affair, because lords and kings 

/ /Ay/ P h • 'A/£ £ 

6 a 7 UJ*i ^ and U^f Ul (N). 'Akil Ibn «Ullafa 
alMurtl says 

^4 J ^fc^ v U£f * J^ ^U jiU* c^^J, 

* * * / ' / ^ / / .^ 

^twf /am no/ om to «& the female neighbours of my tent 

C pp / 

Are your husbands absent or pt&entt, orig. ^^ ; bi|t 



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(■**&* ) 

this is allowable in poetry only (T). In sl~U\ fyl; 
Jj "J* &LsJ 1^15^> IV. 3. And give ye the women 
their dowries freely ; but, if etc. [85] the pron. in *i* 
ib treated like the dem., as though u<to ^ were said, 

A# I A A/ A#.Piu/#* A* 

like Jto j- >«** ^5' J* m * 13 - ^ '^ SAo 
fe« you of a Utter than thatt after the mention of the 
ut/rtA lusts, one of the proofs heard from the mouths of 
the Arabs being that Ru'ba [Ibn Al'Ajjaj (Jsh)] is relat- 
ed to have said respecting his own saying 

[J3|ff At horses Jong »n <*« *<*«& an< * nec *» '**» ro P w °/ 
fcemp, wherein are streaks of black and piebald, as though 
that were in the skin the blotchiness oflepxosy, lank in the 
bellies wherein is inordinate length with slenderness 
(509) (Jsh),] that he meant *M J* [171] (K). 

6 162. S, Khl, .Akh, Ms, and F say that the 
[detached ace. (K, B on IL 4.)] pron. is y [161]: but S 
says that what is attached to it is a p. [560, 562] indica- 
ting the states of the [person] referred to, vid. speaking, 
being addressed, and absence, since y fe homonymous; 
while Khl, Akh, and Mz say that it is a n. that y is pre. 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 583 ) 
to, because of the [anomalous (E, B)] saying [trans- 
roitted by Khl (K, B)] y, *k* j*X~M J^lf £L (of 

c^l j&ff TFfora &e man reaches the age of sixty years, 
/*/ Atni [60] beware of the y&ung women, which is wfeak, 
because the prons. are not pre. [112]. Zj and Sf say 
that* bf is an explicit n. pre. to the prons., as though u£bf 

ifrete i. q. cX«i/ thyself. Many of the KK say that gty , 
u^bl 3 and 8bf in their entirety ftre n*., which is weak, 
since there is no n., explicit or pronominal, whose final is 

successively ,3 , *-£ , and 8 . And some of the EE and 
IE among the BB say that the prons. are the suffixes to 

8 S3 

tf ; and that bf is a support for them, by means of which 
they become detached [161] (R). 

§ 163. The attached pron. b$ing shorter (Jm), the 
detached [pron.,nom. or ace. (Jm),] is not allowable, except 
on account of the impossibility of the attached through 
(1) precedence [of the pron. (Jm)] before its op., as 
%&*>y* \Jty : (2) separation for an object [not realized 
except by means of separation (Jm)], as t»| Vf u*^ U , 
[where the object is particularization (Jm); while the 
saying [of AlFarazdak (J)} 

As * A • yA$A^ /A*^ xA#« 

e^JU«3 J* opfviWl *Ayiyi i^*W<> 
/> / ' ' • • • 

/ S^O A/ » ti$K,a 33 m 

72 



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( 534 ) 
} By the Raiser, the Inheritor of the dead, when the earth 
has inclosed them in the time of calamities f (J)} is a 
poetic license (R)] : (3) suppression [of its op. (Jm)], as 
yM\y ^SbJ [60]: (4) the op.'a being (a) id., as ^} Uf 
[24] ; (b) a p., when the pron. [governed by it ( Jm)] is a 
nom.j as Ui 6 cu*'f U , [since the nam. pron. is not attached 
to the p. (Jm)] : (5) the pron. 1 8 being the subject of an [act. 
or pass. part, or assimilate (R)] ep. applied to a person 
[or thing (Jm)] other than the one that [the quality 
denoted by] it belongs to, as ^ &1>)Ui ojj **& [26] 

(IH) ; but that is correct only if ^ be an ag % , not a 
corrob. [below], otherwise it would be included in the 
case of separation for the object of corroboration (Jm). 
If the nom. or ace. pron. be governed by the v. f it must 
be attached to its op., except (1) when it precedes its 
op., being then only an aia, as I. 4. [20] : (2) when the 
op. is suppressed, as &y* Xbf ^f [62], \&»>yb i^JI A 
[23,591],and Sb! said in reply to "Whom shall Ibeat?" 

{45] ; whereas **-Vf ; sJty [60] is a case of precedence 
of the obj. before its op., [i. e. *xJ>f .jjo. oju u*0| (R n 
cautioning)]: (3) when it is separated from its op. for an 
object not fulfilled except by means of separation, vid. 
when it is (a) an appot., (a) a corrob., as II. 33. [158] 



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( 535 ) 

and iJty uXXaSI ; (£) a »ubst., as sty fjjj u^oSJ after 
»-*yM [154]; (<?) coupled, as o->fj ^j ,y/t^ : (b) after 
Vf , as J£l V! ^ U and Of V| ,_,^i U ; while 

* S ' 3 ft * » mt *tt* h * t * t» / • 

[And we care not, when thou art our female neighbour, that 
not any one but thou should be neighbour to us (AAz)] 
is anomalous: (c) after the sense of [ U and (AAz)] lfl , 

as 

* 

/£ JPh* '& mfi /A/ £fs 

Ubf JaSJ Uif ^ j.^4 Utf 

[by Dhu-llsba' al'Adwanl, ,4* though we on the day of 
Kurrd were slaying only ourselves (AAz) : F says that the 

Arabs treat U>f like the neg. and V| as respects detach- 
meat of the pron. f as in the saying of AlFarazdak 

A A* •* A • A I A / S ' * 

{/am *Ae repeller, the protector of what ought to be pro- 
tectedf and only 1 or my like defends their honors (Jsh)}, 
like the saying (of 'Amr Ibn Ma'dlkarib (AAz)} 

*$ St • /A#* / C/ • /* • • • /A • A • • A/> 

(ML on U ) Asst&edly Salmd and her female neighbours 
have known, not any one has speared and overthrown ths 



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( 536 ) 
horseman but I (AM)] : (d) after Uf , as I*-** W ^/U 

f Ax A$ * A' aJ > a S * A*' # * 

+>\ J and !;♦* ;1 «-^y Uf utjdf; : (e) the 2nd of the two 

* A t * A t ft 

pbjs. of ct^*** or e^^ia*! , when attachment of the pron. 
would lead to its being mistaken for the 1st obj., as wheij 
you make the 2nd 06/. in j-#ef !**} J?-*^ and cHi^t 
£* f j^3 [432] an mono. [179], in which <sase you say 
^JJi tCj fj*)' »X»4* ^t He that I knew Zaid to be 

* £ ' l a/ * S ' Ay * A x A* Sx 

^ My /a<Acr and ,r* «W 1*5 ^^' vS^ #• ** 

# *Ax * .rA x '3x ^Sx 

J g-aue *> Zaid was 'Jfnr, not l*j **+*f &^ nor ^1 
f J]?; sJUktf) , because the 2nd obj. would be mistaken for 
the 1st : whereas; if it would not b,e mistaken [for the 1st 

* • ' ' ' 4 Ax A* 

pty\], attachment is better in the pat. of v*^' , and 

* A • 

detachment in that of i*~l* , as when you make the 

>xA * Ax * A/ A? ' -' '»' *A ' 

2nd oftj. in U>^ W; UJ ^ u| * nd ^ ,li *3 *~^ m 
enunc, in which case Ay* W] **iM 3^ What * 

' * A x'jf»xA< «/ 

gave to Zaid was a dirham is better than Ja*J u*-* 10 *' iS^M 
$y , because you are able to attach without spoiling the 
letter or sense, and M »t>t I*] ^ ^1 What I knew 

* A^ **A • S/ 

jjatd to fo w« standing than Wj &M* jjilf , because 
the 2nd o&j. in the o. f. must be detached from its op. 
fqrthe samejeasoq *s [the pred.] in 8b( c^if [164]. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 537 ) 
If the pron. be governed by something else than the v., 
then, (1> if it be a nom., (a) when an inch., enunc, pred. 

jpf ^ &c, or sub. of U , it is only detached : (b) whei* 
governed ii> the nam. by the qc/. or pass, part., assimilate 
ep.y verbal n., orft;., or pr^p. and £*n., then, (a) if sepa- 
rated from ijts op. for ap object not fulfilled except by 

means of separation, it must be detached, as f$ *i) 

S tfs * *$ / A*' $A / • • A / 35 #* ^ 3 * S ts*4 



• A*/ * ** 



u**>! 



>U 5*£»f j and like it is the pronjineitf prow, after the 
£/>• applied to a [person or] thing other than the one 
that [the quality denoted by] it belongs to, since this 
pron. is a corrob. [above] of the pron. covert in the ep., 

$ A • Ajp S y y ^A55 *o $ h * 

not its agr., because you say ^ f>f.f* u)^'^ J* 3 
and Ub Ufcle;U yj!^ J j Wyf , whereas you know the 

»» /h * * * i *' ' *— * 
weakness of *>UU ^yx£ fa J As* [146] : (b) if govern- 

edin the mm. by the ep. or adv., when the 2 latter together 
with the nam. are projw., yid. when they are supported 
upon the interrog. Hamza or »<#. p., as U£l ^i>f , U 
Lfr jC«|ji and UXJt ^jJf ^1 , it must be detached to 
distinguish the case where it is one of the 2 terms of the 
prop, from the case where it is not so : (c) if neither 
separated from its op. nor governed in the nom. by the 
ep. or adv. supported upon what has just been mentioned, 
|t must be attached, because the act. and pats, partt., 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 538 ) 

assimilate ep., verbal n., adv., and prep, and gen. supply 
the place of vs. without needing an adjunct; but this 
attached pron. is only covert [161,165] : (c) when governed 
in the nom. by the inf. n., it is only detached, even if it 
follow the inf. n. without separation, because the inf. n, 

A t 

is not renderable by the v. except with the adjunct ^i , as 

S As x A? $ A s s * hi *h * • ht 3 A 5*#* • / A I 

UH) «^f v/* 4V*?**' anc * Wj ^'l V/*^ ^ A. >y g| : 
(2) if it be an acc> then, (a) if the op. be such as must be 
detached from the ace. by constitution, like the HijazI 

y s » $ As / 

U j as ^*df fc>*3 ** > or ^ *bey be separated because of 
an object not fulfilled except by means of separation, as 

s S3 £ $ / y£ ./ 

t-£ttf Vf i^^ U| U , the pron. must be detached, as you 
see : (b) if neither be the case, then, (a) if the op. be a p., 
the jprora. must be attached to it, as J& uX>l and c^uJ 
u*6, because the p. is not independent [134] : (b) if the 
€>p. be a verbal n., the pron. must* be attached to it, 
because, though it is orig. independent as respects the 
quality of n., not in need of an ace, still, since its sense 
becomes that of the #., it is like the v. in the necessity of 

3 *hs3 3* /S S 

attachment to it, as **i)) and &!&*- ; while detachment 
is allowable in the case of such verbal ns. as the u^ 

3*t s *A*3 . 3 & /A// 

is attached to, as Wjf <-**ij; & n( l 80! U&JU , only by 
assimilation to M&I u£(M [164], though the <-$ [187, 
560] is not this lJ : (c) if the op. be an in/, n., then, 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 539 ) 

(ft) if it be pronounced with Tan*m, the ace. is not 
attached to it, because the Tannin indicative of the 
word's completeness Is inconsistent with the attached 
pron. indicative of its incompleteness, and moreover the 
resemblance of the inf. n. to the v. is weak, so that you 

/ S $ A • ••A* 

must say u#il w->/* L s i *? 3 *J if you do not prefix ; ( 8) 
if the inf. n. be gynarthrous, the ordinary opinion is that 
the pron. should be detached after it, as y/ill ^i;-n *f 



A /• 



c^bl , because Jt alternates with the Tan win in making 

£ • S AS x 

the word complete [84], while Akh allows lX>^J| , the 
pnm. being an ace. : (rf) if the op. be an act. or pa*A par/., 
there is a dispute as to the attachment of the ace. pron. 
to them [113], whether they be pronounced with Tanwln 
or not: {for, according to Akh and Hsh, the pron. after the 
anarthrous is in the position of the acc. 9 because it is an 
oft/\, the Tanwin and ^ being suppressed not because of 
the prothesis, but because of the inconsistence between 
them and the attached pron. ; while Rm, Mb in one of 
his 2 sayings, and Z say that the pron. after the synar- 
throus, whether the latter be sing, r du., or pl. y is in the 
gen. by prothesis (R on the gem.):] and, though its 
attachment to them is better than its attachment to the 
inf. n. y because they resemble the v. more than the inf. 
n. does, still detachment of the ace. pron. after them is 

better, as u*y u^L* or u^bf ^->;UaJf and utfjf .Ja** 

• 2 • asas 

or u*Uf ^itoJI. 

* 



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( i/4(f ) 

§ 164. When 2 prons. follow an op,, then, if the 2nd 
be sin appos., the 1st must be attached, and the 2nd! 

s 25 • Shis 

detached, atf II. 33. [158] and iJki lJCaj^ , because the 
appos. is not one of the requisites of the v. [131], so that 
it should be attached to it and be like One of its parts. 
But, if the 2nd be not [an appos.*], then, (1) if one of 
them be an attached nom., it tiiust precede the ace, 
because the attached nom. becomes like part of the v. ; 
while every pron. that follows that nom. must be attached, 

•A/ •• 

whether it be more det [262] thai* that nom., as ^iy* , 

• Shf / ' 

or not, as \JZ>yb , because the 2nd is as it were attached 
to the op. itself, since the attached nom. is like part of its 
op.: (2) if the v. be followed by an attached ace. without 

§ Ay y • hi 

a nom. before it, as 4*j JSV*A , or after a nom. pron., 

* Sh * hi ' 

as l£M**1 , the pron. follc*wing that ace, (a) if less det. 
than it, must be attached according to S ; while others 

§ hs S* s hi 

allow attachment or detachment, as *S) tftkuf Zaidgave 

j a / • hi s /Ph * ht 

thee it or «if uflM , and&^l^f / g ave ^ e itot 

3* / 3h s hi h 3,3h 

«y uCui**!, and similarly dCU. 1 fancied thee to be 
Aim or &y uXtti. : the reason of its attachment being 
that there is nothing derogatory to the 2nd in being 
appended to, and becoming by attachment part of, what 
is superior to, because more det. than it; and the reason 
of its detachment being that the 1st attached is a com- 
plement, whose attachment is not like that of the nom. : 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 541 ) 
while detachment in the cat. of ct*l£» is better than in 

S hs hi * S, hi 

that of c^xt^f , because, the 1st obj. in the\?a<. of c^xl^f 
being an ag*. as respects the sense [432], the 2nd is as it 
were attached to the pron. of the ag. ; whereas, the 2 

oi/>. of cuJ£. still containing some tioge of the tncA. and 
enunc. [440], whose property js detachment [163], and 
the 1st of them being necessarily attached because of 
its nearness to the v n detachment is better in the 2nd 
for observance of the o. f. : (b) if more det^ must be 

detached according to S ; though S quotes from the GG 

• .#/*• • • ht 

allowance of attachment also, as u^y&tbct and Jlfclfa*! , 

and Mb approves the opinion of the GG : while here attach- 
ment of the 2nd has not been transmitted by hearsay, 
because the 2nd, being superior to, as being more det. than, 
the 1st, disdains to be appended to what is inferior to it ; 
whereas those who allow that by analogy, not by hearsay, 
look to the bare fact that the 1st is attached: (c) if 

equal to the attached ace, then, (a) if they be of the 

* * , hi * / • hi 

3rd pers., as U>yt>lkuJ and 8la>Ua*| , is, as S says, allow- 
ably attached, but oftener detached : (b) if not, is allowed 
to be attached by Mb, who approves it by analogy to 
the Srd pers.; but not by S: while here also detachment 
is better, because the 2nd disdains to be appended to, 
and become a supplement of, what is like it ; whereas 
that is allowable in the 3rd pers., because each pron. 

relates to something else than what the other relates to, 

73 



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( 542 ) 
contrary to the prons. of the 2nd and 1st pers. All of 
this is when the 2 prons. follow the v. : but, when they 
follow the n., (1) if the 1st be an attached nam., which 

y s y Ia/ 

is only latent [161, 163, 165], as u&;U j*j, the 2nd 

' Is, 

may be attached, [as exemplified,] or detached, as ±1) 

•25 § y 

LJty V-) 1 ^ : ( 2 ) if tlie lst t> e a g en -> the 2nd, (a) if an 
ace, is in the same predicament as when they follow the 
v. and are both aces., i. e., when less det. [than the lst], 



*» A /A/ y^ 



it may be attached or detached, as £f| £«&> Hi [503] 

/x A# / C / /A/ / S3 y A* 

and t«£&fe** or U>0t uXax* and Utbf uC&la**, like 

*/* A / A# $+ y SK y ht 

aXxxLa^ or 8bf cXXd^f , except that detachment in what 

follows the #67i. is better than in what follows the ace. 
pron., because the v. is more habituated to attachment of 
the^row. to it than the inf. n. and act. part.; and similarly, 
when the 2nd is more or equally det., attachment is 

y *JM y S SSh y 

anomalous, as ^S^yc and Ky&ye % whence 

^•A/ $ y A/ A y y y A sy 

&+X*£f L^Al^ jtf*^ LS^JU^. |>2L 
^ / # "y y 

/ .P / / A • A#^ Sy Ay y y Ay 

[by Mughallis Ibn Laklt alAsadl, And my soul has begun 
to be resigned to a calamity, because of their experiencing 
one like it, whose canine tooth strikes the bone, i.e. 
extremely severe (AAz)] : (b) if a wow., must be detached, 
whether it be more det. than the gen. or equally or less 



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( 543 ) 
det.) because the prominent attached nom. is attached 
only to the v. [16l, 165], as W ^iy^ , p *iy* , and 
1» Ukyi> : (3) the 1st is not an ace, except according 
to the opinion of Hsh and Akh on such as t-£>;t* [163], 
in which case the predicament of the pron. that follows 
it, according to them, is the same as that of the pron. 
that follows the gen. (R). The [pronominal (M, IA)] 
pred. of J$ , &c, [may be attached or detached: but 
(IA)] is preferably detached (M, IH, IA) according to 
S, as »*1 U***** (I A), because it is orig. an enunc. [447], 
which must be detached [163]. (AAz); and attached 
according to IM, as && (IA): the poet ['Umar Ibn 
Abl Rabl'a (R, AAz)] says 

fFi* j~n\)*&s ^ * **« J^ *•* w J* «H 

9- 

[Assuredly, if he be he, he has indeed changed, after 
quitting us, from the youthful state: and man does some- 
times alter (AAz)], and [the same poet (AAz)] says 

[ Would that this night were a month, wherein we saw not 
any one, except me and thee, nor feared a watcher t 
(AAz)]; but a poet [says <Sl U& (4*4), and Iba 
Duraid (AAz)] says 



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( 544 ) 

e ~J ,!>ai (.<&\ w^a>Jot * j-ftfaM i***-* ^f *oj.* 
[/ numbered my people like I fie number of the multitudi- 
nous sand y when the generous men other than I (170) were 

X A/ * $ x Axx 

gowc (AAz)], and an Arab said ^5*-*^ Ha-; **** -&* 
Aim foep to a man that is not I [170, 199] (M, R), the 

99KP *Ph* y 

reason of the attachment being that &X is like &iy* 
[97]. 

§ 165. No prow, is latent except the [attached] nom. f 
because the ace. and gen. are complements, since they 
are objs. ; whereas the nom. is an ag\, which is like part 
of the i?., so that in the cat. of the attached prons., which 
are constituted for abridgment, they content themselves 
with expressing the v. The cause of its latency, where 
it is latent, has been mentioned [161]. The attached 
[worn.] pron. does not appear at all in the case of (1) the 
pret. y 3rd pets, sing., masc. and /em.; (2) the aor., in 

Sthi $ y Ay * x Ax S x A/ 

J*iJ , J»ju , J*ij> , and J**S 2nd jws. *tng\ m<wc. 

Ay A 

or 3rd per*, sing. fern. ; (3) [the imp.] J**f ; (4) 
all the ep*., verbal w&, and atftw. [161, 163]: nor does 
the ag.j explicit or pronominal, appear in the case of 

S '*& S /Ax //A/ 

. 5 of them, vid. J*iJ , J**i , J*& 2nd pers. sing. 

A x A 

mas c.j the imp* J**t , and the imp. verbal n. in the sing., 
du. } and pi; while what appears in II, 33. [158] is a corrob. 
of the latent [pron.], not an ag.: but the explicit ag. 



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( 545 ) 

* S * 

and the detached pron. appear in the case of (1) J*J , ] 

A /// $ / Ay * / A/ • / y 

**-*«> , J*k , »nd J*£ 3rd pets. sing, /em., as i^yi 

9 As / 5 A ."V / ./ $» *»• S # A, , 

oiS and ,<* W ****** U , and jifl> «^v^ and Vl uy i" U 
^ ; (2) the sing, ep., as ^Wyi fttf [24] and ^1* U 

Ud ; (3) the adv. when supported, as o*j ^IjJf J| an d 
yx> jf*>H ^ U ; (4) the verbal n, when enunciatory, as 

§ A/ ' ' Ay y* //Ay 

w^3 c^lfc* and jfc u^l$ifc (R). The saying of the GG 
on II. 33. that the coupling is to the latent pron. is a 
mistake, and has been refuted by 111, who holds it to be 

/ iA/ A/ Ay Ay 

a coupling of props., erig. i-^jj ^~if) and (let) thy 

//JAyjtSASy 

ttrcye (dwelt), and likewise says that V* *sbJ 6£tsJ 1/ 

y A* 

cs^JJ XX. 60. That we shall not break, nor (shalt) thou 

S h$ *$ A 9 • y 

(break) is in full va^f &ils£ Hj , because [the coupled is 
in the predicament of the ant. (538), whereas] the nom. of 
the imp. v. is not an explicit n., and the nom. of the aor. t\ 
possessed of the ^ is nothing else than the pron. of the 

#y 

1st pers.; while he allows ^ in 

# yAy»y 2 yA*Ay» */ £/£# ^ tw y * y Sms* 

' / y / / y ^» 

.9 ^ iSi S3 * y A$y $ # 6" / $ y* y 

[by AlBurj Ibn Mushir afTa!, We roam about so long 
as we roam about ; then repair, the possessors of riches 



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( 546 ) 
of us and the destitute (repair), to holes (i. e. graves) 
whose bottoms are wide, and whose top is a broad stone 
standing fast ( Jsh)] to be ag. of a suppressed v. of the 
3rd pers., i. e. J f j*W jjv3 £)k , or, with what fallows 
it, a corrob. [of the pron. in *jU (DM)] upon the prin- 

9 h,h^O/ 9h m** 9 4/ * 9 

ciple of J*A\) >$&M *t) \->y* [154] (ML). 

§ 166. The form of (IH) a detached nom. [pron. 
(M, R) agreeing with the inch. (IH) in number, gender,, 
and person, as &1M Ul J\ XXVIII. 30. VerUy I am Qod 

9 *** 9 ***** • 9 9$ '% 

and fft^l ; ^i« j* ^f XII. 99. Feri/y .He m the for- 
giving, the merciful, but sometimes in the 3rd pers. after 
a 1st or 2nd, because the latter occupies the place of a 
pre. n., as 



, ,fihX> ,9 



9 h $ h' // /A ttht* A *0 



{by Jartr, ^ntf Aow maiiy a /rfentf there is of mine in the 
wide pebbly watercourses, who would think (the affliction 
of) me, if I were afflicted, to be the great affliction/ (Jsh)}, 

y / 9S**> *9 * 9 ** 

i. e. sJL**}\ y& ^^ 3)i Wj] intervenes between the 
tncA. and [its (M)] enunc, before and after [prefixion of 
(M, B)] the [lit. (M)] ops. [of the inch, andentmc., vid. the 

fi • 2 • 

ca*. of jto , the caf . of ^f , the IJijazi U , and the cat. of 
Js (B)], when the tnttnc. is det. or [similar thereto, like 



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( 547 ) 
<M;i KiT -, J»if (M, IH), as /jUaiJ! p j*) Zaid 

/■ £«■» m /■ A ' ' ' 

is the deparier, [XVIII. 87. (419), ^) c jf-*»3 Vj 

^ f^L f> dU* ^ &Uf ^Gf U> ^y^ui HI. 175. 
(443) And do not thou account (the niggardliness of) 
them that are niggardly of what God hath vouchsafed them 

S C** S A 9 

of His bounty to be better for them (M), i. e. ^^1 J^a? 
(K, B), XII. 99., JlkiJf j* Oi) U Zaid is not the 

deparier (R), J^Jf ^i flfc Jtf ^f VIII. 32. if this 

he the truth (M),] and *&* «--A»yf c^f o**** V. 117. 
Thou toast the watclier over them (M, R). It is named 
(by the BB (M, R)] distinctive (M, IH, 1A), because, 
[say the moderns (11),] it distinguishes the [case where 
what follows it is an (R)] enunc. from the [case 

$ A, 

where it is an (R)] ep. (R, IA), since, when you say ±i) 

3 * hPK** * s yA*A 

4 jjUaiJf , the hearer may imagine UlaiJJ to be an ep., 
and therefore await the enunc., so that you put the distinc- 
tive to specify that it is an enunc., not an ep. ; or because 
say Khi and S, it distinguishes the n. before it from the 
one after it by indicating that the latter is not a supple- 
ment [140] of the former, but is its enunc. (R) : and by 
the KK support (M, R), because it keeps what follows it 
from falling from the status of enunc^ as the support 
in the house keeps the roof from falling (R). The J 



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( 548 ) 

of inception is prefixed to it (M, R, I A), as y$ f*i& jl 
^2bJ| jo^a!) III. 55. Verily this is the true story (IA) f 
like o^yi fjflgvM is^V uCif XL 89. Verily thou art the 
mild, the director. The inch, ought to be det., because 



u, 



the distinctive imports corroboration [1 38], since ^j 
JtiM yfc means Zatrf himself is the slander; and the 
enunc. ought to be synarthrous, because, when it is so, 
it imports restriction, which, importing corroboration, is 
in keeping with the corroboration of the inch, by the 
distinctive : while the form of a detached nom. pron. 
agreeing with the inch, is put in order that it may be in 
the semblance of a 2nd inch, whose enunc. is what fol- 
lows it, the prop, being the enunc. of the 1st inch., so 
that by this means the synarthrous [enunc. after it] may 
be distinguishable from the ep., because the pron. is not 
qualified [147] ; but afterwards, since the object of put- 
ting the distinctive is to avert confusion of the enunc. 
after it with the ep., and this is the sense of the p., vid. 
to import a meaning in something else [497], it becomes 
a p., and is stripped of the quality of n., so that it keeps 
to a fixed shape, vid. that of the nom. pron., even if what 
Jbllows it alter from the nom. to the acc. } because the p. 
is aplastic; though it retains one plasticity that it had 
when it was a n., I e. its variation in number, gender and 
person, because it is not orig. a p. Then, greater latitude 
being taken in the distinctive, it is introduced where the 



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( 549 ) 

i /a* 

enunc. is similar to the synarthrous, vid. the J*Jf of 

superiority, which resembles the synarthrous in that 

its particular Izer is a ^., vid. ^ [355], united with it, 

as the particularizer of the synarthrous is a p. united 

with it, i. e. the J (R). The conditions of the pron. 

named distinctive and support are [thus] 6, (1) that what 
precedes it should be (a) an inch., actually or orig., as 

• 3 A#A*0 4# • I $ 

^fatiJS ftf U&J VII. 156. Those shall be the prospe- 

rous, ^fCtM j»y Utj XXXVII. 165. And verily we 
are the slanders in ranks, V. 117., LXXIII. 20. [440], 
and XVIII. 37.; but Akh allows it to occur between 

tbe d. s. and *. *., holding f# *M J» J&> >*&> XI. 
80. These are my daughters, purer for you, [read by Ibn 
Marwan (K, DM), Sa'ld Ibn Jubair, Alljasan alBasrl, 

/ at 

and Zaid Ibn 'All (DM)] with rf*\ in the ace, to be an 
instance of it: (b) det.,*B exempliBed; but Fr, Hsh,and 
such of tbe KK as follow them allow it to be indet., 

attributing U j* Jlj ^ *** ^fi J XVI. 94. 
Because a people is more numerous and wealthy than a 
people to it : (2) that what follows it should be (a) an enunc. 
actually or orig.: (b) det., or like tbe det. in not receiv- 
ing J! , as above in the case of *>&»• LXXIII. 20. and 

J»f XVIII. 7 a.; while the condition of tbe one like th* 

74 



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( 550 ) 

det. is that it should be a n., as exemplified: but Jj 
coordinates the aor. with the *., because of their mutual 

S 3* i h* ,j *Z 

resemblance, holding o^-iy £**i y*> *•>' LXXXV. 13. 

Verify He produceth and reproduceth to be an instance 
of it; and is followed by AB, who allows the distinctive 

in ;jM y*> uXO^f ^ } XXXV. 11. And the plotting of 
those shall prove vain ; and by IKhz, who says that 
there is no difference between accidental prevention of 

J! ; as iu ^* J*Jl , [where the preventive of Jf is the 
#t * (DM),] and in the pre., like uX&» , [where the pre- 
ventive is the prothesis (DM)], and natural, as in the 
[pret. and (DM)] aor. v.; while Sub says on y& *Jfj 

i;tf|^/jj| LIII. 44—46 ^wrf Ma* 2& Aa*A ma(/e to 
laugh and made to weep, and that He hath killed and 
made alive, and that He hath created the two mates , the 
male and the female that the distinctive pron. is put in 
the first 2 [verses], and not in the 3rd, because some 

of the heathen sometimes attribute these acts to others 

* i, hi ,t 
than God, as Nimrod says vs^A*t 5 ^?*S Uf II. 260. 

J make alive and kill, whereas the 3rd has not been claimed 
by any of mankind; and the text fl*M fyy ^^f gfo 

A// S* / A J /.# / «• A •A/ / A* w#0 

£*&> j 30 " j* «-*o or- uX * M J/ 1 iS^ 1 xxxiv. e. 

ilntf /Aey *Aa/ Aat;e fcin vouchsafed knowledge know 



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( 551 ) 

what hath been revealed to thee from thy Lord to be 
the truth and to guide aright is sometimes cited as 

A/ 

evidence in favour of Jj's saying, ^o^d being coupled to 

[the 2ud obj. (DM)] £*&] occurring as enunc. after 
the distinctive : (3) that it itself should be (a) in the form 
of the nont.; (b) in agreement with what precedes it [in 
person, gender, and number (DM)]. Its import is (1) 
lit., vid. notification from the very first that what follows 
it is an enunc., not an appos. ; (2) id., vid. corroboration; 
(3) also id., vid. particularization, [i. e. restriction of the 
predicameut to the mentioned, and negation of it from all 
others (DM)] : and Z mentions all three in the exposi- 

tion of ^aalijf Jfe *-^;'j H« 4. And those shall be 
the prosperous, saying that its import is (1) indication 
that what follows it is an enunc., not an ep. ; (2) corrobo- 
ration ; (3) affirmation that the import of the attribute 
is predicable of the subject exclusively of others (ML). 
Some of the Arabs make it an inch., and what follows 

it its enunc. ; [and accordingly fytf c j#j ^fcliUb Uy 
^jJU&JI p XLIIL 76. Nor have We wronged them; 
\ut (545) they were such that they were the wrong-doers 

and jSl Uf XVIII. 37. to be such that 1 am less are 
read (M, R) with the nom. among others than the Seven 

§ 167. The prop, is preceded by a pron. [of the 
3rd pers. (IH) sing., masc. or fern. (R),] nanled the 



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( 552 ) 

pron. of the ^^ case [when masc. (Jm)] and &■** 

fact [when yfewi. (Jm), but by the KK {the pron. of (R)} 
the wnknown (M, R), because that c(w^ is unknown until 
the jprow, is (R) expounded by the prop, [mentioned 
(Jm) J after it (IH), as CXII. 1. (160) (M)]. It is [accord- 
ing to the ops. (IH)] (1) attached, (a) prominent, [an 

ace. y in the cats, of ^ and ^1 (R), as in *H) **iito 
f 6 / thought the case to be this, Zaid m>o$ standing and 



• 



&V f j** p C U *JI, LXXII. 19. -4w<* *A«* /Ac c<w« teas 
this, wAcn /fo servant of.Ood stood (M)]; (b) latent 
(M, IH), a worn., in the cafe, of ^tf and otf (R), a8 i n 
their saying *ti* *U» ^la. j-J 7%^ caw ^ wo , thig> 
GW has created his like and IX. 118. [460] (M): (2) 
detached (IH), when an inch, or a sub. of U (R). It is 
[preferably (R)] fern, when the [expos. (R)] prop, con- 
tains aym., as ;U*V f ^^ IT l#\i XXII. 45. For verily 

* iff A*/ A »t h/tt 

the fact is this, the eyes are not blind, [ **t j^ ^2 Xf 

*ttW Ji '<•!« **W mI XXVI. 197. (M), so read by 
Ibn 'Amir (B),. And was not the fact this, that the 
learned of the children of Israel should know it was a 
sign for them? (K,B), or they had a sign, that the 

learned Sfct (K),] and g\ f*j t^f J* [507] (M, R), 
provided that the^em. in the prop, be not a complement 

or like a complement, so that &;* u»^uu tgjl or ^tf 1$>1 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 553 ) 

*??** ^y*" [19,447] is not preferable, because, the 
pron. being intended, important, its agreement with com- 
plements is not observed. This pron. may not be sup- 
pressed, from want of indication of it [1], since the- 
enune. is independent, not containing a connecting pron. 
[27] (R). Its suppression, when it is an ace, [however, 
is allowable, because it becomes a quasi-complement 
through being governed in the ace, and is besides indi- 

m» S A /• As S 

cated by the sentence, as £lf J^o* ^ ^ (517) an< j 

<*W r V c>* ^(l^flie indication here being that the annul- 
lers of the inch, are not prefixed to cond. words ; but (R)] 
is weak, except with ^1 when contracted [525], in which 
case it is necessary (IH). The reading of XX. 66. 

[171] is said to be orig. ^f^U Lgf JJjfc *Jf [271, 

r"i ' ' ' * 

the [2nd] inch. |LfcJ being then suppressed, and the 

pron. of the case, as in £lf j*UM o^l ^ ^f [517J 
(8h). This pron. is irregular in 5 ways :— (1) it neces- 
sarily relates to what follows it [160], since it may not 
be preceded by ike prop, expos, of it, nor by any part 
thereof ; and K3f errs in saying on 

/LJU f I r WJJ y»? Ud*3 «(»» of ^f^Jf j f «• fx*| 

[by AlFaraedak, fPAatf/ drwiA; t^w /fo AlMarSgha 
(i.e. •/arfr) trAcn Ac satirized Tamlm in the region of 

Syria, or shamming drunk? (Jsh)] that AS contains 



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( 554 ) 

the pron. of the case, and ^f>~ i^SjJ S ^>S are inch. 

* * 

and enunc, the prop, being pred. of J* , whereas cor- 

rectly ^tf is red. : (2) its exponent is only a prop.; 
and no pron. shares with it in this, [since the exponent 
of every other pron. is a single* term (DM)] : (3) it is not 
followed by an appos., not being corroborated [135], nor 
coupled to [158], nor followed by a subst [154] : (4) it 
is governed only by inchoation or one of its annullers : 
(5) it is invariably sing., not being dualized or pluralized, 
even if it be expounded by 2 or more stories (ML). The 
BB hold that both terms of the expos, prop, must be ex- 
pressed, because, it being expos., its own 2 terms ought 
to be independent of exponent. The exponent, when 
the annullers of the inch, are not prefixed to the pron., 
must be a nominal prop., [as CXII. 1.]; but, when they 
are prefixed to it, may be verbal also, as XXII. 45. (K). 
The prop, occurring as enunc or pred. to the pron. of the 
case must be enunciatory, whatever is transmitted to 
the contrary being paraphrased, except the pred. of the 

A* 

contracted ^ , which may be a precatory prop., as in 
the reading of XXIV. 9. [34, 525] (ML). 

§ 168. The pron. in U^ toy [498]is a vague indet. 
[262, 505], thrown out at hazard without aim at any 
particular person, and afterwards expounded [84, 1£0]; 
and like it in vagueness and exposition is the pron. in 



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( 555 ) 

S A/ * * 

§ 169. When the n. occurring after yy and ^^ 

S A* /A/ 

ifl a pron., the general practice is to say c^J| JM, 

S* /A/ /ASS S h * * S A# £*/ ASA* / As 

ui yy , uh^^ > and «h*~* > as cj^r 4 UjtJ r 301 V 

XXXIV. 80. iff* Aarf no/ been for you, we should have 

A#As s Ass 

been believers and JU-** J$i XLYIL 24. [462] : but 

s sAs 

trustworthy persons transmit from the Arabs u5V J , 
******* * * 

oUy # i£L»* i and ^l—s , as 

** ** * A S SAS AS ASS 

^yb UT unsafe ^y ^j-» </> 

/lt# «"• S# A /A* 

w ' *?s s *~ * * * * 

[by Yaad Ibn Alljakam, ^nrf Aou> many a place of 
combat, ifl (had) not {been present with thee) wouldsl 
thou have perished (in), as a faller falls with his limbs 
from the summit of the peak I (J)l 

S A$ AS * *h^° ** S S AS *h*n** S sASs A *t& 

[by 'Umar Ibn Abl Rabi'a, SAe «»^ned irilA A«r two 
hand* from the litter, saying, If thou (hadst) not (been 
with me) this year, I should not have performed the pil- 
grimage (Jsh)], 

[by Ru'ba Ibn Al'AjjSj, My daughter says, Thy time of 
departure has arrived. O my father, perhaps thou, or 
may-be thou, (uiltjhd eustenanoe) (Jsh)], and 



Digitized 



b y Google 



( 556 ) 

[by 'Imran Ibn IJittan, u4«d / Aar* a sow/, to which I 
soy } whenever it opposes me, Perhaps I, or may-be I, 
(shall attain mine object) ( AAz)] ; while authorities differ 
as to [the explanation of] that (M). S and the majority 
say that 9 J is a, prep. [513], peculiar to the pron., as 

%L [501] and the ^J [509] are peculiar to the explicit 
n., and not depending upon any thing [498}; and that 
the position of its gen. is that of a nom. by inchoation, 
the enunc. being suppressed [29, 574] : while Akh says 

that the pron. is an inch., and yy not a prep., but that 
they substitute the gen. pron. for the nom., as they do 

the converse, since they say Utf ^1 Vj e^Jtf U| U 
i am not like thee, nor art thou like me [509] ; whereas 
substitution occurs only in the case of the detached 
prons.y [a refutation of Akh's saying (DM),] because of 
their resemblance t(* explicit ns. in their independence. 

On IuJ [in* some MSS ^ill'c (170) (DM),] &c. 

[459, 462], there are 3 opinions :— (1) S says that ^s, 
is treated like JjJ in governing the sub. in the ace. and 
jpred. in the nom. [516], as j*J is treated like it in having 

At 

its pred. conjoined with ^ [536] : (2) Akh says that it 

continues to govern like AS [459] ; but that the ace. 
pron. is borrowed in place of the nom. pron. : which is 



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( 557 ) 

refuted by two matters, (a) that substitution of one prvn~ 
for another is authorized only in the case of the detached 

[pron.], as iJf u^>tf Uf U , while in £fl j#yi ~>i I* 

[129] the u5 is an etymological subsL [682] for the & f 
[being a case of conversion (DM),] not a case of substi- 
tution of one pron. for another, as IM thinks; (b) that 
the pred. appears governed in the nom. in 

Ufc^ **ti Ub *aai J li ^m<J # Igl* * ~\S ji UbL»f c~J& 

[by Sakhr Ibn Al'Abbud alKhidriml, Then said I, May 
be it is the fire of Kcts; and perhaps she will complain y 
and I shall come towards her, and visit her (Jsh)] : 
(3) Mb and F say that it continues to govern like ^JS * r 
but that, the sentence being transposed, [what ought to 
be (DM)] the sub. is made pred., and conversely, [the ^ 

in ffS ^jl ^L"** being its prepos. pred., and f><f\ ^f its 
postpos. sub. (DM)] : which is refiited by its entailing in 
such as 2)\ lx>\ U [above] restriction [of the expression 
(DM)] to a v. and its ace, [while the nom., vid.its post- 
pos. sub., is suppressed (DM)] ; but they may reply that 
the ace. here is a nom. in sense, since their assertion ia 
that the inflection is transposed, while the sense is. 
unaltered. 

§ 170. The ^ of protection, named also the ^ of 

support, is affixed before the £ of the 1st pers*, (1) when 

governed in the ace, by (a) the v., whether plastic, a* 

75 



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( 558 > 

^fS , or aplastic, as ^U* and ^ylk. U 1^1? or ^ifa* U 
or ^Ufc. if JL\*. be held to be a v. [511] ; (b) the verbal 

«., as ^1^ , JS\f , and JS^c ; (c) t\ Q p. [ "f , &c. 

(516) DM)], as ^J : (2) when governed in the gen. by *+ 
and ^ : (3) when post, to ^oJ , ^ [187], or taS : (4) in 

A ' ' A* 

other cases anomalously, as lS ^sjj i. q. ^-a, my siiffi- 



S> A Si 



ciency [187] and <*H O-l— .1 [609] (ML). The ^ of 

protection is introduced into the v. to protect it from the 
Kasr, because what precedes the ^ of the 1st pers. must 
be pronounced with Kasr ; whereas, since they debar the 
v. from the gen. [404], and the Kasra is the original sign of 
the gen. [16], they dislike that what is sometimes the sign 
of the gen. should be found in the v. : while its introduction 

in such as ^Ub*' and ^t^H *s either for the sake of 
uniformity, or because the Kasr would be supplied upon 
the 1 and g , if it were not for the * , as in ^t*a* and 
^£ ; and its introduction with the ^ of inflection, as 
^jO^ > the e> af corroboration, as J+^S , and the 
attached «am» prow., as ^^y^ and ^Vj^. , is allowa- 

ble because the ^ s of inflection and corroboration and 
the prons. mentioned are like part of the t>. This 
is inseparable from (1) all the paradigms of the pret. : (2) 
the aor. [including the imp.], exeept the five paradigms 



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( 559 ) 



Containing the ^ of inflection [40o], whether the abt> 
[or imp."] contain the ^ of the pron. or the single or 



/A X, 



double . of corroboration, as ^JLuj*aj> and 

fix* • £ ^ .P A y A • # .$£ • • ••• w x AS A > 

fj«£* «Jj£J| f^33L»S C^A^l # &Jj>£ U>J«J ^5**^ J^ 

• ' ' r ' *• ' • /• 

[by 'Antara, JfaV/ a Shadarii she-camel cursed with an 
udder debarred from milk, cut off, bring me to her dwell* 
ingt (EM)], or not. The place of the ^ of protection 
fnay be supplied by the ^ of inflection, contrary to the 
^j of the pron. and the two ^ s of corroboration, although 
combination of two likes is realized in the case of all, 
because, the ^ of inflection having no meaning, like the 
^ of protection, each of them is for a lit. matter, contrary 
to the ^ of the pron. and the two ^s of corroboration, 
this is according to the opinion of those who, like Ja, 
hold the elided to be the ^ of protection, because the 
heaviness comes from it, not from the - of inflection ; 
Whereas according to the saying of S, that the elided is 
the ^ of inflection, because it is exposed to elision in the 
upoc. and subj. and has no meaning, the cause of the non- 
elision of the ^ of the pfon. and two ^s of corrobora- 
tion is obvious, since they are not exposed to elision and 
have a meaning. Elision of the ^ of protection with the 
^ of the pron. occurs, however, by poetic license, as 

[by <Amr Ibn Ma'dikarib azZubaidi, Thou seest it (the 
hair of the head) like wormwood steeped in musk, vexing 



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( 560 ) 
Iht women rummaging for lice when they rummage 
me for lice, orig. JLUli (Jsh)], where the elided, may 

not be the ^ of the pron., since the ag. is not suppressed. 
Three methods are allowable with the ^ of inflection, 
elision of one * , incorporation of the ^ of inflection * 
into the ^ of protection, and expression of both without 
incorporation ; and VI. 80. [405] is read according to 
all three. Expression of the ^ with j-*J is better, as 

£M U^j 4aU [164] ; but ^g-d is allowable, as wfco 61 

'a, , , , * * 

-^1 [164], by assimilation to *y*£> : and aL- ^ occurs by 

assimilation to ^ ; but ^l*** is more frequent (R). 
It is disputed whether the ^ of protection be inseparable 
from the J*M of wonder or not, as £M ^y^f I* [477] or 
^cjSif U ; but the correct opinion is that it is inseparable 
(IA). The ^ may be affixed to verbal ns., because they 
convey the sense of the v. ; or omitted, because they are 
not orig-. w. [187]. The ^ may be affixed to ^f , ^f , 
JCI , and ^S , because they resemble the v. [516] ; or 
elided, because the affixion is due to the resemblance, and 
is not original, and because of the combination of likes, 

together with the frequency of usage (R). JjJ is cor- 
rectly denuded of the ^j, as XL. 38. [411] j and expres- 
sion of the ^) is rare, as 



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( 561 ) 

X X XX ' X ' 

[ 7%en *atd /, Lenrf #0 ft0o to mc /Ac adze : perhaps I 
shall carve with it a scabbard for a glorious sword (J)]. 

x Ax 

The * is not elided with c^J , except extraordinarily, 
as 

X /A/ # A$x S* f$ Ax s x A / ^* h$ * 

^IU j&u tjiitj *i*)U| # ^^ Jl5 3! ^ &*i*f 

[by Zaid AlKhail, ZrtArc /Ac tmA 0/* Jabir, when he said, 
Would that I were to find him, and I would lose some of 
my property for the sake of slaying him (J)] ; but is com- 
monly expressed, as IV. 75. [411] (I A). 3z says that 

A A / ax 

expression of the ^ in the case of ^ , ^ , oS , and 

Ax 

b* is better known ; but according to S elision is a 
license not allowable except in poetry, as 

$ Ax xx A/ A S A • x x AS Ax * *,£ *a ,$ f 

" # ' x ' x 

[O /Aow (wArcr afoul tffccm antf a6ow/ wc, / am no/ q/* 
jfom, nor i* &» q/" mc (J)] and 

x AxAx-f Ax* A/ A /Ax 

X *> X "^ * */ 



^» .P x Ax* x Ax 



[by Humaid Ibn Malik al Arkafc My sufficiency is tJie help 

A 

( >* being red.) of the two Khubaibs (*Abd Allah Ibn 

AzZubair, surnamed Abu Khubaib, and his son Khu- 
baib), my sufficiency: the Imam (Khubaib Ibn 'Abd 



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( 562 ) 

Alls))) is not the unrighteous niggard (J)] : and the 

* is affixed for preservation of the inseparable quiescence 

[of the final]. According to S and Zj, elision of the ^ 

A 9* 

from ^oJ is not allowable, except by poetic license ; 
whereas, accordiug to others, expression is preferable, 
but elision is not a poetic license, because it is authorized 

* A# im 9* A f Ax/ A • 

among the Seven, [ \y±* ^^ g* c^ilj i*J XVIII. 75. 
Thou hast obtained front me an excuse being read JjJ 
(K, B) by Nafi' (B)] ; but IH follows Jfc, who says that 

A 9, 

you are allowed an option in the case of ^yjJ , the read- 
ing inducing them to say so : and affixion of the ^ to 

A 9/ 

^oJ , though it is not a v., is for preservation of the insepar- 
able quiescence of the ^ . Elision is better than expres- 

sion in the case of J»> , because of the dislike to a 
quiescent J before the *, and from the difficulty of 
pronouncing it. 

§ 170. A. The most particular of the prons. is the 
pron. of the 1st pers., then that of the 2nd pers t , then 
that of the 3rd ; and in combination the more particular 

* A9 h%* *% />/ ,9h9 f 9* • Al 

prevails, as Utf y^S^ li| or ytj and U*tf J&j c^Jf 
(R). 



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THE DEMONSTRATIVES. 



§. 171. The dern. is what indicates a denominate 
and demonstration of that denominate : you say, when 

demonstrating Zaid for example, Itifc This, the word 

to indicating the person Zaid and demonstration of that 
person (Sh). The dems. are the ns. that the denomi- 
nate is demonstrated by; and on that account they con- 
tain the sense of the v., and therefore govern ds s. 
[75] (IY). Only a visible sensible [object], near or 
distant, is orig. demonstrated by the dems. : so that, if an 
invisible sensible [object] be demonstrated by them, as 

&LsJ! L& XIX. 64. That is the Paradise, this is 
because it is made to be like the visible ; and simi- 
larly if what is imperceptible by the senses be demons- 
trated by them, as VI. 102. [172] and XII. 37. 

[561] (R). The dems. are (I) sing., (a) masc. !o : (b) 
fern. C, J> , 63 [or ^ , with slurring or impletion 
(R)], *5f &3 [or ^5*^, with slurring or impletion 
(R)], &3 , ^3 , [and sometimes ^!o (R)] : (2) tfw., (a) 

masc, [in the nom. (M, Jm)] ^13, and [in the ace. 

V 
and g-en. (M, Jm)] ^3, [but in some tfiafo. ^fo , 



• • / 



whence Jf±\*J ^fvifc ^jf XX. 66. Verily these two 



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( 564 ) 
are two enchanters (174) (M)] ; (b) fern., [in the norn. 
(IY, Jm)] ^0, and [in the ace. and gen. (IY f Jm)] 

^ji^ , [ tf being the only fern. dial. var. dualized (M, 
Jm), because of the frequency of its occurrence (Jm)] : 

(3) pi 9 masc. and /em. sV^S [or V)l , a heteromorphous 

r 

pL 9 the measure of which is Jt*i upon the measure of 

s-A)* (IY)], pronounced with prolongation or abbreyia- 
tion (M, IH), and in the latter case [generally] written 
with the ^ (R, Jm); which is common to the, rational 
and irrational, as 

stv^o /Ax • Ax • //A^Sj* 
S$A<<a y I 2 /A/ • A/A.-©/ 

(M, R), by Jarlr (M, J), Disparage thou [664] the 
halting -places after quitting the halting-place of A I Liwd, 
and life after the passing of those days (J), where it is 

• • /A«^x s A 2 «■" Si 

used for the irrational (IY, J), as in yed \y £*«J| ^f 
V^ &i* JS uCil ; f Jf of JAM, XVII. 38. Verily the 

ear and the eye and the heart, all of those are inquired 
about (J), and similarly 

UJ .oA UVj* JLuf U 

x ' ' 

(IY), by «Abd Allah [Ibn 'Umar (ID)] Ibn <Amr Iba 

•UthmSn Ibn 'Affan al'Arjl, Aow graceful [288] ore 



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( 565 ) 

young gazelles whose horns have budded for us from 
among those herds of gazelles that graze amidst those 
little [293] wild lote trees and gum-acacia trees ! (Jsh), 
though it is mostly used for the rational, and there is a 

version flyW peoples [in the former verse] (J); and, 

when pronounced with Kasr, sometimes has Tauwln 

[608], in which case, the Tanwln denoting indeterminate- 

ness, as in 6>* [187, 198], while jVjl is det., its import 
is distance, in order that the persons demonstrated may 

be like the indet., so that sVf is like uXWjf [173]; and 

sometimes has the 1st Hamza changed into * , as jU& > 

or the last Hamza pronounced with Damm, as s^f ; and 
sometimes has the Damma before the J impleted, as 

#*»• J* ' $ ***** 

sVjl upon the measure of $+jb ; whereas *Vjb upon 
the measure of ^jf , as 

ifear «p: fe/ wo* these say, This man «wp£, when he 
wept, for grief and rage is not a dial* var., but a con- 

traction of sVito [174} by elision of the t of to and conr 

version of the [1st] Hamza of i^l into y fR). The 
dem. in II. 1. [599] is made mase., though the demoit- 

strated is a fern., vid. the H)y* chapter, because ^£#1 

• i ' 

is (1) its enuncyin which case, i-Xto having the same 

76 



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( 666 ) 

$ • A 

meaning and denominate as s—£S$S , the gender of the 
former may be made to accord with that of the latter, 

• £p A • • A/ 

as in \M o^tf j* [182, 449]: (2) its ep., TAo/ scrip- 

St* 

ture, in which case only c^KXJf is plainly demonstrated 
by it, since by the dem. is demonstrated the [n. of) genus 
occurring as its ep.: you say S& J** m**"^' ^^ **** 

^ A £,-d x I i ' ' 

or j jaaaAJ f l-CIo Hind, that human being, or that person, 
did such a thing, and [An Nabigha] adh Dhubyanl says 

£/ • xA A*^ y, *A* * Aw* 

5^ ,A^ • y- *A*/> *A/ 

^1311 w^uif ^IJJ u*,* ijiu 

[/ Aove fcen to/rf /Aa* AVm (the beloved; t* blaming 
the desertion : God send down rain to, and keep, that 
blaming, upbraiding (person)! (N)]. And 1J [115] 

may be prefixed to ud3 io uXto ^ ^ty: jj # 63 

' ' • » 

Middle-aged between those two because uXJo is i n tw 

x * 

things [172], since it occurs as a dem, of the j>/* and 

A ' 

£> mentioned [149], being allowable as a dem. of two 
ferns., though it is sing, masc, as being a paraphrase of 
fo U or f*S3 U for the sake of abridgment. And the 
pron. is sometimes treated like the dem. in this respect: 
AU says, I said to Ru'ba about his saying ±i\ yJaL tgp 



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( 567 ) 

[161] "If thou mean the )*j*** , say l&$ , and, if the 
o1j- and £>, say, U^tf""; and he said, "I meant ^ 
Jfte " (K). The dents, [except JZ and ^C (Sh)] are 

uninfl. (IY, R, Sh), upon quiescence, like f3 and ^3 ; 
Fath, like fJ [175], as ji^lM fJ UAIjf^ XXVI. 64. 
^nd We mode <Ae otfAer* draw wear JAere; Kasr, 
like /V^D ; and Damm, like iH s *p> , which Ktb relates 

that some of the Arabs say (Sh) : (1) according to most 
(R), because they imply the sense of the p. (IY, R), 
vid. demonstration : for, this being a meaning, like interro- 
gation, a p. ought to be constituted to indicate it [159], 
because their custom current in the case of every meaning 
introduced into the sentence or into words after their 
formation is that a p. should be constituted to indicate 

$Ax $ *t h , 

it, like the \ps. of] interrogation in *t) i^t^l and J.JD 
s_,$*b *4;> negation in ^^ s^y* U, tew^ £ope, 
beginning, ending, premonition, comparison, etc., for 

• Ay 5// * • • 

which c^a* , J*J , ^m , ^JS , U> , the 4-5 , etc, are con- 
stituted ; or that what follows the course of the p. in 
needing something else should be constituted to denote 
it, like the inflection indicative of the various meanings 
the * of relation, and the alteration of the formation 

alone, as in &;* and lJ^ and iyf and y~$ , or with 
the addition of a letter, as in the dim. and some broken 



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( 568 ) 
pis. : and, since demonstration is a meaning introduced 

3 PZ 9 //A 9 9 M#rfd • I 

into words like J*)M and j-yiM in Ja.yf tiia> This 

man and ^*;*M i-£'3 7%«< horse, and no />. has been 
constituted to indicate it, the dems. become like impliers 
of the sense of the p. (R): (2) as some say, because 
the dem. resembles the pron. : for you demonstrate by 
the former what is in your presence so long as it remains 
present, and, when it is absent, that n. quits it, whereas 
[explicit] ns. are so constituted as to be inseparable from 
their denominates ; and, since this n. is separable from 
what it is constituted for, it becomes like the pron., which, 
being used as a n. when an explicit n. precedes [160], 
and not having been a n. for it before that, is a n. for the 
denominate in one state, and not in another : so that, since 
the pron. must be uninfl. [161], the vague [262] must 
likewise be uninfl. (IY): (3) as is said, because the consti- 

4 • • 

tution of some dems. } as 13 , G , ^3 , and J , is [6t7.,] 

like that of ps. ; while the remainder, as sVy\ and lty , 

are made to accord with them; (4) as is said, because 
they need the context that removes their vagueness, vid. 
either sensible demonstration or qualification [148], as 

J^jM tii«> This man, as the p. needs something else 
[497]. The majority say that the du. is uninfl., because 
the cause of uninflectedness exists in it, as in the sing. 
and pi ; and that ^13 is a coined form, not constructed 
upon a sing., ^13 being a form for the nam., and ^3 



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( 569 ) 

for the ace. and gen.: but some say that it is infl. f 
because its termination varies with the variation of the 
ops., while the assertion that each of them is a fresh 
form is contrary to the apparent [case]. And the dispute 

• 25 • A /«/ y 

on ^'kitfl and ^tiAH [176) is the same as on ^to and 

A • y y 

^o (R). The dems. ^3 and ^Jj and the conjuncts 
^jloiil and .Ullf are like the du., i. e. are infl. with the 
f in the nom. and with the g preceded by Fath in the 

• AS y sSw • 

ace. and gwi. [16], like ^to^yi and ^U^^f : but are 
not really dus., because the only dels, that may be 
dualized are such as are susceptible of being made indet., 

$ Ay $ A y 

like *t) and yy+e , which, when held to be common and 
indet. [12], may be dualized, for which reason you say 

yAg , /A /Ay 

^Wyf and ^'^1 , prefixing the p. of determination 
to them [13], whereas, if they retained the determina- 
tion of the quality of proper name, the p. of determina- 

tion might not be prefixed to them ; while, to and ^gJJf 

not being susceptible of being made indet. , because their 

determination is by means of demonstration and the 

y 
cow;., which are inseparable from them, that proves ^O , 

^fijilf , and the like to be quasi-du. ns., like Ufi> and 

k V#A* Ay 

UUf , not really dus n for which reason J I may not be 
prefixed to ^ , as it may not be to Lfi> and UaJI (Sb). 



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( 570 ) 

But .!,S, Ji, JS&, and JsW [176] occur in the 

three cases; and to this is attributed XX. 66. [above] 
(R). These ns. are said to be vague [262] because you 
demonstrate by them everything that is in your pre- 
sence, and sometimes there are several things in your 
presence, so that they confuse the person addressed, who 
does not know which of them you demonstrate ; and 
therefore these ns., being vague, are for that reason in- 
variably explained by the ep. upon the occasion of con- 
fusion (IY). 

§ 172. The p. [ ±S (IY, Sh, Jm)] of allocution 
[560] is affixed to them (M, IH, Sh), to give warning of 
the number and gender of the person addressed (Jm), as 

1^13 , [ u&!o or ] t-CJf 3 with the ^ single or double 

[173], whence uC*> - JiUb^t uGfJi XXVIII. 32. 
Then those two shall be two proof s from thy Lord, 
JciS, JfG f J^, [but not (IY)] ljOo [below], 

Jbc , UZ$ , ci^f , and J#,J (M). The u* is not 

a pron., as in uX»U£, because that would necessarily 
involve its being governed in the gen. by prothesis, which 
is not allowable, because the dems. are not pre., since 

they are invariably del. [112] (Sh). The lS of cJ0J 

[173] does not indicate the 2nd pers. [160], but only 
allocution ; so that it is a p. indicating a meaning, but 



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( 571 ) 
having absolutely no indication of the person (Sh on the 
prons.). It varies with the gender and number of the 
person addressed, as uC? ; Jt» ljCIJ^ XIX. 10. Thus 
hath thy Lord said, [XIX. 21. (561) (IY),] XII. 37. 
[561], ft, *U| fQo VI. 102. Thai it God your Lord, 
and XII. 32. [502] (M). These [ps. of allocution (Jm)] 
being five [multiplied (Jm)] into five [sorts of dem., i. e. 
the sing. masc. and fern., the du. masc. and fem. % and 
the common pi (Jm)], that [product ( Jm)] is 25, vid. 

i^'J to J\* , cXto [and l^.j (Jm)] to JCilo [and 

-tiej (Jm)], and similarly the rest (IH), i. e. t_*U and 

«~*& ; to ^/G and s ££ , uXJC and l_GuJ to JOG and 

^ijJ, and uXiJ^J and c^^l to ^j^l;! and J^y j 
while l-Oo , though given by Z [above] and MK, is said 
in the [Th and] Sihafci to be wrong (Jm). But there is 
another dial, transmitted by trustworthy authorities, 
which makes the sign of allocution sing, and pronounces 
it with Fath in every case, by giving predominance to the 

side of the sing, masc, as Ua«*j jut j^UU^ lJCJiST. II. 
137. Jnd thus have We made you a chosen people, where 

Ail// 

the analogy of the 1st dial, requires ^^; , because the 
address is to a multitude, as in the other text U %«*£> J 
jJ ^ &1M JG ^SiT XL VIII. 15. Ye shall not follow 



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( 572 ) 



us. Thus hath Oodsaid before ; and hence ^oJf l#1 k 

^ib udo ^^aii «JJf Sy^ ^f tyU! XLVII. 8-10. 

Oye that have believed, if ye help God, Be will help 
you......That is because they, not *^o , though the 

addressed is a multitude (I Y). And [thus] uXJ 3 is some- 



AM I s xyA*^ • • h* ' % 



times used in place of *flo , as %s**i»M 4 *A** ^J i-*to 
JuU IV. 30. That marrying of the handmaidens is for 
him of you that dreadeth falling into fornication and 

S 9 • A I Shi • I 

t Jyu If ^1 ^jol U03 IV, 3. That choice of one wife 
mil be nearer to the condition <Aa*ye be not unfair; just 
as the sing, is sometimes used to demonstrate two 
[things], as II. 63. [171], or more, as ft**- ^tf i-do Jf 
Ut^Xt lJC>; t)JU XVII. 40. ^// o/* /Ao*e, M« etriJ thereof 
are hateful in the sight of thy Lord, by paraphrasing 

3 A *A 

the rfw. or />/. by ;/iiJ! (R). 

§ 173. The J [599, 681] before the u* is optional, 
as u*!3 or U33 (Sh). U&3 is i^S!3 with the J added 
in it [to indicate the distance of the demonstrated, and 
pronounced with Kasr because of the concurrence of two 
quiescents (IY)]. A distinction being made between 

Jo , u£lo , and u£to (M), 13 is said to denote the near, 
u£|3 the intermediate^ and u03 the distant. [But some, 



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( 573 ) 
holding that there is no medium between the near and 
distant^ say that the dents, denuded of the J and lJ 
denote the near ; and that those conjoined with them, 
or with the cS alone, denote the distant (R).] And like 
[the masc. (IY)] L-Cto [in importing distance (Jra)] are 

[the fern. (M, R)] uOG (M, IH) from J, in which 
they elide the ^ because of its quiescence and the 
quiescence of the J after it (IY), uCLJ, uQj with 

Fatfc of the uu by elision of the f of G (R), and i_CJG 
[from C , in which they do not elide the f , as they do 
not elide it in uto (IY)], the last [3 (R)] being 

' Ml • S «f / 

rare (M, R) ; the rf«. (R) t_£fo and oO*G ; and [the 
p/. (R)] Jbty (IH) and ify [171] (R). The redup. 

' » • * mi y f 

lication of the ^ [in ^13 and ^IJ^ is a compensation 
for an elided letter, the ! of fo ; but (IY)] in u£>to 

* Mf * 

[and uCiG (R)], says Mb, is a compensation for the J 
in Jbi (IY, R) and UJC (R) : so that, when you say 
u*|J in the sing., you say tifS in the rfw. (IY); while, 
according to Mb, uOlS is the <to. of udo (M). But 
others than Mb say that the reduplication is a compensa- 

tion for the elided I of the sing. [ u*f & and i^G ] : 

77 



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( 574 ) 

and this is more likely, because they say ^toiJI and 
^UUJI with the ^ doubled as a compensation for the 
elided ^ [176] ; while, if the reduplication were a com- 
pensation for the J , ^^ with to [174] would not be 
said, as uXJoto is not said i so that, according to others 
than Mb and his followers, the distant and intermediate 
have one expression in the du. (R). The J must be 
omitted in (1) the <fem. of the du., as lXM3 and uXiC j 
(2) the dem. of the pi in the dial, of those who prolong it, as 
ljCJJ J ; whereas, if you abbreviate, you say lJVjI or 
ujOlfjl : (3) every tfem» preceded by the premonitory 
p., as Jfli* [174], JfCto, and JoJto (Sh). AndFr 
asserts that omission of the J in all is the dial, of 
Tamlm, who content themselves with the i*S alone to 
denote the distant and intermediate (R). 

§ 174. The premonitory [p. (IH) to (M, R)] is 
prefixed to them [552] (M, IH). One says [sing-, maw. 
(Sh)] lii^ , [the I of to being dropped in writing from 
frequency of usage, but retained* in pronunciation 
(\Y);fem. (Sh) So* (IY, Sh), tfto (IY), ^ (M),] 
Cto , and ^to , [as 



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( 575 ) 

^ •• % / A • •• • a </ • 

^^juT* £U*££) ^V^ *-«£& 

{by Ka'b alGhanawI, And ye two told me that death 
was only in the towns : then how {did my brother die 
in this place), when this is a rock and a sand-heap t 

(N),} and Jl UAxJ j^'/(149) (IY): dm. (IY, Sb) 

masc, in the nom. (Sh)] ^f^, [and in the ace. and 

gen. ^ji^to ; fern., i Q the nom. (Sh) ^tto , {and in the 

A, x ' 

ace. and gen. ^V 1 ^ (Sb)} :pl. (IY, Sh), mass, and /em. 

(Sh)] ilfifc (M, Sh) or Vjfc (M)> with prolongation [in 

• 
the tfiaJ. of the Hijazis, which is transmitted in the 

Kur'an (Sh),} or abbreviation (IY, Sh) in the dial, of the 
Banu Tamlm (Sh), and sV s Jt> [or Vjto ] with elision. 



** t**9* A*/ • Awn •• 



of the t of W> , as g\ sVf> J*i V »1=3 [171] and 

y *ZP A/ * • > ♦ A • A* • \9\ Z9 *S , 

by AlA'sha, To these, then those, did I give sandals- 
measured by sandals (IY). And [sometimes the p. of 

allocution is with them, as (IY)] Jhl», [ JfCci (IY),] 

JoJto (M), «-ilil» , JaiJ , [and U&lp or cilf j* } 

(IY). The Ut> is not part of the dem., but only a p. put to 
call the attention of the person addressed to the demons- 
trated, as is proved by its ellipse, allowably in f 3 and 



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( 57e > 

l^Io, and necessarily in U03 [173] (Sh). One ex- 

r i 
planation of XX. 66. [16, 171] is that, when IJft is 

*\ 
dualized, two f s, the f of f ift and the \ of dualization, 

are combined, so that one of them must be elided, 
because of the concurrence of two quiescents ; and there- 
fore those who assume the elided to be the \ of loft, 
and the remaining one to be the J of dualization, convert 
the latter into g in the ace. and gen. [16]; but those 
who assume the converse do not alter the f [171] (Sh 
on inflection). 

§ 175. And hence their saying, when they demon- 
strate the near place, lift ; and, when the distant, lift , 

Si 

for which [ lift , with (IY)] Kasr [of the 8 , a vicious 

MIS 

and rare dial. var. (IY),] has been transmitted, and £ 
(M) : these ns. also being dents., like f Jft and > V jft t 
except that by these n$. only that place which is present, 
and by those everything, is demonstrated. And Dhu-r 

Kumma says 

S *h* shits**/ **' Z i* ' ' ' G *' *£ A / 53 •/ 5* • 

*+**> J^h jSuaJf c^f3 * l# •«! lift -.. lift, lift 

\' " y " % ., ' ' ' » a 

[There (an arftf. to J^; * n tk e preceding saying >»U 
i^: tiit^f ^J tW'i 2TA* JiVrn Aave a£ night on our 

' ' ' ' A 

sides a clamouring), and there, and here ( ^ being red.) 
or there: they (the Jfww) Aai?e ora /Aero (the sufes), on the 



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( 577 ) 

left hands and an the right hands a muttering, with 
Fath of the 8 in all three, or, as is said, with Fath of the 
8 in the 1st, Easr in the 2nd, and Damm in the 3rd, 
and (FA)] with reduplication [of the ^ in all three 
(FA)] ; but, as for the saying of the Eajiz 



Ax A# A A s ss A • 

* * 3 A • • * y A 

Ay/ • m/P h* A 



[ TViey (the camels) have come to water from many places, 

from here and from here : if I quench not their thirst, 

** 
what (am I to do)? (AAz)], he means li£>, and substi- 



*s 



tutes a 8 for the J [181, 690] (IY). lia is invariably 
an adv., either in the ace. or governed in the gen, 

by j* or ^J\ only (R). £ is a n. whereby distant 
place is demonstrated, as XXVI. 64. [171] : and it 
[also] is an aplastic [64] adv. [of place, i. e. is not 
used except as an adv., nor governed in the ge?i. except 

A 

by ** (DM)] ; for which reason be that parses it as 

• A^X • hi* m* y htf • • 

[direct (DM)] obj. of is^l; in c^of; £ c^f^ fifj 
LXXVI. 20. And, when thou seest there, thou shalt see 
makes a blunder, [ i&Htlj having no obj. expressed or 

supplied, in order that it may be genera), and J bemg 
in the position of the ace. as an adv., i. e. in Paradise 
(K)] : and it is not preceded by the premonitory p. [552], 



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( 578 ) 

nor followed' by the lJ of allocution [560] (ML). The 
i-S [of allocation (M)] is affixed, [and the premonitory 

p. is prefixed (M),] to [ U* and (M)] Ufc (M, R), as 

xJXtib , U&UD , and UftUb , e. g. ^y±& UU£>t2> tif V. 27. 
Verily we stop here (IY}j but not to J, the saying 
t-X*5 being wrong (R) : and [they put the J , so thafc 
(IY)] Ud6jb [599, 681] is said, as uCJo [173] is said 
(M), e. g. XVIII. 42. [75] (IY). Ufc denotes the near, 
lJUS) the intermediate, and uXJUft the distant : white 

SS/ Si/ ui / • * 

J, Ufi), and UJ*, like u-dUa> , denote the distant. 
But sometimes time is meant by c-$Uft , u£fU£> , and 

Cx ' A Ml • 



Ua> , as XVIII. 42. [75], i. e, &**- Then, and o 

g\ } \y [109], i. e. «-**• yji*- ^j «o*e« ('*« longing 

was) not at a time that etc, US> being an adv. of time, 
because of its prefixion to the prop. [124] (R). IHsh, 
however, says that the dem. is not pre. (SM>; and the best 

• • fix 

is the saying of F that &V is inop., [the adv.] Vxte a 

prepos. enunc, and ia^ia- a postpos. inch, by subaudition 

of J, as in [ J^lt ^ «jy ^ XXX. 23. And 

.among His signs is (that) He showeth you the lightning 

Hi As .PA*" i<A/ '• A *' 

and (SM)] ^J^»> fr-^ [2, 418. A.] (ML), i. e. j-*»; 
Vjb ^i*Jf , i. e. u^yi lo* ^ U*lf (DM). 



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THE OONJUNOTS. 



§. 176. They are (1) [ ^JJf and JW and their du. 

and pi. (IY),] (a) sing., masc. ^JJf , [used for the 
rational and irrational (I Y, Sh), as XXXIX. 34. (178) 
and &y**f f^ ^1 f£*j* f*i* XXI. 103. This is 
your day, which ye used to be promised (Sh)] ;fem. Jtff 

• 

[used for the rational and irrational, as LVIII. 1. (575) 

53««0 S /A A • A J> £ • x 3 ^ • .P<*// ui *o S S , , 

and ^1 f^XLo ^ ^V^ U ^UM ^ it$a«Jf J^Sju* 






t$£k ly^ II. 136. The foolish of the people continually 
(578) say, What hath turned them away from their 
Kibla that they were determined upon? (Sh) : (a) some- 

times the 3 of ^oJI {and ^1 (IY, R, Sh)} is (a) 

III III/ ^ Of **• 

doubled (M, R, Sh), as ^oJf and ^1 (IY, R), the two 

' it ' 
Words being then infl. {like ^ according to Jz, (R)}, 

or uninfl. upon Easr (R, Sh) according to some, as 

^vili Iff L^liif ^1, * JU> &J*G JUI ~aI, 
' ' ' £ * * ' 

Mw/ /A# /Af /A// s*»ssA^ #// 

-4wtf wealth is not {then know thou it) wealth, even if 
it enrich thee, except for him that obtains by it eminence, 
and devotes it to the nearest of his kindred and to the 
friend (R); (£) elided, the preceding letter being then 



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( 580 ) 
pronounced with Kasr, {as it was before the elision 
(Sh),} or quiescent (IY, R, Sh), as 

J3^ -Sim fPAo is such that, if He willed, I should be a 
rock or a mountain solid, high, 

4 h^OS fthfi */' hit*** * hMfOS ***/'* 

fjjia^G hi) ^y ^ tf * '^ •SJLif j> ^yc V ; 

-4fttf Je sure thou be not of them that have been out* 
witted, like him that has dug a pitfall, and been caught 
in it himself, and 

^a^aI u oft v ia>iy # lS ~£; ^ uuyc ^jj jsj 

Tfott *ay tfAow to Aer //ia/ blames thee, Verily my soul, 
1 know it charms not with amulets (E): (b) the ! and 

J in ^JJI and ^M and their dw. and pi. are, accord- 

ing to critical judges, red. (599), what is intended by 
them being the form of determination, not its sense, as 
is proved by two matters, (a) that the I and J in the 
conjuncts are an inseparable addition; whereas tbe J 
of determination is not known by us to occur insepar- 

ably, but on the contrary may be dropped, as ^UiJf and 

Jte ; while we do not find them say JJ , as they say 

*H* : (/?) that we find many of the conjunct ns. to be 

denuded of the 1 and J , but, notwithstanding that, to 

A • • it 

be det, vid. ^ , U 9 and ^1 , their determinateness 

being only by means of the conjs. after them ; and, when 



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( 581 ) 

it is established that the conj. is determinative, the f 
and J in such conjuncts as they are prefixed to are not 
determinative also, because the n. does not become det. 
for two different reasons : (c) the f and J are added for 

a sort of rectification of the form, because ^JJf and 

such of its sisters as contain a J are introduced only as 
connectives to the qualification oidets. by props. (178) : 
for props, are indet. (144), and the indet is not an ep. 
of the det. (146); while it is impossible to prefix the J 
of determination to the prop., because this J is one of 
the peculiarities of ns. (2), whereas the prop, is not pecu- 
liar to ns. } but is nominal and verbal: so that they then 

put ^oJf , and make the prop, a conj. to ^oJf , which 
is the ep. in form, though the object is the prop.; and 
the form of ^ciM before the prefixion of the f and J 
not being in accordance with the form of the eps. of 
dets., they add at its beginning the f and J , in order 
that they may thereby obtain the form of the det., which 
they intend, and thus the form and sense may corres- 
pond (IY)]: (b) du. } masc, [in the nom. (IY, IA, Sh)] 

^Jilfl , [and in the ace. and gen. ^wiJJf (IY, IA, Sh)]; 

fern., [in the nom. (IY, IA, Sh)] JJSi\ , [and in the 

A/J3 / 

acc. mdgen. ^jxXUf (IY, IA, Sh): the ^ being elided 
in the du. (IY, R, IA); and replaced by the f in the 

nom. y and by the ^ in the acc. and gen. (IA)]: (a) 

78 



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( 582 ) 

sometime the . is (a) doubled, [as a compensation for 
the elided ^ (173) (R, IA), as in the reading {of Ibn 

Kathir (IY)} J3U l^UJte J&H) IV. 20 4nd *Ae two 

of you that shall commit it (IY, I A) and the reading 
^JJJ f Ujl U^ XLL 29. Owr Lord, show Thou us the 
two that ; and this reduplication is allowable in the du. 

/ • Ul / tlf ' MlA S 

of the dems. 13 and G also, as ^£ , ^C , ^3 , and 
vJ , being intended as a compensation for the elided 
| (IA): (£) elided (R, Sh), because the conjunct is 

h/3 *t 

deemed too long by reason of its conj. y as i^df^tS 
£lf (178) and 

3 * 33/ 4 A * ' S 3 s h*/*h;,C t *,3 

{by AlAkhtal, TAey ftuo arc tfftose /wo women who are 
such that, i/* Tamim had given them 6t°r/A, it would 
have been said, Theirs is genuine glory I (Jsh)}: (b) the 
dus. are infl. or uninfl., according to the different 

opinions on ^ and ^G (171); and ^ItiMf and ^UUf 
occur in the three cases in some unchaste dials.; but, 
when they vary, it is better to say that they are infl. (R)] : 

• 23/ 

(c) pi., masc. j>jM , [for the rational (E, IA), in the 
three cases (IT, R, IA, Sh)]; and [in some dials. (M)] 
^SW [in the nom. (I Y, R, IA, Sh), the dial, of Hudhail 
(R, IA), or, as some say, 'Ukail (J), whence 



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( 583 ) 
UtaU S ; U JUiuJf r ^ * L.Udf fy=u* ^JJif ^ 

(IA), by Abu Harb AlA'lam alJahill al'Ukaili, We are 
they that came in the morning on the day of AnNukhail 
(a place in Syria) for an obstinate onslaught (Jsh), 
yj^f being written with two J s, and -iJjf with one, 
because Jl , being a determinative or in the semblance 
thereof, whereas the determinative is not prefixed to the 
p. nor to the uninfls. like it, is elided in writing, contrary 
to the inft. (DM), and ^i\ in the ace. and gen. (IY, 
IA), the inflection of the pi. being, says Z, the dial, of 
those who double the ^ in the sing., which confirms 
the saying of Jz that ^oJf is infl., so that ^^ jil^ is 
<"•*£• utfi^ > and, one of the two ^ s having been 
elided, is afterwards treated like ^yis . w ha e some 
transmit ^iili in the nom. and j^JJ/f in the acc 
and gm, which is the dial, of those' who double the 
^S, and then pluralize ^olf without elision of any thing; 
and sometimes the ^ is elided from ^iDf' for allevia- 
tioD, as 

••ArO ^A • /A^ A# A 



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( 584 ) 
My people are they that at ' Uk3z made sparks fly from 
the heads of thy people, smiting with the weights, and 

from\djJ also, as J| *Ji\L 3 Si\ J \ (117, 178) 
(R)]; and J»l [or sliU (FA), i. q. jji (IY, FA), 

SSs 

a heteromorphous /?£ of ^oil (IY, R), upon the 

measure of ^^M (R) ? pronounced with abbreviation or 
prolongation (Sh), used for the rational and irrational, 
and sometimes for the pL fem.^ both matters being 
combined in 

•Ia^o , , , * A/ A / ,$^a /iJ , 
A #A^ • htO/ A 35#-o /A/ 2 * " 

(IA), by Abii Dhu'aib alHudhall, And it (relating to 
Fate in the preceding verse) consumes those heroes who 
put on coats of mail when purposing to mount upon 
those mares which thou wilt know on the day oj battle 

to be like squint-eyed kites in swiftness (J); and ^W 
in the nom., ace, and gen.; and, the ^ being elided, 
^Wf, like ^ISW, which is rare in the masc. } as 

A m* A s SA* #ȣ 

f^ 1 ^ ifj* laVi J w II. 226. jPor them that swear to 
abstain from their wives, so read by Akh (R); and /Wf 
(R, IA), by elision of the ^ (R), as 



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( 585 ) 
(IA) Then our father s, who have spread out the bosoms 
of their garments as cradjes for us, are not kinder to us 

than he (J); and mjW * n *he nom., and ^ HJf in the 
ace. and gen. (M, R), per/", pi. ois^S i. q. ^ff , as 
fj.f Jai , UM J,U , i. e . ,>» cJJf (IY)] : fern, jm , 



[upon the measure of J*G from Jtff , a quasi-pl. n., like 

J*M! and ?U\ (257) (R)]; and JW , [with Hamza 

J 5 ' 
in place of the *a> , which is frequent in the pi. of ^jXJf , 

but not in the pf. of ^Jjf (R); and J»fyft'(M, R) and 

^IjW (IY, R), as though they were pfc. of the pi. (R)] ; 

/ ^ .- ^ ^ 

and «yW! , >U/f , [ «yf JJ| , and >» Jjf (IY, R), by elision 

• • • • 

of the ^ (R, IA, Sh) in all four (R), as in LXV. 4. 
(29) (IY, Sh), which is read with or without the ^ , 

while &&a>UM vJl» JM\) IV. 19. And those who shall 
commit adultery is read among the Seven only with the 
^ , because it is lighter than ^ lWf , as being without a 
Hamza (Sh); and ^lUf (M, R), the Hamza of /U/| being 

lightened between Hamza and ^ (658), because it is 
pronounced with Kasr, as in the reading of Warsh 

• A / 2»**s A £ / 

^^i iS^^ 1.X V. 4.; and ^Ulj with a quiescent ^ 

after the f without a Hamza, as in the reading of Abi 
'Amr and Bz (610), which, says Abu 'Amr, is the dial. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 586 ) 

of Kuraish; and f^Uf, by elision of the ut> and 3 
together; and «yl>lUf , like oyUUlf , having the iv pro- 
nounced with Kasr, or infl. like «yl*l-»JI ; and ^J Iff , 

aheteromorphousj)/. of ^f also, J Vf and ^Ulf being 

common to ^JJJ and JM , except tbat J V| is better 
known in the pi of the mtuc, while JW is the reverse of 
it (R)] : (2) [common to all genders and numbers (R, IA, 

A/ 

Sh),] (a) Jf , [denoting the rational and irrational (IA), 
prefixed to the act. and pass, parts. (R, Sh), as i^UaJf 

3 3 A/AX - 

and ^jwaJl (177) (Sh), and held by Z to he a defec- 
tive form of ^JJI , etc. (178), but properly not the J of 

«JJf , because the J of ^JJI is ra*., contrary to the 
conjunct J (R)] : (b) U [180]: (c) ^ [182]: (d) 3! , 

[pre. to a det. (116), in order that it may be det. (262) 

(R), as XIX. 70. (184) (Sh), the prefixion being either 

if 
expressed or constructive : (a) ^f , when the fern, is 

meant by it, may have the 8 affixed to it, whether it be 
conjunct, interrog., or otherwise, as \a**2l ^jl cj-A** 

S3 */iS£ 

or ^^j^u! I met her of them that thou didst meet) though 
An says that femininization is anomalous in it, as it 
is in jpf {fern, of J^ (K, B on XXXI. 34.)}, *)& 



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( 587 ) 

-UJ?, and *-Uif Sy& : (6) some of the Arabs dualize and 
pluralize it also, in interrogation and elsewhere, as ^ y 
^S\'j4 Which two of them are thy two brothers? and 
Jcl£l *»^l Which of them are thy brothers?-, which 
are more anomalous than the femininization, but are 
made allowable by its plasticity in inflection (B)] : (e) the 
Ta'i yj , [denoting the rational and irrational (IA), as 

by 'Arik (M) atfTftf, (/ swear,) if thou alter not some 
of what you have done, assuredly I will have recourse to 
breaking the bone, the flesh of which I am gnawing (T), 
which in their {best known (R, IA)} dial, is invariable 
in gender and number, {as 

******* • • £ 

(IY, R), by Sinan Ibn AlFahl of the Banu Umm AlKahf 
of Tayyi, For verily the water is the water of my father 
and my grandfather, and my well, which I dug, and 

,$h* * c* 

which 1 cased (T), i. e. 1$?*- J?S (R),} and uninft. also 
(IY, R, IA), as 

• % *,'*-',* ' • ' • ^ 

(below) (IY, IA) ; while the 2nd dial., transmitted by Jz, 

has ^3 for the wiasc. and «t>l^ for the,/%iR., in the ring*., 
du., and p/.; the 3rd, also transmitted by him, has the 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 588 ) 



same as the 2nd, except that c^f^3 is said for the fern, 
pi. in the three cases ; and in the 4th, transmitted by 

IDn, it is variable, like yb i. q. c-^l^ , and infl. with 

y 

the inflection of all its variations (16) (R)] : ( f ) So 

[186] (M, R, IA, Sh). The conjuncts [except jSi\ 

,&, it ' 



(171), JM , and S S (184) (Sh)] are uninfl. (R, Sh), 
upon quiescence, like ^5 JJf , J*l\ , ^ , and U ; Fath, 



•5* 



like ^jiiJI ; Kasr, like *VjV| with prolongation, a dial. 

f*h' y £, 

i;ar. of J^S i. q. ^JJf , as 

[by Kuthayyir, God has refused to the highminded, who 
are as though they were swords whose furbishing the 
smith has done excellently one day (FA)]; and Damm, 
like «f 13 i. q. ^f in the dial, of some of Tayyi, as Fr 
relates that he heard a beggar say in the congregational 
mosque &; &Uf *£./! >aAo Z*SfSU &> SiiS Aai ; o J*aill> 
By the excellence that Ood has made you to excel with, 

Ay 

and the honor that Ood has honored you with } &f with 
Fat^t of the s-> being orig. t$ (Sh): either because 

, A^ 

some of them are constituted like ps. } vid. U , ^ , and 
the J , while the remainder are made to accord with 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 589 ) 

them for the sake of uniformity ; or because they need a 

conj. and ret. [177] in their completeness as a part [of the 

prop.], as the p. needs something else in its quality of part 

[497]. The inflection ought to rest upon the conjunct 

[177], because it is the [word] intended by the speech, 

the conj. being put only to explain it ; and the proof is the 

it 
appearance of the inflection in the conjunct ^} , and 

/#/ •* ' 

similarly in ^**W and ^^l according to those who say 

that they are infl. [171]. And some say that the conj. 
is infl. with the inflection of the conjunct, because they 
believe it to be the ep. of the conjunct, by reason of its 
explaining the latter, like the props, occurring as eps. of 
indets. [1, 144] : but this of no account, because the con- 
juncts are dets. [262] by common consent, and props, do- 
not occur as eps. of dets. j and the majority hold that the 
cvnj. has no place in inflection [1], since it is not replace- 
able by the single term, like [the prop, that occurs in 
the place of] the ep. 9 emmc., d. s. } and post, [n.] (R). 
It has reached me that one grammarian used to instruct 
his pupils to say that the conjunct and its conj. were ii* 
such and such a position, arguing that they were like> 
one word ; but the truth is what I have premised, [vicL 
that the conj. has no place, and the conjunct has a place,, 
but that their aggregate is not said to have, or not to have 
a place (DM),] as is proved by the appearance of the 
inflection in the conjunct itself, as in XLI. 2& [above],. 

the reading *Z\ {&J XIX. 70. [184] and version JL*» 

79 



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( 599 ) 

& t&J J* [184], the saying of the Ta'I [poet (DM), 
Manzftr Ibn Suhaim (T, DM) alFak'asI (DM),] 

[And y if wealthy nobles (be repaired to, if) 1 come to them, 
my sufficiency of what is with them is what suffices 



#*» • $m*& 9 A • 



me ( T )L & ««**" cJ 3 ^ [ above L and the sa y in g °* tbe 

Hudhaili 

S S AS / • 53^ Ay tff, ^>ArO 5/ s '***#* ** 

^>u*. J*, ^b^uJi , r , * ^ jai i/i ^w ,» 

(ML) 27icy are those who loosed the yoke from off me in 

Marv AshShahijan ; and they are my strength ( Jsh). 

The conjuncts are vague [262], because they are appli- 

• i 

cable to every thing, animate, inanimate, etc.; as SSto , 
>y£a>, and the like dems. [175] are applicable to every 

thing (IY). 

§. 177. The conjunct is what does not become com- 
plete as a part [of the prop. (R), i. e. inch., enunc, ag. 
(R, Jin), obj., etc. (Jm),] except by means of a conj. 

and reL [176]. Its conj. [except the conj. of J| (R)] 
is an enunciatory prop. ; [but the place of the prop, is 
sometimes supplied by an adv. or prep* meant to be 
understood as accompanied by a v. and ag. y the latter of 
which is the reL or the belonging of the rel. (R), as 

Ja*J| ^ g&\ c^il^ or &*IU ^ ta «J| ^l* / saw him 

that, or wfose manservant, was on the flat roof (MAR)]: 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 591 ) 
and the rel. is a pron. [in the conj. (R)] belonging 
to the conjunct (IH); but the place of the rel. is some- 
times, though rarely, supplied by the explicit n. (R). 
The conj. is one of four things, (1) the 0. and ag., as 

J* j$ol I ^sl^ He that stood came to me: (2) the inch. 
and enunc. } in which case you may put the ret. with (a) 

the inch, alone, as J>$ 8j?l ^JJ I ^s^ He whose Jather 

III/ 

is standing came to me; (b) the enunc. alone, as ^JJf 
&i) &*)ii <*Jy±\ He that thy brother is the manservant 

§ h, * fit » S9 Cf 

of is Zaid; (c) both of them, as ^3 *J^ *#' S^ 
He whose father is his brother is Zaid : (3) the prot 
and apod., in which case you may put the rel. in (a) the 

1st prop., as jj** ljGO £>£ J ^JJI ^^ He that is 
such that, t/ /Aoe/ cowe to Aim, '^mr tt,i7/ com^ to thee, 

A A* A 53^0 ,*», 

came to me; (b) the 2nd prop., as f jC ^1 ^JJf ^/U. 

• A S A • *A /■ ' £ • ' 

i>J£~l Soj,) He that, if thou honor Zaid, will thank 



thee, came to me ; (c) both of them, as ^1 ^gJJ I ^^ 

• A • A A » fihfi, % ' 

u&J! ^y** 33 ^ 8 ;^ #« <Aa/, */" thou visit him, will do good 
to thee, came to me, the 1st rel. being the ace. 8 in Xyf > 

A A S 

and the 2nd the nom. pron. in ^"^i •* (4) the adv. or 

0A/ • / A Si x 

prep, and gen., as j^} «^fc3JU ^JJ f /Je /Aa£ & with thee 
is Zaid and aJU. jl^S I J * JJf -He that is in the house 



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( 592 ) 
m KhSlid, in which case the adv. [or prep, and gen.] 
depends upon a suppressed v., as >iw| , JJ, and the 
like, not upon an ac*. port., because the conj. is not a 
single term, but only a prop. [67,498] (IY). The conj. 
must be an enunciatory prop., because the purport of the 
conj. must be a predicament whose occurrence is known 
to the person addressed before the state of address [178 J, 
whereas the purport of the originative and requisitive 
props, is not known except after the expression of their 
formulas ; while the saying of the poet 

[^wrf twr% J am Aoping- /or one foofr a* Aer Ma*, (7*ay,) 
jwrAqw 7, eem i/ Aer destination be far, shall visit, 

* 3 si w ,s 

where tt> ;; jl ^Ul i 8 an originative prop. (Jsh),] is like 

<*" J^ »rf «* [144], i. e. tt^f JJ j^ ^ ; but 
the juratory prop, sometimes occurs as a con/, as IV. 
74. [149], i.e. J^im/Ji. and IKh allows the 
admirative to occur as a conj. without subaudition of 
saying,** *i^| U 3 ji\ j,^ , while IBdh ^ the wgt 
of the moderns disallow it, which is the right view, 
because it is originative (R). The prop, that m. are 
conjoined with needs a cop., which is (1) mostly a pron., 

' S AS , z, 

(a) mentioned, as ^fr ^Jj, IL 2 Who ^^ 
XXXVI. 35. [63], XLIII. 71. [498], [where Nsfi<, Ibn 



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( 593 ) 

• A • 

•Amir and Hafs read &a#^J (B, DM) according to the 
o.f (B), and the rest of the Seven ^&& (DM),] and 
IL ^fa'C* J*k XXIII. 34. 35. He eateth of what 
ye eat of; (b) supplied, as XIX. 70. [184], ssA+* Uj 

A lit ' 

{%>.±jj XXXVI. 35. [in the reading of the KK (K, B) 
except Hafs (B)], XLIII. 71., and XXIII. 35. [507], 
suppression from the conj. being of stronger authority 
than from the ep. } and from the ep. than from the enunc. 
[63, 138] : (2) sometimes an explicit n., as 

A/ W9 • A i sh* Z s , s 

* ' ' • 

Sshf A*^ xA* Z*o , nt* 

[by the Majnfin of Laili al'Amiriya, Then, O Lord of 
Laildj Thou art in evert/ place; and Thou art He Whose 
mercy I long for (Jsh)], which is rare, constructively, 

/ A / 

say they, &+*.) ^ , though they might construe it to 



00 

* K 





/A// / /A/Al g^o • a£/ 



be lXU*>) ^ , like 

/A// 

[^ntf Mow ar/ A« that disappointed me of what thou pro* 
misedst me (Jsh)]; and, according to this, the saying of 
Z that in VI. 1. [540] the coupling by J may be to the 

/ ( 25 f° 000 

verbal prop. [ c^l^-Jf Jte. (K)] is weak, because it in- 
volves the text's being an instance of this rare [con- 



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( 594 ) 

struction]. the o. f. being &>, since the coupled to the 
conj. % being a conj., must have a cop. (ML). When the 
conjunct or its qualified is an enunc. to a 1st pers., the 
rel. may be of the 3rd pers., which is more frequent, 

because explicit ns. are all of the 3rd pers., as ^giii I Uf 

fii/ J6 ; or of the 1st pers. by syllepsis, as says 'All 

[/am Ae tfAa/ wy mother named Haidar (with the * 
of silence for pause), a lion of thickets, and a mighty 
lion! (Jsh))]: and similarly when the conjunct or its 

qualified is an enunc. to a 2nd per*., as ^gviM J4;M uuJf 

•••• • • • A.# 

lo>" J15 , which is more frequent, or f JX ctJS by syllepsis. 
All of this is when it does not denote comparison, with 
which only the 3rd per*, is allowable, as eJil Jb* '\S\ 
# <aaJ| ^>&>y lam (like) Hstim, who gave hundreds, i. e. 

• SA 

Jl^ j£# : and, if there be two prons., you may, except 
in comparison, make one of them accord with the letter, 

• • • • • • .# A.P S«^ /$ 

and the other with the sense, as v/*J ^ ^^ 3^ ^ 

* h* AS S As s S /• /• S^ .# S*^ S A* ' A 

fi^i) and !>** c^/^j (o^ JC ^tiH J-^jM ^f (R). The 
conj. of Jl is an act. or pass. part. (IH). The act. part. 

* £ s 

in wjjlaH is in the sense of the v.; and, with the [pron. 
(1Y)] governed in the nom. by it, is [constructively (IY)] 



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( 595 ) 
a prop, occurring as eonj. to the J ; while the mention 
[27] relates from it to the J , as it relates to ^JJf (M). 

The o. f. of w>;t^M and ^j^M [176] is s^yci\ and 

^^aJf ; but, disliking that the n. J , which resembles 

the p. J in letter, as is obvious, and in sense, as becom- 
ing with what it is prefixed to det., like the p. with what 
it is prefixed to, should be prefixed to the semblance of 
the v., they transform the v. into the semblance of the n. 9 
the act. v. into the semblance of the act. part, and the 
pass. v. into the semblance of the pass, part., because the 
two meanings are approximate, since the meaning of 

t^L* oj^j is ^y^ &l) or k^y&t , and that of w>jj*a* u>j^ 

is ^y* ^i) or s->y*i : and it is because this conj. is a 

t?. in the semblance of a n. that it governs when in the 
sense of the past [345] ; whereas, if it were really an act. 
or pass. part, j it would not govern when in the sense 
of the past, like the synarthrous. The inflection ought 
to be upon the conjunct [176]; but, since the n. J is in 
the semblance of the p. J , its inflection is transferred to 

its conj., as in the case of «M when it becomes i. q. y*Z. 
[90], as ^;Ua!l J si*. , v; 1 *^ c^l ; , and v; 1 ^^ **0>* 



#■ s • 



(R). J! is sometimes [anomalously (IA)] conjoined [in 
poetry (R)] with (1) the nominal prop. (R, I A, ML), as 

«»•/ / * s A /• s A#/- ASA Ji^0 * j & *o fisfi^o , 



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( 596 ) 

[I am of the people that the Apostle of Ood is of that 
the necks of the children of Ma'add have submitted them' 
selves to I (J)]: (2) the adv., [i. e., says Shm, the atU 
adv., in which the meaning of its op. resides, so that it 
becomes in the predicament of the prop. (DM),] as 

Ax/ • • ••*• h , , (\^3 ,j * , * ** * A/ 

(IA, ML) Whoso ceases not to be thankful to God for 
what is with him is worthy of a life endowed with 
plenty (J): (3) the [verbal prop, whose v. is an (ML)2 
aor. (R, IA, ML), as 

tabli fXkmiS j**?f; L$ ^aS\ J fit 

(R, ML), by Dhu -lKbirak atTuhawI (FA, Jsh), He 
speaks foul language, when the most hateful of the 
voices of the dumb brutes, when emitting sound, unto 
our Lord is the voice of the ass that is tied up (DM, 
Jsh), whence 

x • A^>/ £s5^ ' •• ' ^A^> • • 

[(2), by AlFarazdak, 7%ow or/ no/ the judge whose judg- 
ment is approved, nor the man of pure lineage, nor the 
possessor of intelligence and power of controversy, where 

A/ 

the J of the conjunct Jl may be incorporated into the- 

A/ 

up or not, contrary to the J of the p. J| (749) (J)]; 



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( 597 ) 
and this, according to the majority of the BB, is peculiar 
to poetry, while IM elsewhere asserts that it is allowable 
in a case of choice (IA). That [prefixion (DM)] is a 
proof that Jf is not a p. of determination, [because the 
determinative is prefixed only to single terms (DM)]; 
but the whole is peculiar to poetry, contrary to the 
opinion of Akh and IM on the last (ML). And the KK 
hold that the prim, substantive made det. by the J may 
be a conjunct; and say on £ty «a~&M &JV £)+*} [below] 

that it is constructively £lf rf\ ^ JJ f v&Jtf assuredly 
thou art the House that I honor etc, but that it is not 
vague like the rest of the conjunct ns. [176]. The con- 
junct and conj. are like two parts of one n.; and, priority 
beiog due to the conjunct, because the conj. is explana- 
tory of it, posteriority is necessary for the conj.: so that 
neither the conj. nor any part of it precedes the conjunct • 
nor does the conj. or what depends upon it govern what 
precedes the conjunct, because that reg. would then be 
part of the conj . ; nor does the conj. depend upon what 
precedes the conjunct, through being headed by J> , Si 
the sign of the correl. of the oath [600], or anything else 
that would have any dependence upon what precedes the 
conjunct, because the conj. is part of the conjunct, but 
not of anything else ; nor is the conjunct separated from 
the conj., nor part of the conj. from part, by an appos. 

of the conjunct, like the corrob., ep. [147], subst. } synd 

80 



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( 598 ) 

expt., and coupled, or by an enunc. of, or exe. from, the 
conjunct, since these things come only after the comple- 
tion of the word. But in poetry a conjunct occurs 
coupled to another before the c&nj. ; while what follows 
them is a conj. either to both of them together or to the 
last, the conj. of the first being in the latter case sup- 
pressed, indicated by the one expressed, as will be shown 
below in the suppressibility of the conj. upon the exist- 
ence of indication : and sometimes the conjunct is sepa- 

rated from the conj. by the reg. of the conj., as *y £*M 

c^lyi , because the separation is not by an [expression] 
extraneous to both of them ; whereas such [a separation] 
is not allowable when the conjunct is a. p. [75], so that 

is**?;** f*>i) u)' ts** 2 ?**' * s not wM, because the conjunct 
ps. [497], being infinitival ps. [571], which with the 
prop, after them are renderable by the inf. n., require 
to be near the implier of the inf. n.; and similarly in the 

Ax 

case of the conjunct Jf , since it is prefixed only to a 
v. in the semblance of an act. or pass, participial n., so 

As 

that it and what it is prefixed to are like the p. Jf and 
what it is prefixed to, which are not separated : and part 
of the conj. may be separated from part by something 
coupled to the prop, that is a conj., as you say in the cat 

of contest [22], when making the 1st govern, ^Jif 

$As ^/ /A #• /• * A/ • ' 

dj£ *JLU ^yjiyCp ss^iyh He whose menservants I beat 
(sind they beat me) was Zaid } since the separation is not 



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( 599 ) 
by an [expression] extraneous to the conj . ; and part of 
the conj. precedes part, as 8j{t $***•+ £&* i*^* 






[where the enunc. precedes the inch.,] and e«iM J^ 

5yLf f^j **->?* 1 [where the obj. precedes the ag.,] since 
there is nothing to prevent it (R). Suppression of the 
conjunct n. [other than Jf (R)] is allowed by the KK 
(R, ML) and Akh (ML), contrary to the opinion of the 
BB: the former say that XXXVII. 164. [149] means 

g\ 6i £+ Vf save (him) that hath etc ; and like it is the 
saying of AlMutanabbi 

• * A # A • •«*"» • A 

* * * * f 

* S3h* 3 f h f s * S* 

[Most evil are the nights that I have been sleepless in from 
my passion because of my longing for her that passes 
the nights sleeping through them (W), i. e. «L>jg~ Jtff 
t$4» (MAR)] ; and the saying [of Abi Dhu r afb (Mb)] 

m ,$h* m*t& ***** #• ht * A* S A/A*« • A*y A y^ 

[above] 2?# my /i/fc, assuredly thou art the House that 
I honor the people of, and that 1 sit in the shades of 
in the evenings may be an instance of this- (R): and IM 
follows them, but stipulates that it should be coupled to 

another conjunet ; and among their proofeare ^oJb IL4 



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( 600 ) 

f*ftfl j)h ^ r W XXIX - «. We believe in that 
which hath been revealed to us and {that) which hath 
been revealed to you, 

'*>- ****** ****H) * f^M &tlf J^; yp« ^f 

by Hassan [Ibn Thabit alAnsarl, Are he of you that 
satirizes the Apostle of Ood and (he) that praises him 
and helps him equal f (Jsh)], and 

[He whose habit is precaution and discretion and (he) 
that obeys his passion are not equal (Jsh)], i.e. eJJL 
JyS and &a.J*£ ^ and ^Ikf ^Jfl; (ML): nor is there 
any reason, as respects analogy, for the disallowance of 
that by the BB, since some of the letters of the word 
are sometimes suppressed, even a u» or « , as iuA 

[699] and &~ [orig. «*-. (MAR)], and the conjunct 
is not more adhesive than they (R). Suppression of th» 
conj. [of the conjunct ». other than J (R), w ha e the 
conjunct remains (DM),] is allowable, though rare (R, 
ML), when the conj. is known (R) through the indication 
of another conj., as 

?'\ '/.** ?..*" *-/» , 






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< 601 ) 

[And in him (that visited thee when sick) and those 
women that visited thee when sick there is rancour 
against thee: then let not the cunning of the female 

visitors of the sick dupe thee (Jsh)], i. e. i*JJ* &$S ; 
or of something else, [like the context (DM),] as 

•A/ h* Aw * SS# / / # 9 A / A*^/ y fh* # A / 

[by 'Abld Ibn alAbras, We are they (that have been 

renowned for valor): then muster thou thy hosts, and 

$<** • £a 
afterwards direct them towards us (J sh)], i.e. \ff ^J^S 

£*ts&£Jl# (ML) : and is invariably practised with Ulllf 

[293] followed by ^t coupled to it, when calamities 

are intended by them, in order that its suppression may 
import that the two calamities, the little and great, have 
arrived at such an inexplicable extreme of magnitude 
that they are left in their vagueuess without auy expla- 
natory conj. (R) : the poet says 

where with each ^^f , as some say, the counterpart 

A 5, 

of the cond. prop, mentioned, but, as others say, c**?j f 
because the dim. necessarily involves that, or, as others 

A / 9 y 

say, t^»*te* , because the dim. is one of magnification, 

m i / A* 9 

as in £M &*$i^ [l 17], is to be supplied, After that 
calamity (which, when souls overcome it, is overthrown, 



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( 602 ) 

or which has become little or great), and that calamity 
(which, when souls overcome it, is overthrown, or which 
has become little or great), and that calamity, which, 
when souls overcome it f is overthrown (ML). The reL 

As 

of Jf may not be suppressed, even if it be an obj. y 

A/ 

because of the obscurity of Jl 's conjunctness, the 
pron. being one of the indications of its conjunctness ; 
nor may one of two rels. when combined in the conj., as 

^5 *fo \£ **iy* &*W , since the remaining one would 
enable that suppressed one to be dispensed with, so that 
no indication of it would exist (R). The pron. [relating 
to the conjunct (IA)] may be suppressed, (1) if it be a 
nom., only when it is an inch, and its enunc. is [a singte 
term (IA),] not a prop, or [att. (IA)] adv. or prep. 
and gen. ; because, if the enunc. were one of them r the 
fact that some thing had been suppressed: would Hot be 
known, [since the prop, and adv. with the rel. in then* 
are suitable for being a conj. (R)}: the [prescribed (R)} 

inch, may be suppressed, (a) [as the BB say (R),} in the 

it 
conj. of (a) £\ , [without any other condition, as XIX» 

0*0 Au» • • 

70. and £H J^i (184), because lengthiness is realized 
in the conjunct itself by means of the prefixion (R)J 
even if the conj. be not long ; (b) something else, only 

when the conj. is long, [as ^j *M sU** if ^ gj}\ y&^ 
6Jf j* ; 1M XLIII. 84. And He is the One (that) is God 
in heaven and God in earth (498), the conj. being long 



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( 603 ) 

through the coupling to it (R)] : (b) as the KK allow, 

it 
regularly, [in the conj. of ^f or anything else, with or 

(R)] without length [of the conj. (IA)], as in the 
[anomalous (R)] reading [of Yahyk Ibn Ya'mar (K)] 
l £*" s *' iS 4 ^' \J* *"*+* ^- 15«> # To complete that (which) 
was a mo*£ goodly religion, [i. e. ^y-^l >$ : but it is 
allowed that U in u*} Ua~ V is conjunct (89), and ±t) 
the enunc. of a suppressed inch., i. e. y& ^JJ f ^ V , 
043 1 the rel. } vid. the inch, yto , being necessarily sup- 
pressed ; so that this is a place where the head of the 

conj. is necessarily suppressed with something else than 

it 

g\ , when the conj. is not long ; and it is regular, not 

anomalous (IA)]: (2) if it be an ace, provided that it 

2 3 S A/ • / m*o /«/ 

be not detached [after Iff , as Vf ss^>yi U ^SJ f .yst^ 
fcbt , while in other cases there is no disallowance, as 

U^Ula^t ooif ^±i$\ £*f° , i* e. 8bf L^ULtef, and 

$ As $ s '* *' *3 $ • 

^5 *->$** { ^ 3^ (below), 1. e. sy v^ (&)], an d 
that it be governed by the [att. (IA)] v. [or ywa/. (IA), 

Ax 

because the />ron. is then a complement (R), as ^yj 
)<>£&.« tsJfe* ^j LXXIV. 11. Leave thou Me and 
him (that) I have created alone and XXV. 43. (63), L e. 
&IaU. and &£ju , and similarly 



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( 6M ) 

#A / / A ««s % A / / # ^ Ju« * 

{by Abu-lFath, What God is vouchsafing thee is bounty: 
then do thou praise Him for it; for profit is not with 

any other than Him, nor injury (J)}, i. e. &£dy ; and 

its suppression from the v. above mentioned is frequent, 
but from the qual. is rare (I A)] : (3) if it be a gen., 
provided that it be governed by (a) prefixion [of an ep. 
constructively governing it in the ace. (R), (e. g.) of an 
act. part, in the sense of the present or future (LA), as 

o*3 V) 1 ^ U ' kS^' ( a bove), i £• ^)^ (R), whence 

*«S c*J( U jiStf XX. 75. 7%^n deer** thou thai 
(which) thou art about to decree, i. e. *ju3G (IA)]: (b) 
a [specified (R)] p., [because the prep., being unavoid- 
ably suppressed after suppression of the gen., since a 
prep, does not remain without a gen., ought to be speci- 
fied, to the end that it may not be confounded after the 

suppression with any other, as KyJo U oamJI XXV. 
61. What! shall we bow down to that (which) thou 
commandest us (to honor), i. e. *i l*/*!?, i. e. &*f/b, 

*,A, • A/ K**f " " £' 

and yy> Uj £0*6 XV. 94. 7%*n />n?acA thou openly 
that (which) thou art commanded (to make manifest), 

*,h* / A 

i. e. ** y& , i. e. *;t$ktf , and 
0* "i* 



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( 605 ) 

i S *Afi S * A* # Sf $ S m s £**s s s> * A ** 

kjf* i& {^ ' *G* U#yM * JU* ^ ^JJ f j If IgJ j-JfiJ 

77ten said / to Zw?c, / 101// not, by that (which) Hstim 
ha$ performed the pilgrimage (to), be unfaithful to 
thee in a covenant: verily I am not faithless, i. e* 

*jj| Jb* ^a* , the prep, being regularly specified (R)] 
when the conjunct [or its qualified (R, FA)] is governed 
in the gen. by a p. like it in [letter and (IA)} sense, and 
the two ops. [498] are alike [in crude-form (IA)], as 



ui*o S Ass 



<*>)7* &**** cy ; r t or ; u ^ ( IA )L *• e. *> (B, I A), 



*A 



whence XXIII. 35. [507], i. e. <UU, and 

s 
0* A S~sA / 5 ^ A# / AJ> A// 

&ajL^ >(j*~ i^^*^ 4.5*^ c^iT dJU 

# <*/ / a£ S#^ • A • • A .#/ 

[by 'Antara, -4wrf, by God, /Aow Aos^ taen hiding the 
love of Samrd a long time: then divulge thou now (orig. 

S **A 

V\ ) of the love of Aer that (which) thou art about to 

$#*/ 2*0 As * Ay/ 

chWge (J)], i. e. l> Jfo (IA), and as ^oif ^ ^ ;J * 

/ A/ • 

«*>;;* (R), whence 

h sss S*^ A^A.^ • S /"/A/ s 

' ' I 

$s /A#* sZ s Asa s * * As *msA* 

by Ka'b Ibn Zuhair, Do not thou incline to the matter 

(that) the sons of Ya'sur inclined (to) when destiny con* 

81 



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( 606 ) 

A / A /• • 

strained them> i. e. &fJ| &&) (FA); but sometimes tber 
gm. governed by a /). is suppressed, though the p. is 

§A • > A*x &/ > A// 

not specified, as j^ ^j;-* ^gvSJf , i. e. &; *&**;?* * which 

might be &a* \sj))+ or &l or the like: and in case 
(3, b) Ks holds the suppression of the prep, and gen. to 
be gradual, while S and Akh hold it to be simultaneous 
[1. »44] (BX 

§ 178. ^gviff is constituted a connective to the 
qualification of dets. by props. [170] ; but [tbe fact 
announced by] the prop, that it is conjoined with ought 
to be known to the person addressed [177], as in your 

saying Xy&sd\ *+ ^ ^uiM !ii& This man, who has 
arrived from town to him whom that [fact] has reached, 
[because the object of the conj. prop, is to determine 
the mentioned by means of that state of it which is* 
known by the person addressed, in order that it may 
afterwards be predicable of, the cony, being the con- 
trary of the attribute, which ought to be unknown to the 
person addressed, because the object of the attribute is to 
communicate to the person addressed some state of him 

that he knows ; and therefore you do not say -S ^iM s^ 
He that stood came except to him that knows his stand- 
ing, but is ignorant of his corning, because jt&» is an 

attribute and & a conj.; nor *&*** Sjfl ^^f J**f 
He whose father was departing approached except to 



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( 607 ) 

him that knows his father's departure, but is ignorant 
of his approach (IY)J. And, because of their deeming 
it too long by reason of its conj., together with frequency 
of usage, they lighten it without any [other (AAz)] 

reason, saying JIM by elision of the ^ [176], and then 

6W by elision of the vowel ; and even suppress it 
altogether, contenting themselves with the [ f and (IY)] 
J [176] in its stead : and do the like with its Jem., 

* S Aw / § A SS * SS / 2/ 

saying c^Wl [176], a^W , and jJUD &£^UaJf i. q. ^ 



$ A Sh,, , 



ojJb &Z>)*0 : and elide the ^ from its du. and pi. [176], 
as in the saying of [AlAkhJal (ID, Jsh), or, as is said 
<Jsh),] AlFarazdak 

[ O Banu Kulaib, verily my two paternal uncles were the 
two that slew the kings and loosed the yokes (Jsh)], 



<m Ay/ *»#* w» / 



iJI c^JU 3 U\ J, [117], and IX. 70. [571] like them 
that have plunged ; [though g±A may be sing., but 
indicate the pi, in which case the rel. pron., if ^fng-., is 
so from regard to the letter, and, if pi, is so by syllepsis, 
as in the case of j> (182); and similar is s\s* ^oJfj 

• Sm9K^ SS s i fi • S3 / • Aui^ ' 

.JUJf .a> ociiO &> Jj-«j Jj-aJO XXXIX. 34. ^nrf 
Ae /Aatf /m/A spoken the truth and believed it, those are 
the pious, while in Utf \/S i*>yUf S M JZS ^i. 



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( 608 ) 



* 



±)Y&& II. 16. jfifair similitude is like the similitude of 
him that hath kindled a fire, and that, when it hath 
brightened what is round him, Ood taketh away (503) 
the light of, and that He leaveth in darkness, seeing not 
the rel. pror}. is now sing, and now pi. (IY)]. 

§ 179, The range of ^JJf in the process of enun? 

ciation is wider than that of the J syn. with it, since 

eJJj is prefixed in the pase of the nominal and verbal 

props., but the J only in the case of the verbal : thus, 

$ A/ $ A/ • • $*• 

when you make an enunc. from o^j in d^j f ^ And jj^ 

$ • AS § As s s £/ $ As $ s AS s> £* 

jllaJU , you say ^ f S ^JJf and jj>3 i} 11 *** J* iS^' 

$A/ ^ *»/A/ $ A • $ /A* • **/ A* 

and a^5 pJlSJf , but not j*£; J 11 *** ^ ^)» because J* 
is not prefixed to the inch, and enunc. [177] (IY). At* 

AX 

enunc. is not made to Jl except from a n. in the verbal 

Ax 

prop, exclusively, because the conj. of Jf is an act. or 
pass, part [177], which with its nom. c$n be moulded 
from the verbal prop., when the v. is act. or pass, respect-? 
ively, sincp the sense of the act. or pqss. part, is akin to 

y •• <#sA/ y # S ,h* $A/ 

the sense of J*5 and J**t or J,»> and J**t , as d*j) 

^U , i. e. iy;^ pr vr^ > an( i *r>;r** °*3 > *• e - v/* 

* f * , AM < < 

pr VJ"** > whereas an ac£ ox pass. part, with its nom. is 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 609 ) 

l^ot in the sense of the nominal prop., so that one of them 
with the nom. should be moulded from it. In such as 

^Wyf v; u * and c>W V;>^ u t 2 ^] indeed they 
with their notns. are nominal [props.]; but here they are 
preceded by two ps. that prevent their occurrence as conjs* 

of the J , as will be shown immediately. The v. that the 

a/ 
con}, of Jf is moulded from must be plastic, since the 

act or pass. part, does not come from the aplastic, like 

sA .'A • S3 s s s /A/ 

f** ' cT& » '***■ » lS~* * an d J~6* ; and must not be 
preceded by a />, whose meaning is not imported from 

' A/ 

the act. or pass, part., like the ^ , ui-«* , 7^. p., and 
interrog. p. (R). This process has been instituted by 
the GG for the [examination and (IA)] exercise of tho 
gtudent (R, IA) in the questions that he has learnt in 
gome of the cats, of syntax (R). Enunciation from every 
n. in a [complete enunciatory (IY)] prop, is permissible, 
[because these props, occur as conjs. (177) and eps. (144) 
(IY),] except when some preventive [mentioned below 
(IY)] prevents [it (IY)]. The method of enunciation is 

us As 

to put tbe conjunct [ ^gJJl or Jf (IY)] at the begin- 
ning of the prop, [in the position of an inch. (IY)], and 
relegate the n. [that you mean to make an enunc. from 
(IY)] to its end, [making it an enunc. to the conjunct, 
#nd (IY)] putting in its place a pron. relating to the 

conjunct: e. g., in making an enunc. (1) from ^>\ and 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 610 ) 

4 / A* § * A S 4 h* ^ A/ ^ / A # / # 23/ 

•niaJU in jlki* *i) , you say *±>) $**** J* £^ an( * 

§ / A* '<* $ A/ S/ ' ' *'* " 

•lUaJU Jb oe3 ^J ; (2) from ofei. in 4>«^ r iu f l> , 

§ • ^^/j • • S3/ § * ss ,* ****** 

{you say (IY)] oJUS* &-U* f G ^JJI or *fti. fefe JGJf • 

*A/ •* A „ 

(3) from ycur [pro- (IY)] rc. [and fjjj (IY)] in c&^;^d 

f h/ *% * A • • • / 23' * A/ J {5 • 

1^3 > [you ^y ( IY )3 u ' ,a *3 vr* .s^' or ,i **3 v^' 

,£ $ A/ J*A/ y 25/ § A/ •* J^ 2 • 

MS [and *>*) &*>>-* ^l or *i' } U| &>;UaJ| (IY)]; (4) 

j ,•& $A/ $ A/ Sfh/^P/vi^S , 

from vV^i and **e} in ±{j c^i** v bai! ^u , [you 
say (IY)] ZJiS\ 1*4} 4-^2 ^ 3^' t 27 > 538 > 54 °] 

.P /5^ $ A/ * / A// *#« 2 • -P * S> 

' or ^.M o>5 w~~i» ^tlaJJ [418. A.], and ^ 3 JJf 

ix>\ u^*^ v-^oJf , [where ^<&tf coupled to ja>£ 
^•biSJI contains a mention relating to the inch, and con- 
junct oJJI , while the lJ binds the two props, together, 
and makes them like one prop., because it produces in 
them the sense of condition, i. e. v-^wiJ I ^L> ^f ^JJf 

f As A ' A ' * 

*i) «-****** & e t^ti if ^ ie fly fl* es > <> ecomes an s r y is 

Zaid, so that the relation of the pron. to the conjunct 

from one of them suffices (IY),] or u^^a*** ^oi\ >5tLaJf 

- * s 

$ A S -P * & 

oi's (M), where ^JJ| is governed in the nom. by [the 

* <*» £ s 

nc£. par/, in] jSUalf , which does not contain a mention, 
because it governs an explicit n. in the nom., while 



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( 611 ) 

# /A/ 



>**>i coupled to it contains a mention relating to the 
conjunct, and completes the conj. (IY). The conjunct 
must agree in number and gender with the n. made an 
enunc. to it j so that, when told to make an enunc. from 

A /A 3 • A* * A A /A*^ J A// ,p A/ • 

^i^» i^yi> and U^> hi jjtSjS *~iy*, >*~iy* 
^i;*!, and t*Mfc m^^ , y OU say U^^ .IJJJf 

iJ*iyi> u))^^ f&r* Jj&t and *ia> 1^*3 Xii. 
If the qual. occurring as conj. of J! govern a prow, in 

A^ 

the worn., the prow., if it relate to Jl , is latent; but if it 
relate to something else, is detached : so that, when you say 

?* • /A/ h/o / Ax AS^ / .P AS/ 

* ,u ; cjir* 1 J lS 1 ' c^^V ' uT ^^ » if yo« make an 
enunc. from the c^ in eu*ib , you say ^j^U f *-• M*+Jf 
li| SSlmy Ati.)+*l I ^ He that conveyed a message from 
the tvbo Zaids to the 'Amrs was /, a pron. relating to J( 

"J"' - ™ . * 'AS 

being in £*JI ; but, if you make an enunc. from vJ^Vf , 

you say J+ijS &/U ; ^*M ^Jf L^IJI AUJ, 7^ 

' ' * • • 

two that I conveyed a message from to the 'Amrs were the 

two Zaids, Uf being governed in the nom. by £UJf , but 
not relating to Jf , because what is meant by Jf here 
is a du. } vid. the n. that the ^«wc, is made from ; and, 
it you make an eww/ic. from ^.j+sJf , you say Uf AUJf 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( eia ) 

> P S/hfO *, j A A/ A • A £^ • 



message to from the two Zaids were the % Amrs ; and 
similarly when you make an enunc. from &il—y , because 

what is meant by Jf here is the message, whereas what 
is meant by the pron. that the cony governs in the nom. 

A • A£/*» • /$ • J visSh* 

is the speaker, so that you say ^ji^y I ^* W t$*l*-Jf 

$ • / • A^A^ / 

**^ ^J*!*** ' c5*' ^ a * which I conveyed from the two 
Zaids to the 'Amrs was a message. The n. that an 
enunc. is made from must be (1) susceptible of ^post- 
ponement, so that an enunc. is not made from what takes 
the head of the sentence, like the cond. and interrog. 

A/ • 

ns., as *+ and U j ^b) determination, so that an enunc. 
is not made from the d. s. and sp.x (2) replaceable by (a) 
an extraneous [word], so that an enunc. is not made from 
the pronominal cop. of the prop, occurring as an enunc., 

like the S in &iy* i*ij [below] : (b) a pron., so that an 
enunc. is not made from the qualified without its ep., nor 
from the pre. without the post, as from H*) alonte in 

* /*J/.*A//' ••# AS/sJ .#A • • 

li^b Jt^ % \2*+>y0 , or JU alone in J**} f&* ss^iyi , because, 
if you did make an enunc. from it, you would put a 
|>ron. in its place, whereas the pron. is not qualified 
[147] nor jpre. [112] : but you may make an enunc. 
from the qualified together with its ep., or from the pre. 
together with the post n because this objection does not 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 613 ) 

exist, as Uttfl* J^ 6x>y& ^giiJf or jj j ^lte (IA). Enuu- 
ciation is disallowed in the case of (1) the pron. of the 
case [167], because it is entitled to the 1st place in the 
sentence, [does not relate to an explicit n., and is 
expounded only by the prop, after it ; whereas, if you 
made it an enunc., it would become posterior, would relate 
to the conjunct before it, and would not be expounded 

by a prop. (IY)] : (2) the pron. in J 1 **** in jUaJU a*) 
[26], the 8 in &>yb a*j [27], or [the 8 in (IY)] *** 
in ffryA* *JU j'yU ^*«Jf [25, 27], because, if it [were 
replaced by a pron. that (IY)] related to the conjunct, 
the inch. [ J^j or ^y**^ (IY)] would remain without 

*«*• h* As 

a re/.: (3) the in/. ». or rf. s. in such as UtS f^j ^^3 



A / * *»• *A/ • S 



[29], because, (a) if you said jtyi UiG f j*j jto ^JJf , 



• * * «*/ * A* 



you would make the prow. [ jto (IY)] govern [ US f jj>j 
in the occ, whereas the inf. n. 9 when expressed by a 

* h* % * * A/ fi* 

pron., does not govern, so that y&j ^y**^ <*4}? JS))/* 

s '- A ' ' ' ' 

£&* )****• * s not allowable, because the tn/I ». governs 

only through the letters of the v. contained in it, and 

through its being renderable by ^f and the v., while 
after the metonymy the letters of the v. quit it, and it is 

A* 

not renderable by ^f and the v. (IY)] j (b) if you said 

82 



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( 6W ) 

JG Sbl fa*) ^^3 «>Jf , you would express the d. s. by 
a pron., whereas only what may be made det. [78] may 
be expressed by a pron. [262] (M). 

* 
§ 180- U is (1) a det, (a) incomplete [44], which 

is the conjunct, as XVI. 98. [2]: (b) complete [520], 

*h m * 

(a) general, i. e. renderable by s^Zl) , which is the one 
that is not preceded by a n. whereof it and its op. are 

• * A 5 0* *h *• 

an ep. in sense, as II. 273. [419], i. e. Jb s Jtt\ f*li 

* • 

* 

most excellent will be the thing, they I, [where ^Jb (DM),] 

• 9** /A 

orig. to^vJ Me display of them/, because the discourse 
is about the display, not about the a/m*, [is particular- 
ized by praise (DM)] ; (&) particular, which is the one that 
is preceded by that [n. whereof it and its op. are an ep. 
in sense, the restriction in sense being added because 

the ep. in grammar is a suppressed word governing the 

* 

prop, of U (DM)], and that is rendered from the letter 

2 * h * S»h * * 

of that w., as U*J lL*i &XLȣ J washed him with a 

S* 

washing, whereof it is said, Most excellent is the wash- 

# A **** /A * A y /A 

twg /, i. e. J***'! *** , [this 1W being the n % , and **> 

• •A ****** 

U an £/>. of it in sense, orig. **> 4x5 Vat* tt«*£ 

A ^, ' ' ' 



• A ****** 

and 

#A /A^» 

JmJJI , because the originative />ro/>. is not used as an 
tp., as they say on £M JJi** tjjU (144) (DM)] : most 
GG do not authorize the occurrence of U as a complete 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 615 ) 
det; but some authorise it, among them 1Kb, who trans- 
mits it from S: (2) an indet., (a) bare of the sense of the 
p., (a) incomplete, which is the qualified, and is ren- 

dered by *^g» , as ud l ^t* * U> *&>))+ I passed by a 

* ' " AJ A • 

thing pleasing to thee [147], i. e. ud *-*=**« s^, 

* ' * * 

[For a profitable thing strives the sagacious: then be 
not thou striving for a thing whose profit is for ever 
distant (Jsh)], and 

[by Umayya Ibn Abi -sSalt, 3/any a thing (that) souls 
dislike of the matter has a relief like the unfastening of 
the rope that fastens together the foreshank and arms of 

* *%*> * JsA • Ay 3 3 

the camel (AAz)], i. e. j-j&M &*>;& $JL v ^, while 
S says that o*I* ^jJ U |.ia> L. 22. means This [un- 
believer (DM)] w a thing in my power ', made ready (for 
Hell by my misleading him): (b) complete, which occurs 

* A/ • / lit * 

in three cats., (a) wonder, as \±t) ^r^ ** #0*0 goodfp 

*A/ * m * § A / 

w 2atrf/ [25, 479], i. e. I^j lJ j«*a> /^ Something has 
made Zaid goodly /, as all the BB decide, except Akh, who 
allows it, and allows U to be a conjunct det. or a qualified 

,A /A — **K * , 

indetr, (£) the cat. of **> and *&. , as in jJI d*W 

*A/ /A * 

[above], i. e. UaA pu ilfo^^ excellent is it as a things U 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 616 ) 

being governed in the ace. as a sp. [of the vague pron. 
(DM)], according to many of the moderns, among them 
Z [471] ; (y) their saying, when they mean to exaggerate 
in predicating of any one the frequent performance of 

• SS* A i SS * A/ m A 

an act, like writing, ^JSi A U* f*£J ^f , i. e. ** 

J, A* * ' £ ' 

&tff j*f , meaning Verily Zaid is (created) of a matter, 

' ' ' , A/ A* 

(namely) writing, U being L q. s^ , and ^1 and its 
conj. in the position of a gen. as a subst. for it, and the 

• • A S /AA^/# 

sense being the same as in Ja*e ^* ^J~**V f J^ XXI. 

* ' * ' 

38. -3/an wo* created of hastiness, where man, because 

of theyreywency of his hastiness, is declared to have 

been as it were created of it: (b) made to imply the 

sense of the p., being (a) interrog., the meaning of which 

A S «3$ / •/•Aw/* 

is /^ ^f , as ^ U UJ jxo II. 63. JEfo twtf explain 

*Si\/ / •/ Ami/* 

to «* wAa* *ta w, t^jy U til ^Kki II. 64. He will ex- 

p/atn to w$ what her color is, and uXjuuxj uX£ Uj XX* 

• / / / 

18. «4nrf M?Aa< w <Aa* [186] m % W#A* hand? (ML): 

the interrog. U sometimes implies the meaning of (a) 
contempt, as 

«fA/A««/ / 2 / A/ / A* / •y / /$ # sA # 

>»*M; <~*«f t^d; «^l U * «-&^ ^ KJ ^G^j b 

[by AlMukhabbal asSa'dl, ZibrikSn, brother of the 
Banu Khalaf what thing ar£ <Aow (1000 to tfAy father!) 

a«rf glory t (AAz)]; (£) magnification, as £*( fd*~ t> 

• A* ./ 

[85] and LXIX. I. 2. [27] ; (y) disapproval, as u~»f f*» 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 617 ) 

li|/j *. LXXIX. 43. What [181] hast thou to do 

with the mention of the time of it ?, i. e. Do not thou 
mention it according to one of the interpretations (B) : 
(6) cond., (a) not temporal, as II. 193. [419], II. 100. 
[499], and, as allowed by some,- XVL 55. And what- 
ever prosperity (is) with you etc. [32], orig. JO Ju> U* , 

the v. of the condition being afterwards suppresseji^as in 

• A •• • /A£ SAsA<<e - y • ^ \ 

' ^' /• ' /if - «,, VV \:-* 

Ami # A/* *A • Ax * / * r ^*'> ^ *~ " 

[by Hudba Ibn AlKhashram al'Ddhn, If the price of 
blood (be) among our geods, we shall not be too straitened 
to pay it (the &o), and T if (we be confined) with confine- 



* 



ment, toe shall be patient of the confinement ( Jsh), i. e, 
JJ>j 'JzZ , like V. 96. (419) (DM,], i. e. jsiT J£ J 

thfhfhPh* * A • A y 

and U*A2w «~AaaJ A^ [an exposition of |^a^ J. 

>A S * h / h 

because jx*aJ| means «*asaJ| (DM)]; (£) temporal, which 
is authorized by F, AB, ASh, I Br, and IM f and is 
obvious in ^ \y+&LJi f$ f^lSX^I Li IX. 7. 7%*;*, 
whenever they are upright towards you as touching the 
covenant, be ye upright towards them as touching the 
fulfilment, i. e. Be ye upright towards them during the 
period of their uprightness towards you, and is admissible 

in ^^.f yjSyl* ^j^U & ^CiuUX-f Ui IV. 28. [Tfaw 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 618 ) ^ 
whatever time ye enjoy them in, give ye them their 

A m S JA 

dowries, &> being i. q. &jj , and the «* in >#U i. q. 

the ^ (DM)], except that this U is an inch., not adver- 
bial, [contrary to the one preceding (DM),] and in 

f;l5xif If. vJl»> U& & # UaJ aJJf o^* vl b j5 Uj 

(ML), by AlFarazdak, And, whenever thou art, O son of 
k Abd AltSh, among u», neither wrong shall we/ear, nor 

want (Dw), The U that follows the indet. to import 

vagueness and corroboration of indeterminateness is said 

by some to be a n.; so that II. 24. [565] means j£« *T'U&# 

A parable, what a parable ! : and the import of this U 

S ^3 / & / A / A$ A/ 

is (1) contempt, as U iula* 1/f c^k*l JiD /7w< /Aow 

jiwn aught $a&e $om* paltry g-t/2 f ; (b) magnification, as 

&&I fraS toe*. U y+V To some purpose did Kasir cut 

****** / ht 
off his nose and *J| o*m*> U >*tf [122] ; (c) modification, 

• * A • *S A * ' 

as U l;**0 £>v^l jB^a/ /Aoa Atm t0t*A so/ne beating, i. e. 

'toi/A one of its modes, whichever, of them it be : and these 

meanings are all combined in vagueness and corrobora* 

Hon of indeterminateness, i e. a gift that is not known 

from its paltriness and a purpose that is not known from 

its greatness and an unknown, unspecified beating (R). 

U denotes (I) [mostly (R, I A)] the irrational (R, I A, Sh), 
as XVI. 98. [2] (Sh) ; (2) sometimes the rational, as 

UJ ^fs**» U AaB**« Extolled be the perfection of Him 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 619 ) 



Who hath subjected you unto us ! and JL* U ^Unx* 
&**»* t^yf J^o//*/ J e M« perfection of Him in 
praise of Whom [the hearer of (K on XIII. 14.)] the 
thunder exclaims "Extolled be God's perfection"/ (R, IA), 

/ A^/ y f f $ A^ 9 ' 

both transmitted by AZ (R), and ^ Jd v lb U f ; ^<-; tf 

&» *&) J** ^ IV. 3. Marry ye what women 
please you, two each, and three each, and four each (IA); 

(3) often also the qualities of the rational, as yl U J*\ 
Zaid, what is he?, which is a question as to his quality, 
the reply being fib Learned or something else [556] ; 

(4) sometimes the unknown in quiddity and essence as 
^S r f ft r f j-jM U» U What is this, a horse, or 
an ox, or a manf: and the saying of Pharoah U* 

• • *A^ u! / 

yjAJWI *>>; XXVI. 22. <4ni trAa* w <A<? Zorrf o/* Me 
uwr/tf* f may be a question as to the quality, for which 
reason Moses says c^f^-JI V j XXVI. 23. TAe iorrf 
o/7Ae heavens; or as to the quiddity, but Moses answers 
by explaining the qualities, not the quiddity, as a warning 
to Pharoah that He is not known save by His qualities, 
His quiddity being unknown to man : and their sayings 

£JJ Ja^m and £lf Jo**~ [above] may be because God 
is unknown in quiddity (R). 

§ 181. Its f is subject to conversion and elision. 
The conversion is in (1) the interrog., as in the tradition. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 620 ) 
of Abii Dhu'aib " I arrived at AlMadlna, when its in- 
habitants were making an outcry through weeping, like 
the outcry of the pilgrims when they shout u&uf at 



entering the Sacred Territory : so I said &• What ?, 

$, y h^» * JA it* 

[meaning y^ssiS U or y^S What (is the news or the 
matter) t (IY)] ; and it was said, The Apostle of 

0* A / // A s 

God has perished," [and in £M *»*)) *> (175, 690), 

^ s A $ s s /A 9 *fi 

i. e. fi^f Ui or ^J>y£ Ui What (is my power)? (IY)] : 

(2) the cowrf., when the retf. U is affixed to it, [so that 

they say C& (IY),] as VII. 129, [419] (M). Ug*'is 
a n., because the pron. relates to it in VII. 129: but Suh 

• Ay / 

asserts that it occurs as a p. on the evidence of L$»; 

#* A 30 

£jf >C And, if any disposition be in a man 9 though etc 

A 

[499], where, says he, it is a p. i. q. ^f If; and he is 

m» A S • A • 

followed by I5Tn, who cites jA\ *-»*& Ufr. [22]. Some 

• A/ / »/ 

say that L$* is an arft% of time, [i. q. Uju* Whenever (K 

*S A ^ Ay tf * 

on VII. 129.),] and that the sense is 6;U u^aJ c^^ *f 
jif *«t» whatever time they find a cloud charged with 
lightning from a border of the horizon, the sentence being 

transposed ; or 6>b li | J in a border of the horizon 

A ' ' «* 

a cZowd efc, ^* being raf. and tSif used as an adv.: but 

it will be shown that Ug* is not used as an adv. (ML). 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 621 ) 

It is, (1) according to Khl, orig. [the cond.] U ; while, 
[the red.] U being sometimes added to cond. words 

,•• • / A * • • 

[565], as U ^ and U ^f , they add U to L , as they 

add U to ^Z* , so that it becomes U U ; and then, 
deeming this expression inelegant because of the repeti- 
tion of the 2 words, they substitute a 8 foe the 1st f , 

' * ' 
saying 1^4 , since the 1 and * are from one outlet [732] : 

A • A *S» 

(2) as others say, compounded of ** i. q. *— aaTf [187] 

and the cond. U , the sense, according to them, being 
Abstain thou {from everything) : whatever (thou dost I 
will do) : (3) as others say, a simple n., whose meaning 
is generality, because, say they, the o.f. is absence of 
composition. The 1st saying is confirmed by the pron.'a 
relating to U$* , as it relates to U , as in VII. 129.; and 
the 2nd by the saying of the poet 

/ A • A * A • A • S3 *l 

M&wlya, whoso hearkens to the speeches of this people 
about his friend, Mawlya, will repent, since he com- 
pounds ** with ^ as you compound it with U (IY). 

A • • 

It is simple, not compounded of &* and the cond. U , [as 

though U \JS were said (K), though the sense of 6+ 

would not necessarily remain, because another meaning 

83 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 622 ) 
might be produced by the composition (DM)] ; nor of 
the cond. U and red. U , the S being afterwards substi- 
tuted for tbe 1st I to avoid the repetition. And it has 
three meanings, (1) what is irrational, other than time, 
together with the implied sense of condition, whence 
the text [VII. 129. (DM)], for which reason it is 

• f A 

expounded by Sjl *• [499]: here it is either an inch. 

f ' . 

or an ace. by distraction ; and in the latter case a trans. 

op. is supplied for it, as in &> ssj^ fj^j [62], posterior 
to it, because it takes the head [of the sentence], i. e. 

/ £• • A A# /A • 

4> U3C \jycsc3 L$* Whatsoever sign {thou present to 
us), thou bring it unto us: (2) time and condition, in 
which case it is an adv. to tbe v. of the condition: this 
is mentioned by IM, who asserts that the GG neglect 
it, and cites 

S/h S * * A / A.P • A /- y 5 • 

by Hatim [atTa'I, And verily, whenever thou givest thy 
belly its craving, and thy penis, they will get the extreme 
of blame, all of it [DM)], and other verses; but there 
is no evidence in that, because it may denote the inf. n. 
[in which case it is of the 1st kind, because the inf. n. 
belongs to what is irrational, other than time (DM),] 
in the sense of [however, L e.] with whatever giving, 
much or little : and in this saying [that Ug* denotes 



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( 623 ) 

time and condition (DM)] IM has been anticipated by 
others; but Z [in the K on VII. 129.] severely repro- 
bates those who say it, and it is impossible in the text, 
even if it were correctly affirmable elsewhere, because 

• Ay *t+ A 

U$* is expounded by &f ** : (3) interrogation: this 
is mentioned by many, IM being among them, who cite 
£lf flUWf ^ U$* [503] ; but there is no evidence in the 

# A* A .PA* 

verse, because ** may be a verbal «. i. q. Utff f f [in 
which case its conjunction in writing is for the sake of 

puzzling (DM),] and U alone an inceptive interrogation, 
Hold! what etcf (ML). The elision is in the interrog. 
when the preps, are prefixed to it (M), The f of the 

interrog. U is [necessarily (ML)] elided when it is 
governed in the gen. (R, ML) by a prep, or pre. n. 
[615] ; though sometimes the I occurs expressed, as 



3 hs * s s 



[below] (R), by Hassan Ibn AlMundhir, For what has 
a low fellow stood up reviling me, like a hog that has 
wallowed in ashes f (Jsh) : and the Fatha [is necessarily 
(DM)} retained as an indication of it, as 

ASJAs • • A* A P*o s *9 *h * 
.P£s *K,a *t»fi*ht* • * * / 5 • • 

[by AlKumait Ibn Zaid alAsadl, Then those are the 
rulers of evil. Their abiding (amongst us) has become 
long: then until what (time), until what (time) shall the 



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( 624 ) 

lengthened weariness (of them) be f (Jsh)] ; though some* 
times the Fat^a follows it in elision, which is peculiar to 
poetry, as 

A/ • • • 3 3 sASSs A /A|a<«/I s 

[ <46# - lAswad, where/ore hast thou left me behind 
thee to nightly 'haunting griefs and memories t (Jsh)]. 
The f , being elided to distinguish between interrogation 
and enunciation, is elided in such as LXXIX. 43. [180], 

S 3 • h3htO 3 A/ s 6/ •• 

.JL.^JJ &.# fi KJbte XXVII. 35. And shall see with 

' ' * 

S 3*** / * s 3 3/ s 

what the messengers will return, and j jk&> N U ^ J 35 J 
LXI. 2. Wherefore say ye what ye do not?; but expressed 

§ * § S* h*h*% * ASMS/ 

in ^xih* ^Ivi* *aS j^wail Uxi j>C*J XXIV. 14. A great 
chastisement would have befallen you for that slander 

• h* * hi * * 3 A3 

which ye plunged into, u<xJf Jy\ U> ^^yi II. 3. 

# ' ' ' 

[ WAo] believe in what hath been revealed unto thee, and 

«*# c^jii. u j«-j j ux*a* u xxxvni. 75. 

What hindered thee from doing obeisance unto what I 
created with My two hands f : and, as the I is not elided 
in enunciation, so is it not expressed in interrogation, the 
reading of [Abu 'Abd Allah (Nw, IKhn, DM)] 'Ikrima 
[Ibn 'Abd Allah (IKhn) alHashimi alMadani (Nw), 
the freedman of {'Abd Allah (IKhn)j Ibn 'Abbas (Nw, 
IKhn, DM)] and 'Isa [Ibn 'Umar (K, DM) alAsadl, the 

Kuft Header, known as AlHamdani (DM),] ^y/UJb U* 
LXXVIIL 1, [below] being extraordinary, and the say- 



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( 625 ) 



/ * • •* 



ing of IJassan ^f ^ U ^ [above] being a poetic 
license, as likewise is the saying 

*A/A«* #*A/ • • *»»/W^ • A* **• • • //A/ /A// m 

• • • ' £- 

[Verily we have slain for our slain your chiefs, (0) 
peopfe 0/ Me standard: then for what (thing) does 
slaughter abound (among the common people)? (DM)] ; 
while the ordinary reading may not be attributed to that, 
because of its weakness, for which reason Ks refutes the 

• As s A/ / 

saying of the commentators that U in ^y* ls^>J t£ 
Z J j&Ct J)j*W XXXVI. 25. 26. would that 
my people knew for what my Lord hath forgiven me ! 
is interrog., whereas it is infinitival [571], that my Lord 
hath eld; and the wonder is that Z should allow it to 
be interrog. [in this text] notwithstanding his refutation 

/A/ A % / y 

of the saying that in J^.f\ *•*» VII. 15. Then foras- 
much as Thou hast made me to err the sense is Then 
wherefore hast Thou made etc? by the argument that 
expression of the I [when the prep, is prefixed to the 

interrog. U (K)] is rare, anomalous. When, however, 

the interrog. U is compounded with 13 , its ! is not elided, 

M ltt0 S^. Ji UJ For what earnest thout [186], because 

its I then becomes medial (ML). UT [117, 204, 571] 

A/ 3S # 

ought to be written conjoined when it is i. q. i**?j Jf , 



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( 626 ) 

Jilt* ffsht A/A *• * 4h$ /mS 

as in ai| UMilof ^>*JI f ; U f ; j5y UT V. 69. £twy 

time that they kindle a fire for war, God will quench it ; 

but, if the U affixed to it occur iu the place of cJJf , it 

is written disjoined, as ^~*. \>J±ie U Jf All of what 

a** a* 
thou hast is good, because it is constructively ^eJJJ J/ : 

and similarly, when U i. q. ^JJf is attached to J 
'** £$ A t 

- s s A s Si 

^J , and ^f , they are written disjoined, as ±$*±U U J 
c j«"^ Verily what thou hast is good, ^J&u e^if U v( 

' • y A • $% 

Where is what thou didst promise me?, and lSi±x* U ~l 
J*aM Which part [116] ^ wAatf tfAotf Aas£ & more 
excellent?, because the sentence is constructively J 

^JJ! , gpS JiS , and ^f ^f ; but, if U occur as a 

ss 
connective [563] or as restraining ^f from government 

it is written conjoined, as in IV. 169. [2, 516, 565], IV. 
80. [419, 565], and XXVIII. 28. [184, 565], because 

the sentence is constructively eJif ^1 , W& *$, and 

A/ s$A^ mi * SK , %. 

^AMM 3I : while U^ [202, 565] is preferably written 
conjoined, because U after d^a. does not occur in the 
place of the n>; and similarly Ulb and U5 [5651 
because U in them is a connective, as is proved by their 
resemblance to U>; [505, 565] in that the v. does not 



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( 627 ) 
follow either of them except after their conjunction with 

• m • • A 

U : but U*> and U-Ju [180, 471] are allowed to be 
written disjoined and conjoined, except that conjunction 
is preferable in L*J , because of the concurrence of two 
similar letters, contrary to U j-i> : and, when U is 
affixed to ^ , then, if it be interrog., its t is elided, and 

* A • / # 

is****; *xi i'or wAa/ wishedst thou? is written [con- 
joined]; whereas, if it be i. q. £&\ , you conjoin, but 

* h t * * A s 

express its I , writing u^; U*» ut***, / wished for 
what thou wishedst: and you write U* conjoined, as in 

25s 

XXIII. 42. [508, 565] ; unless it be interrog., as in f« 
. J^LyJo LXXVIII. 1, Of what question they among 
themselves? [above], in which case it is written [con- 
joined, but] with elision of the \ (D). 



A • 



§ 182. j- is (1) cond., as IV. 122. [419] : (2) 

• /A/ A • /' • A • 

interrog., as U*>* ^ ^ ^ XXXVI. 52. Who 
hath roused us from our sleep ? and ^y k 1+&!) ^ 
XX. 51. Then who is your Lord, Moses?: (a) when 

$ A/ « • • «"A/ A • 

oj\ Vf I J* J**d ^ J^o does */m save Zaid ? is said, 

* AS 

it is the interrog. ^ imbued with the sense of nega- 
/eon, whence &UJ W V^' >*** cT^ IM * 129 ' * nd w1i0 



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( 628 ) 

forgiveth sins save Ood ? ; nor is the allowability of that 
[imbuing of the interrog. with negation (DM)] restricted 
to its being preceded by the y , contrary to the opinion 
of IM, [whose language in the Tashil, however, only 
imports that it is often preceded by the j (DM),] 

as is proved by &*M> If I 5ai* £fc£* ^ jJ f Jo ** II. 256. 
WAo is Ae that shall intercede with Him save by His 

• • • A • 

permission ?: (b) when «^*** fo ** fPfo fo fo (?Aa() 

A , 

J/tou rfitf$£, or Whom didst thou, meet t is said, ^ is an 
trccA., and to an enunc, a conjunct [186], the rei being 
suppressed, [i.e. &*& (DM)] ; or, according to the say- 
ing of the KK on the redundance of tw., to may be red. y 

h ' A • 

and j* an ofy\; while many appear to say that *+ and 
to may be compounded [into one interrog. n. y either (a) an 
t/icA., the j»rojp. c^aaJ , i.e. &aaSJ j being an enunc, or (fl) 

• * • A y • * • 

a prepos. obj. to is^SJ (DM)], as in u&*»i*a f J U [186]: 

(3) conjunct, as va>f ^"Jf^i ^ &* ^ ' "1 &\ ^ $ fi 
^yV f ^ ^j*^ XXII. 18. jHa^ thou not considered that 
they that are in the heavens and they that are in the earth 
bow down unto Godf: (4) a qualified %ndet. } for which 

reason it (a) has «_>; prefixed to it in 

A/* A/ *A/ / S3,, A/ J/A/ * A/ ^ A / A$ A / g S 



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( 629 ) 

[by Suwaid Ibn Abi Kahil alYashkurl, Many a petson 
whose heart I made to boil with rage did wish for me 
death, not, i.e. without, being gratified / ( Jsh)] ; (b) is 

* * A .9 A y S A s S 

qualified by the indet. in such as uXf i^sa** >*j **>))* 

f* ' s * s 

J passed by a person pleasing to thee [147], £M Lu ^& 
[503], and 

y # A £ A m y A '35/ w 

# A y A /A*^ yA y * A •• 

y y y y y 

by AIFarazdak, [ Verily I and thou, when they (the she- 
camels) have stopped at our abodes, shall be like a person 
rained upon in his valley after drought (DM)], i.e. 

P Ay A y y Ay 

j,b** joaaAT : (a) in II. 7. [499] many decide that *+ 
is qualified, which is improbable from the rarity of this 
usage ; and others that it is conjunct : while Z says that, 

Ay £ Ay 

if Jf in t-UW he construed to denote knowledge, •* 

#SA y 

is conjunct, «4tmJ of the men are they that say, like fS*** 
^^aaJ I ^j^jd cJ^' *^ 61# ^^ ^ them are tfie y that 



A y 



rear Me Prophet, and, if grants, ^ is qualified, [as though 
* jl^Si cT U -T 1 ^ ^} <^ n ^ °/ ^^ are men that say 

' '***§** A^A^ /■ 

were said (K),] like \?±* Jfc-) ^^ j* XXXIIL 
23. 0/* believers are men that have fulfilled ; but this 

A y 

needs consideration. Two other kinds of ^ are added : — . 
(1) a complete indet, according to F, who says it of 

A y 

[the 2nd ^ in] 

84 



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( 630 ) 

J^h r~ J y» 4* r~'; * «*a>f^ ^Su ** vy* f ni, 
'it'''* / w •/ 

[by AlFarazdak, And most excellent is the refuge of 
him whose ways to a livelihood have become strait, and 
most excellent is he as a person, he in privacy and publi- 
city ! (Jsh)], asserting that the ag. is latent, ** a sp., 

and y& particularized by praise [469]; while others say 
that £* is conjunct, an a%., ^> an inch, whose enunc. is 
another y& suppressed, upon the principle of £)*&) 

A A , ' ' 

^jxA [30], [the prop, being the conj. of ♦* (DM),] and 

the acta. [498] dependent upon the suppressed [ jfc 1 , be- 

cause it contains the sense of the #., i.e. c**;IaH Js> ** *xJ* 

i>M ^ awrf mo$£ excellent is he that is (he, i. e. the stead- 

/<w/) fw etc.! ) in which case I say that a 3rd y& Ae particu- 

« 
larized by praise must be supplied : (2) a corrob. [563], 

vid. [in the positions (DM)] where Ks asserts that it occurs 

red., like U, that being easy according to the rule 

of the KK that ns. are made red., whence iJf U> Ji& 
[above] over others than us, the version 

#A/ A/ •/Ax/ £•/ A/*/ #/ AS' A/ "A/// 

[by « Antara, (peopfc, AcAoW a) wild cow (a m«& for 
woman) of the chase Jor him that she has become lawful 
nnto, (and marvel at her beauty and her comeliness)! She 



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( 631 ) 
has become unlawful unto me, and would that she had 
not become unlawful ! (EM)], and the saying 

A • / Ay A • *^» * ' ' h'S** *— 

y # • Ay • A/A*A,^ ^ **/sh<* * / 

(SlL) The family of AzZubair Ibn Al'Awwam ore Me 
juntmi/ o/" glory {the tribes of the Arabs have known 
that), and are the most multitudinous in number (Jsh). 
J* [mostly (IA)] denotes the rational (R, IA, Sh), as 

,S9 ,» h', S ,**,»,, A /A/ / A* ,S* */Ax A •/» 

XIII. 19. JFAa*/ Men is he that knoweth that what 
hath been revealed to thee from thy Lord is the truth 
like him that is blind f (Sh) ; but sometimes Me irra- 
tional, as #;t j£ ^ld J*' ji^J XXIV. 44. And of 

* ' * 

them is what goeth upon four legs (R, IA), whence 

(I A), by Al' Abbas Ibn AlAhnaf, /foci o/ £a#, w Ae 
Ma* tottf fenrf.(»«) At» «?*ng- (preeen* among you)? 
Perhaps I shall fly (with it) to her that I have loved (J). 
U [as also U (R)] is literally sing, masc; but is applied 
to the [sing. (M),] tin., and pi, [«c. (M)] and /««.: 
and, [if the </«., pi, or fern, be meant by them (R),] the 
letter is ofteoer observed (M, E) in what they are 
expressed by, vid. the pron., dm., and the like (R), but 



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( 632 ) 

* " J» ;/A A * A/ A // 

sometimes the sense, as ^y^)) &M *ZL$ c^iib **« 

^ / A/A,/ " ' ' ' "CJ^ 

i=Jl* J+«3j XXXIII. 31. -4wrf whosoever of you is 
obedient to God and His Apostle, and doeth good read 
with masculinization of the 1st and femininizatioi* of 
the 2i*d f X. 43. [581], and 

by AlFarazdak (M), Sup thou, for, if thou covenant 
with me that thou wilt not deal, or not dealing, treache- 
rously with me, we shall be like the two, wolf, that keep 
company together (Jsh); and hence the saying of the 

/£?; A , s h , 

Arabs, as Ytellsus, uC| ^i\S ^ Who was thy mother? 
[171, 449, 474], while Khl asserts that some read g* y 

A 9*4 

c^iS5 (S). Observance of the letter is better than observ- 
ance of the sense, because the letter is nearer to that 
expression made to accord with jiorU than the sense, 
since it is a means to the sense ; but, if the expression 
jnade to accord with *-♦ or U be preceded by what aids 
the sense, observance of the sense is preferred : and 
therefore the Readers do not differ in the masculiniza- 

A *A/ Ay m SS %, A • 

tion of cs^iSi j* and SU ^h, - XXXIII. 30. Who- 
soever of you committeth ; contrary to J**5j , because the 

3 SA 

latter comes after J&+ , which is an aid to the sense, for 



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( 633 ) 

y/ A t / Ai 

which reason 1*>>=*I l$;£> JFe 101// gitfe her her reward is 
then said : and, if ambiguity would be produced by 
observance of the letter, observance of the sense is neces- 

sary ; so that you do not say 6^1 #-• c^SJ when you 
mean a woman, unless some [explanatory] context be 
there* And, because observance of the letter is more 
frequent and better than observance of the sense, prece- 
dence of observance of the letter, when the two observ- 
ances are combined, is more frequent than the reverse : 

$ • JA A* * * A •A'/ It »° A h* A • • 

the text says u^li*. *la-i*d 1»K-<j J**i; ^ 4*7*- ^J 

^ • • • • • 

/ /A$A^> • A • A Ay 

\l$ilff l^IaaJ ** .s* 1 ?" LXV. 11. -4wd whoso believeth 
it* God, and doeth good, him will He make to enter 
gardens beneath the trees of which flow streams by con* 
cord with the letter, and afterwards M ^} jL^** 
about to abide therein for ever by concord with the sense; 
and, for the same reason, vid. that concord with the letter 
is better, it reverts after jJS ji^ 1 ^ to concord with 

*A Pf *}»*0 / / A % A/ 

the letter, saying £)) &' &W c j A **=^' *> ^otf Aa ^ ma ^ 
goodly provision for him! (R). ^j*, when attached to 
JT or £* , is written disjoined ; and is written conjoined 

A S3* A m 

only in *** and >** , on account of the incorporation 
pf the ^ into the r , as in & [181] and U [589] (D), 



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( 634 ) 

A y 

§ 183. When you interrogate with >* about a 

A y 

mentioned rational [185] indet., and pause upon ^j* [185], 

A y 

( 1) you may imitate in *• the inflection of that mentioned 

. [indet] and the signs of its du., pi., and fern. : thus you 

say y* [497], U-t, and ^i* when J^; ^^, «^dt> 

* *' * y # Ay y A •• A A „ 

tt*> , and J^ ; e c^ ;r # are said ; J±+ and ^x* when 

• ^ y •/*»/ Ay .P/ ^ A*y Ay ^ y fi h, , 

A i/"* ' cJ^; ^^ ' and ^^^ ^;r are said: 

y / ' s s 

AS* , fi h fi '~/ $ y §Ay 

^y.4 when ^ ^ #1^4 ^^ or J^) or r y is said, and 

A / * •' £y y A ,,», 

^jiU in the ace. and gera.; &** when h}<e ,$^/la» or 

$ y 

^Ub [268] is said, and likewise in the ace. and gen. • 

A 'A y " ' ^J'-" ^ ' A Ay A y 

^UJU when ^-f* ^' { * or ^^ is said, and cJ iUU 



$ 



' A * A /*,, 



in the ace. and gen.; and c*AU when e^UL** ^i^U, 

* " ... ' 

or v^y^ * s sa ^ > an( * likewise * n *^ e acc - an J g^- : (a) 

y 

they add in the sing. masc. the j , I , and ^ instead of the 
vowels, because, if they imitated the vowels of the indet. 
as they are, the word would be vocalized in pause, which 
is not allowable ; so that instead of the vowels they 
express quiescent consonants resembling them, and put 
before the consonants vowels akin to them : this is the 
opinion of Mb ; but Sf says that they express the vowels 
in *• for imitation of the inflection, as in ^f [185], and 



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( 635 ) 

that, since the state is that of pause, and the final of 
the word paused upon is quiescent, they then implete the 
vowels, so that the consonants are engendered : and 
both the sayings are possible : (b) expression of the 
letters of prolongation indicative of the inflection not 

A/ • 

being possible in *JU , since the * of femininization in 

pause is only quiescent, they content themselves with 

imitating the sign of the fern., and omit to imitate 

a • • 

the inflection ; and they treat c^lx* like its sing, in 
omitting to imitate its inflection, although it would be 
possible by putting the letters of prolongation : (c) the 

A /A/ A A/A/ 

quiescence of the [1st] ^ in ^lii* and vS y£ii* is a warn- 
ing that the & denotes femininization not of the word 
that it is affixed to, but of another word ; for which rea- 
son in what precedes it they do not keep to the mobility 
inseparable from what precedes the X of femininization: 
and the . in the sing, is sometimes made quiescent, as 

A A / 

«JU ; though it is oftener mobilized, because they add 
the 5 to indicate that the question is about a fern., and 
the fact that the 5 is preceded by Fath and converted 
into 5 in pause is more indicative uf its denoting femini- 

$ A § *i 

nization, such as \&**> and o^J and such as 

A • • A/ /•• A/ Ax * • • 



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( 636 ) 

A • ^Ay • A • 4 / 



A ," • /A/ A ./ • /t»/h/ *h / A/ 

[ JPAa/ 1> /Ae state o/ wmw£ e^e ? jProm ite drowsiness it 
has started, shedding tears, pouring forth water, since it 
has recognized after a year a dwelling of Salmas that 
has become effaced : nay, a middle of a desert like the back 
of the buckler (in its ascent and descent) I, or Nay, {many) 
a middle etc (does mine eye weep when it sees, because 
of its having been an abode of Salmd's in by -gone days 

A • • • 

and past nights) ! ( AAz)] being rare : but such as ^^i* 
sometimes occurs with the ^ that is before the mj 

mobilized : (2) you may add to ^ the letters of prolonga- 
tion and softness, as we mentioned in the 1st method in 
the sing, masc, imitating the inflection only, and not the 
signs of the du., pi., and fern., even though you question 

A x 

about them, by treating ^ according to its general rule 
of being uniformly applicable to all [numbers and gen- 

ders] : thus, when Ja^^/l^or ^UVjor Jt^j or»l^rf 
or m^'H or *?"* IS 8a ^i y° u 8a y £* i an( * analogously 

in the ace. and gen. : (3) you may put ^* alone in every 
state without imitation of the inflection or other signs, 

A/ 

as in the state of continuity. Y allows imitation with £+ 

in continuity by analogy to ^f [185], saying ^J b j* , 

Ji L> UU , and J& b ^ ; and attributes to it the 



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( 637 ) 
saying of the poet [AlFarazdak, or, as some say (N), 
Sumair Ibn AlHarith adDabbl (AAz, N),] 

• • • S S h* 5 h*o J ,, h»\i * * * * Is** • A/* 

uiib \j+p c^K ^jaaJf ty& * ^f ^jiu c^isi ^y; \j\ 

[They came to my fire, and I said. Who are ye? And 

they said. The Jinn. I said, May your life be pleasant 

§ * * • • 
in darkness / (AAz, N)]. And Y relates that ^ ±->y* 

IU Who beat whom? has been heard in interrogation 
about the beater and beaten : but this, as S says, is impro- 
bable ; and, as Y also says, is not accepted by every one, 
because the v. precedes the interrog. word : and, as for 
the inflection of the interrog., it is said to be an imitation, 
as though the speaker had heard a man say J^% ^yo 
U^.j ; whereas the fact appears to be that it is not an imita- 

A • 

tion, but that in some dials. ^ may be infl. not by way 

AJA* , fi, 

of imitation, as you see in ^S ^y*** , which is not imi- 
tated as Y asserts, since there is no indet mentioned before 

A • 

it. The signs mentioned are not affixed to j* except 
at the end of the sentence, because they are in the state 
of pause ; so that, when 8l;*f j U^*; ss^>}) or H^j %\y*\ 
and Jp\y)y J*) ^'^ are said, you say *i*j ^+ or 



A /A • • A / 



U*% and ^***y ^+ , and so on. When the rational 
and irrational are combined, you put the question about 

A / I* 

the rational with *+ , and about the irrational with ^1 y 

85 



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( 638 ) 

AS*/ A • **' * J 

as >4if^ #* Whom and which two? when Ua>^ c^aa! 



A/ • y 



>i^Ua.^ is said. Jtefo. after ^ are (1) notproper names, in 
which case there are three methods:— (a) most commonly 

A • 

there is no imitation in them, nor in ^ after their sup- 
pression ; (b) Mb transmits from Y that they are mentioned 

A • 

after ++ imitated, like proper names [below], so that, 

A / • $ * hi* h* • t A • 

when a man says Ai) &•! i&~&1 j , you say jj> j ULf *+ 9 which 

' > A ,A, 

S allows, though not as matter of choice, but like >* tu»j 
^V [*> 185] and U£>* ^j-J ; (c) they are sup- 
pressed, while the signs of imitation are expressed in 
g* , as in the case of indets., because the det. mentioned 
is unknown to the hearer, like the indet. } as S relates 

*.#•• # A*/ *»*£* Ay A • /• 

that, when *$*-♦ c^aJDo and &X^ oS are said, ^i*-* £+ 

and IU are said : (2) proper names, in which case there 
are two methods :— (a) the people of AlHijaz imitate the 

A • 

proper name after £* upon certain conditions : (a) 
the [proper name] questioned about must not be quali- 
fied, corroborated, or followed by a mbst. or synd. expl^ 
because the repetition of these ants, with their apposs. 
enables the imitation of their inflection to be dispensed 
with, since the person addressed knows that the person 
questioned about is the one mentioned, being guided to 
him by the repetition of the identical apposs. men- 



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( 639 ) 

, C^ * S/ * hi S * * A/ 0h/ 

tioned ; so tliat, when UbjibM Wj "*"*') or **~^ f°*3 or 

S S <* '? #A/ •* - #^ $As A • $A* 

o+su Of fjjj is said, you say U>£>i&M J^3 ^ or o^ 

J S h* C • * *$ $A/ 

SmJo or ^su y>S o>3 with the worn. : though, if it 

' A 

be qualified by ^f , and its Tanwln be dropped, imitation 
of it is not disallowed according to the people of AlQijaz, 
because this qualified with this qual. is treated like one 
w., as is proved by the elision of the Tanwln from the 
qualified [609] and by the qualified's being governed in 

the ace. in the voc. [50] ; so that, when ^y* ^ J^3 «H^ 

is said, you say ^p* ^ 0^3 ^ with the ace. ; whereas, 

if )r* l^' ^ '^3 ***$) ** said > y° u sa y ^ ^3 cr* 

yps> ^A with the now.: (b) the coupled without repeti- 

' 'a, 

tion of ^* is like the rest of the apposs., according to Y, 
as respects disallowance of imitation with it, whether 
both be proper names or one of thera : but S transmits 
from some people (and approves of it) that imitation is 
allowable when the ant. is a proper name, whether the 

A// 0s , * , 

coupled be a proper name or not, as f>*** \±i) >* or 

A s /$ S 0h •• h* $ • As S $/ 

yps. \£>Sy when \y**) )*i) c^aSJ or j>** IL^ is said, the 

' . * 

question being put with the single [ant.] w., which is 

then coupled to after the imitation ; whereas, if the ant. 

. A/ * S t * K*s 

be not a proper name, as when o^jj *-£*M> **))+ is 

'. ' 

said, imitation is not allowable in the question by com- 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 640 ) 
mon consent, but the nom. is necessary, because the ant. 
may not be imitated, and similarly therefore the appos. : 

A • A S S #As A S 

(c) if £* be repeated in the coupled, as ^+) Wj d* 

#A* * *£ A •• *A/ A^ *A/ A • • * S$ A • 

!^ or Xj^l ^ »^j cT* or ,J *3 cT; ^ cf* » ci- 
tation is allowable in the proper name, but not in what 
is not a proper name, because, the 2nd being plainly 
disconnected from the 1st, each of the ant. and coupled 
has its own predicament, as though it were alone : (d) a 

A • $ A • A • • A •• 

con. must not be prefixed to ** , as in *i) ^j or ^** 

&i) , where imitation is not allowable by common con- 
sent, because of the cessation of ambiguity, since the 
coupling to the sentence of the person addressed notifies 
that the question is only about the person mentioned by 
him : (e) the cognomen may be imitated by common 
consent; but there is a dispute about the surname, which 
properly may be imitated, because it also is a proper 
name [4] ; and similarly the imitation of the du. and 
pi. of the proper name is disputed, the allower looking 
to its sing., and the disallower to the cessation of 
the quality of proper name on account of the dualization 
and pluralization [171]: (/) when what follows ^ 

A • 

is imitated, ^ is in the position ofa nom. by inchoation : 
and what follows it, if a nom., is so by imitation, not as an 
enunc, the sign of the nom. due to the quality of enunc. 
being supplied in it ; and, if an ace. or gen., is in the 
position of a nom. as an enunc. • &o that each is an infl. [n,] 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 641 ) 
in the position of a nom. } whose inflection [as an enunc.'] 
is impossible through the preoccupation of its place 
by a vowel imported for imitation [185] : (g) suppression 

of the proper name after ^ and expression of the 

• A • 

sign of imitation in the latter sometimes occur : thus, U&£- 

^| !>a* $o Behind the door of { Abd Allah having been 

said, the hearer said .i* ^ o The house of whom t : 
(b) the Band Tamim treat the proper name in interroga- 

A • 

tion about it with *-• like other m., putting it in the 
nom. in every case by inchoation. When you question 

A /- 

with ^ about a re I. ep. of a proper name, then, (1) if the 
ep. relate to what is rational, whether the related proper 

*A/ * • s A /- 

name be rational or not, as when I j^j ts^JU or \a*jS \ 

* * h$ m /Aim ' ' 

E ^| [6] is said, you may say ^iJf , meaning, e. g., 

A /■ 

7%$ Bakrz or the Kurashif: (a) you put ** in 

A^ As 

place of the re/, ep. ; and prefix Jf to ^ , because 
it would be so in the rel. ep. questioned about, 

Ml A/A 

e. g, ^s)^' y since the rel. ep. of the proper name must 

'a, 

contain Jf ; and affix the £ of relation at the end of 

A • 

** , as it would be at the end of the rel. ep. ques- 
tioned about; and most commonly prefix the interrog. 

A/ m /A** 

Hamza to Jt saying ^JUS) with prolongation, because 
it would be so in the rel. ep. questioned about, since 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 642 ) 

you say ,<*£^M ;f is";*'! 27** Kurashi or the HSshimi f f 
* * * * 

A > 

and also because ^'s implication of the sense of the 
[interrog.] p. is weakened by the prefixion of the J of 
determination, and affixion of the ^ of relation, to it ; 

m *A* 

while some do not put the Hamza, saying L ^^ abbre- 
viated, because they content themselves with the interrog. 

A • 

sense in ^* : (b) the inflection of the proper name 
whose relationship is questioned about is imitated in 

m /A 

L 5**M , whether the questioner continue or pause, just 

«* $A, ,„, 

like the imitation in ^J [185] ; so that, when oS) ^ 



f* * uf /Aim 



is said, you say J& k> <j*+*l The clansman of whom, O 

25 sA<" m sAt* Si •A** AS? • A<« 

youth?, and similarly OJf , ^^iJf , ^Uijf , vuOJf f 

S «8 *A«w / u$ 'I** $£ sh~ * S /A*» A /« /Am 

uyyi^+tl j L! t6^t, &AiJ^ e) 1 **^, wJudJf, and 

* Si 'A~ 

v^UUl : (c) the person questioned gives the answer 
according to the inflection of l5 *JI : so that, when you say 

*/ S hi* ' £ /Aim 

S*i) *^ihi *^ e questioner says 4 $ i *M , and you then say 

Si •*A/ * A^ 

^^1 as ep. of the lo^} mentioned at first in your sen- 
tence ; though the nom. is allowable in all cases by sub* 
audition of an inch., i. e. ^jSM )&> {He is) the Kurashz, 
because it is separated from the qualified by the interven- 
tion of the interrogation : (2) if the ep. relate to what is 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 643 ) 

WIU/A/ ill A •A/ 

irrational, like .c^t 7%e Meccan and ,5>^f Tfo Z?a*r5, 

JLJI is not allowable by common consent (R). 

< 

§ 184. ^t is (1) cowtf., as XVIL 110. [116, 565] 

and JU ^^ Hi y^i* m*M! U,| XXVIII. 28. 
Whichever [181, 565] of tfAa too term* I fulfil, no in- 

• A* 

justice shall be done upon me, [which is also readUjf {with 
quiescence of the ^ (K)}, like £*! %*>)&£ (below) (K, 
B)]: (2) interrog., as VU>J 8jJD aJ^fj Jul IX. 125. 
Which of you is such that this Chapter hath increased 
him in belief? and ^f^yi **»> i*^>*a* ^U VII. 184. 
TAen in wAa* story q/Jtor t7 will they believe ?; which is 
sometimes abbreviated, as 

,9ht A '/»<*' *A* iA2 // 

A# // A S /• A ^ A /A#* S 55 •• 

[by AlFarazdak, I gazed at Nasr and the two stars named 
Simdk that I might know which of them two was such 
that his showers of rain poured plentifully upon me (N)] : 

(3) conjunct, as ^ j^f ^1 £*a£ Jf ^ ^JUI ^ 

Ux* ^=^yt XIX. 70. 7%ett Wi will surely drag forth 
from every sect him of them {that) is most hardened in re- 
hellion against the Compassionate [176, 177], i. e. j*> ^JJf 



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( 641 ) 

oAf , says S : (4) indicative of the sense of perfection, 
in which case it occurs as (a) an ep. of the indet, as 

* , #$ § S S $A, 

J*>) ^ J^ J*j Zaid is a man, what a man!, i, e. 
perfect in the qualities of men ; (b) a d. s. to the det., as 

J^) cS' ***' t **** ***)}* I P asse d by c Abd AllSh 9 what a 
man ! : (5) a connective to the vocation of what contains 

A/ SP^^o sUfe s 

Jf , as J*.,J I l&f k [48, 51, 552]. And Akh adds a 

tuf S A/ • 

[6th (DM)] kind, vid. a qualified indet., as ^t? ei^;* 

A* * ' 

ljJ c^^sum [I passed by a person pleasing to thee (DM)], 

, • A* A • 

like ud c^P** ^ [182] ; but this [kind (DM)] is 

unheard [147]. ^f is not decidedly [i. e. literally and 

constructively (DM)] aprothetic [116, 176] except in 

it 
vocation [51] and imitation [185] (ML). g\ is infl. f 

alone among conjuncts, subject to the dispute on ^f J1H 

[176], ^^1, and the Ta'I j3 , and alone among 
interrogs. and conds., because of its inseparability from 
prothesis, which makes the quality of w. preponderate : 
so that, when the post. n. is suppressed, then, if it be 

not supplied, g\ is not infl n as in vocation ; but, if it be 

in fi 
supplied, ^J remains infl., as in XVII. 110. [116] ; 

except in +>}$ [226], where it is cut off from prothesis 
notwithstanding its inflection, because it is like the 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 6*5 ) 

It 

uninfl. (R). The interrog. or cond. *1 is infl. unrestric- 

» 

tedly, by common consent, as IX. 125. [above], XXVI. 

* Stk/**a S9*ii , 3 h*, 3 A3 , * 

228. [445], and jytfJf *>}>. &y*&) >-*X~iLXVIII. 
5. 6. Then thou shall see, and they shall see, which of 

you is the demented, the %-> being red. [503], orig. *Of 

3 iA/A^> 

i^y&Jf f and the prop, being [in the place of] an ace. 

* A3 * * h* 

by i^oJ or m)/*** [*]> because they contest it [22], 
but are suspended from government by the interrog. 

mt 

[445] (Sh), The conjunct ^f has four states :—(!) it is 



3 A# 



pre., and the head of its conj. is mentioned, as ^ i yrw 






f'G J* f &< ; (2) it is not />re., and the bead of its con;. 

*~ £* # A3 

is not mentioned, as JG ^f ^^JLasuu ; (3) it is not pr*., 

„ ti * A* 

and the head of its con;, is mentioned, as jb ^1 ^jJUaasu 






JlS ; (4) it is pre., and the head of the conj. is sup- 
pressed, as JlS *&) c5 i^»u (IA). The conjunct «f 
is tn/f. [with the three vowels (I A) in all its states (Sh)] 
except when it is pre. and the head of its conj. is a sup- 
pressed pron., [in which state it is uninfl. upon Damm, 

as XIX. 70. (IA, Sh), i. e. *£l f> ^ (Sh), and 



3 ,A% A* 5* ** Am 



• • • * • 



J*aM *$*1 ^ JUi # u*JU ^ cH# U fof 
■ ' * * ' * i 

(IA), by Ghassan Ibn 'Ula, Whenever thou meetest the 

Banu Malik, salute him of them (that) is most excellent, 

86 



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( 646 ) 

i. e. J-«»f & e%>J (FA)] : but some of the Arabs inflect 

^t in all its states (IM, Sh), o£l ffcl being read with 
the ace. [176] (IA, Sh) by Harun, [Talba Ibn Musarrif 
(K),] Mu'adh [Ibn Muslim alHana (K)], and Ya'kub 

(Sh), and J*a»f *%$ J* related with the gen. [176] 
(IA) ; and this, says S, is an excellent dial. (Sh). Ks 

^ Hit 

says that the op, of the conjunct ^t must be future ; 
and, according to the KK, its op. must also precede it : 
but the BB disagree with them in both cases, from the 

lack of proof in both assertions. 

u 

§ 185. When you interrogate with ^f about a 

it 
mentioned indet, (1) you may imitate in ^f the inflec- 
tion [of that indet] and the signs of the du., 

A • 

pl., and fern., as in ^+ [183], except that you do 
not affix the letters of prolongation to the sing, 
masc.y but in continuity inflect it with the vowels, 

as J* k &1 , J& •* W i and J& ** S* > and in P ause 

make its ^ quiescent in the nom. and gen., and convert 

it 
the Tanwln into f in the ace. [640], because ^f is infl.x (a) 

A • 

thus two conditions of imitation with ^ are dropped in the 

it tt 

case of 3! , vid. reason and pause, reason because 3I is in 

its original constitution applicable to the rational and 

a* it 

irrational, contrary to ^ [182] ; and pause because, ^ 

being %nfl. % the imitation of the inflection is not disap- 



it 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 647 ) 

proved upon it either in continuity or in pause, whereas, 

^ being uninfl^ they try to keep it away from inflection, 
and therefore express the signs only in a state where 
there is mostly no inflection or Tanwln of declinability 
upon the word, vid. the state of pause, where the word 
is divested of the sign of the nom. and gen. and of the 
Tanwln : (2) you may restrict yourself in continuity to 

w* it 52 ml 

inflecting ^f in the sing., saying ^1 , ty , and ^gf in 
the sing., du., and pl. y masc. and Jem. The vowels 

affixed to ^1 in the state of imitation are explained as 
being its inflection, in which case it is an inch, whose 
enunc. is suppressed, an obj. whose v. is suppressed, or 
a gen. whose prep, is understood : but this is weak, 
because subaudition of the prep, is rare, extraordinary 

[515], while dualization and pluralization of ^J without 
imitation are also of weak authority [176] ; and it should 
rather be said, as in the case of £* [183], that these 

signs are imitative alliterations to the speaker's expres- 

a • i i 

sion, and that the place of both [ ^* and ^f ] is that 

• * A / 

of a nom. by inchoation, the full phrase being y& #* 

• * it *s s * 5* 

Who (is he) f and y& ^1 , i. e. y& J^j ^f What (man 

'it 
is he)? When you question with ^1 about dels., there 

is no dispute that what follows it is not imitated ; so 

As $ hi* A/ # A/ • 

that, when W3 ^^) and At.?. ^^ are said, you say 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 648 ) 

$A/ it 

i3j>3 ,s' Who is Zaid ? with the nom. only, because, the 

it 
inflection appearing in g\ , they dislike the 2nd to 

A/ A * *• A • 

differ from it, contrary to l^j ^ * n d **i) ^ [183]. 
Some of the Arabs, however, sometimes imitate the n., 
whether a proper name or not, even without a question, 

//A/ A /Ay S •# • hf 

as ^^ ^ ***** and UAyu j^J [1, 183] ; and there- ' 
fore, according to this dial, imitation is allowable when 

you question with ^* or ^gf , even without a proper 
name, as transmitted [by Mb] from Y [183]. 

§ 186. The KK allow to and the whole of the cfero*. 
to be conjunct, whether they be after the interrog- U 

A / 

[or £*] or not, citing as evidence II. 79. [56], i. e. ye are 

they that slay yourselves, iJI j*** [83], i. e. and he 
(that) thou carriest is freed, and XX. 18. [180], i.e. 
what is that (which) is in thy right handf; but the BB 
allow that only in the case of fo after the interrog. U 

A • / 

or m* , when So is not red., as it is in II. 246. [411], i. e. 

eJJf **, and in ^JLo ^jJJ fo U, i.e. ^hiJfU What is 

' ' ' ' 

Ma< (which) he has done?, to being rerf. in both posi- 

tions, since it is followed by a conjunct (R). (J is used 
as a conjunct upon two conditions, (1) that it be preceded 

• A/ *S<3s •/A* • • 

by the interrog. U or c y#, [as ^, JjJf !o U XVI. 26. 



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( 649 ) 

What is that which your Lord hath revealed ?, f3 ^* 
L*& (182), and 

^ f3 ^ J 15 * 1 ^ ** * *«>* u*y*M JJG SJJuaS; 
(Sh) <4»d many an ocfe, *Aa/ com** to kings, marvellous, 
have 1 composed, that it might be said. Who is he that 

composed itf (Jsh)] : (2) that J3 be not made otiose by 
being compounded with U [or ^ (IA)] into one [inter- 

* As * * * 

rog. (IA)] n. (I A, Sh), as c^*JL* |J U What hast thou 
done? [182], 13 U being treated as equivalent to 

^^i *f , so that it is a prepos. ob?\ ; whereas, if you 

' ' '. '. 

construe U to be an inch., and 13 an enunc., 13 is con- 
junct, JF/W t* lAa/ which <Aou Aa** done? because it is 
not made otiose (Sh). 13 U occurs in [6 (DM)] several 

ways: — (1) U is interrog., and !3 a tfewi., as in 

A • • A *S ' *s * S9K0& * * 

# • A • Ai^ Ay ? •• • y 

[ What is this standing by afire of war tvlien it has sunk 
low? long have fires been kindled in war! (Jsh)] : (2) 
U is interrog., and f3 conjunct, as in 

# •• $' • A* • AS/- $ A s£ 



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( 650 ) 

by Lab5d, [ Will not ye two ask man what is that (which) 
he is seeking ? A vow, so that it may be fulfilled, or error 

and vanity ? i. e. &J *lsu ( Jsh)] ; and preferably in the 
reading [of Abu 'Ainr (B)] JS [.f&l to U Jc^Uj 

s s 

* AsA#<0 

%A*M II. 216. 217. And they will ask thee what is that 
(which) they shall expend. Say thou, {That which they 
shall expend is) the superfluous, i. e. y**i I &)**H ^^ , 
fcince tbe general rule is that the nominal [prop. (DM)] 
should be answered by the nominal, and the verbal by the 
verbal : (3) to U is all of it a comp. inter rog., as in 



• A • ' 



-.JU. |j U [181] and 

A* / A $ 



A* /A .# s s s s A/ /A* • 

b 



AM 2i^9 • • A • A/ x 



[by Jarlr, small-eyed ones o/ Taghlib, what is the 
case of your women? They recover not from longing for 
the two Convents of the Christians (Jsh)] ; and preferably 

in the reading of others than Abu 'Amr f*&\ J* II. 
217. what they shall expend. Say thou, ( They shall 
expend) the superfluous, [because then the answer agrees 
witb the question in being verbal (DM),] i. e. ^f&i. 

JbJJ : (4) to U is all of it a n. [indicative (DM)] of genus, 

* * ' *' 

I q. 'J* , or a conjunct [n. (DM)], i. q. ^aW , accord- 
ing to different opinions upon the explanation of 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 651 ) 

[by AlMuthakkih al'Ahdi, iea»e ^ow a&me a thing 
(that), or *Aa* (wAtcA), / have known— I shall guard 
against it— but acquaint thou me with the hidden, i. e. 
iZJUi (Jsh)], where the majority hold that to U is all of it 
the obj. of ^ , but afterwards differ, Sf and IKh saying 
that it is a conjunct, i. q. g&\ ; and F that it is a [qualified 

A / ' ' ' 

(DM)] indet., i. q. sj* : (5) U is red., and 13 a dem., as in 

£»f \)j\ [565], orig\ £,*,, where F says that !o maybe 

«£• of £Y* , and U red. ; or that 13 U may be all of it a w., 

as in ^"i^^ > [though here it is a dem. } and there a con- 

' • * 

junct (DM) or indet.] : (6) U is interrog. } and (3 red., 

* A • • • • 

allowed by many, among them IM, in such as u»«£*0 13 U 
What hast thou done? [above] j but upon this supposition 

• A • • 

the 1 ought to be necessarily elided in such as \s*&*- 13 J 
[181], and the truth is that ns. are not made red (ML). 
And [there is a 7th way, for] 13 sometimes occurs red. 
after the conjunct U , as g\ 13 U ^ [above] that 
(which) I have known (R). 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



THE VERBAL NOUNS AND EJACULATIONS- 



§ 187. The verbal n. is that [n. ( Jm)] which is in 
the sense of the imp. or pret (IH). It is that [expres- 
sion (IA)] which acts as a substitute for the v. (IM, Fk) 
in [sense and (IA)] government (IA, A), but which is 
not impressible by the ops. [159], nor superfluous (A, 
Fk). The 1st restriction excludes the inf. n. occurring 
as a substitute for expression of the v. y [as in ftJ^j bye 
(41) (Sn),] the act. part, [as in JoSjS JlSf (24) (Sn),} 

and the like ; and the 2nd excludes the ps. (A), like ^f 
and its sisters [516] (Sn) . The verbal n. is [of 3 sorts 

' A/ A • 

(Sh),] (1) i. q. the imp., most often, [like &1> i. q. go 9 as 

m* S ** #sA// #A/A 

£j| /iJ (192) in the version with the ace, &**k i. q. au^f , 



as V. 104. (44), &&j J i. q. &ii f and **H)) or SjjJ L q, 

*A A* 

&1$*J (Sh)]: (2) i. q. the pret. > [more often than the 

' * * A • **• 

<w- (Sh),] like *lX%& i.q. **>, [as 

A / • -P /A#-» • /A • • /A/^ 

** iiT*J 3****' - wt 4& a> ^W 

A> • * *A#^ i * *h* * 

(Sh), by Jarlr, Then far, far off (22) are APAkik (a 
place) and he that is therein I And far off is a friend 
that in APAkik we shall be united with ! ( Jsh),] and 

/ fl / • //A 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 653 ) 

(Sh), by AlA'shk, Different are this and embracing and 
sleeping and the cool drinking -place in the shade of the 

fan-palm! (AAz)] : (3) i. q. the aor., like 5^1 i. q. £^yf 

A • * • A 2 w£ /2 //< 

(I A, Sh), ^ i.q. •^aa^f (IA), and lJJ i.q. ^sp^t; 
but some drop this division (Sb). The verbal ns. are 

A / 

[all (IA)] uninfl. (R, IA, Sh) upon quiescence, like 6.* 

A • * 0» 

and &+ ; Fatfc, like ^S ; Kasr, like &4 ; or Damm, 

# A, ' '# 

like ia^i* (Sh): (1) because of their resemblance [in 

sense] to the orig. uninfl., vid. the pret. and imp. v. 

A s 

[159] ; and [accordingly] we do not say that &* is i. q. 

hm '" * A* A s A/ y 

flCS V S^eoA no* and &* i. q. J*£> V jDo no*, since, if 

A SA# 

so, they would be infl. } but that they are i. q. ut~£~f 
& £t7in/ and uiiTf Forbear ; nor that uil is i. q. ^aa^jt 

ACf ^ £ ••* * 

/am disgusted and 8jl i. q. £^}->f /am pained } since, 
if so, they would be tn/I., but that they are i. q. the 

originative >*>fB*cu and cu*»a.y> : (2) as may be said, 
because they are ra$. denoting what is orig. uninfl., vid. 
the unrestricted v. [159], whether it remain in that o./., 
like the pret. and tmp., or become excluded from it, 
like the aor. [402, 404] ; and, according to this, the 

A * 

excuse mentioned [for the rendering of &* , etc.] is 

87 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 654 ) 

not needed (R): (3) as before said [159], because of 
their resemblance to the p. in acting as a substitute for 
the v. and not being impressible [by the op.] (IA). 
Accordiug to the correct opinion (Fk), the meaning of 
the term " verbal ns" is that (IY) they are applied to 
indicate verbal expressions (IY, Fk), as ns. indicate 

their denominates ; so that %sA&& is a n. indicating the 

expression «>*i , and similarly the rest. The object of 
using them is abbreviation and abridgment and a sort 
of intensiveness ; and, were it not for that, the vs. 
denoted by these ns. would be more fit for their posi- 
tion. The manner of the abridgment in them is that 
they occur uniform for all genders and numbers, as 

o*\ b 6*0 or oifc or ^W) or ^fjifc or &)*l) or 

I , A ' ' ' ' A, 

e^tJjto ; and, as for the intensiveness, 6*c Hush t is 

' A #A# 

more intensive in meaning than vs~&»f Be silent, and 
similarly the rest. As for their indicating what -vs. 
indicate, vid. command, prohibition, and the particular 
time, this meaning is imported only from what is indicated 

A s 

by them, not from themselves (IY) : so that *** [is a n. 

which (YS)] indicates [the expression (YS)] is^xlf (IY, 
YS), while the command is understood from the denomi- 

A SAS * /A • 

nate, vid. v**&»! ; and ct>t$*fc is a »,, the denominate of 

which is another expression, vid. d*; , so that the time 
is known from the denominate, not from the n. (IY). 
But R says [below] that this is of no account : and the 



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( 655 ) 

verbal n. is variously said (1) to indicate the inf. n., in 
which case a distinction between the verbal n. and inf. n. 
is needed, since the verbal n. is uninfl., and the inf. n. 
inft. ; (2) to indicate the accident and time that the v. indi- 
cates [402], except that the v. indicates time by the form, 
and the verbal n. by application ; (3) to be really a v. 
( YS). What induces the GG to say that these words and 
their likes are not w., notwithstanding that they convey 
the sense of vs., is a lit. matter, vid. that their forms are 
different from those of vs., that they are not conju gable 
like vs.j that the J [2] is prefixed to some of them 

[200] and the Tan win affixed to others [198], and that 
some of them are obviously advs. and others preps. 
and gens. [199]. As for their o.fs., and what they are 
transferred from, (1) some of them are obviously trans- 
ferred from inf. ns. and advs. [or preps and gens.], as 

W) *t» [188], U*j «i* [192], -UHM Utf ilji [198], 
f^i; UCUJ Tate 2oirf [but see § 199], or»g. *>e; «-£•<-! 

y • sA* A// 9h S / 

ljCa£-#J oS> &jioi Before thee is Zaid: then take him y 

for it has become in thy power [to do so] f and Sy+* <-XkU 
[199], since these words are often used according to 

As *t\tS A/ aH/ 

their original construction, as J^) *H)) and j*j *** *\ftt 

prothesis, US f Ij* with the nom. [as a prepos. enunc. 

(IY)] or ace. [as an inf. n. (IY)], and ±i) «-^-f with the 
nom. : (2) some of them seem to have been orig* inf. n$. f 



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( 656 ) 

/ / A / 



though they are not actually used as inf. ns., as ^U&) , 

s s A / s *<A / /SSs Si/ s /A > , A , 

c^r 1 i j 1 ^^ and tt> UA t like Ji* , ^tfcfc like 56^5 



J!>> like y»* , and *£ like w^j-a : (3) some of them are ap- 

parently 6/5. transferred to [the co£ of] irc/. ns., and thence 
to [that of] verbal ns., the gs. transferred to the cat. of 
inf. ns. being of two kinds, (a) permanent inf. ns., which 

* *Ay * / *y «*/A / 

do not become verbal ws., as i^f , l& j , U&f j 5 Uf , Uj^o , 

• /A/ • • A^ • • A • ^ A/ Ay 

^i; > ^-^j j «~*~ij , and )y*i *) ; (b) transferred 
from the cat. of in/, ns. to that of verbal ns., as &o , 

A/ s A d 85 s " 25' s£s sAs 

** , **> , £*> , Ufc , to , a , *£f , uOUfe , ufcfc , and 

/ A/ ■#£ l* ttfP A*£ A s 

v^i*> : whereas ^1 , if , cif , 8.1 , and A , when not 
used as ifl/1 w*. by being either governed in the acc. $ as 

Sip ' • up 

•M [198], or explained by the^., as u3 cif [200], are 
more properly said to remain ejs., and not to become 
inf. ns. or verbal ns., from the absence of indication of it ; 

A 

y y *y 

just as i-Xb)* Advance, or ite on <% guard from thy 

S * Ay *k* 4 * * * 

front, l^J*> Ife on thy guard from thy back, fj*< lJs6*. 

s y • y*» ' 5J y 

or u5;lis^ Beware of 'Amr, and l^> IspiM jlfafe Aa*fe / 

y 

[560], are more properly said to retain the quality of 
inf. n., since there is no indication of their transfer to 
the cat. of verbal ns. Thus the verbal ns. are proved 
to be all transferred from original inf. ns. y from inf. ns. 
orig. ejs., from advs., or from preps, and gens. As for 



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( 657 ) 

•Juf , it is said to be Syriac, of foreign measure, like 

JL#6 Cain and J#U& Abel y meaning IJi', and then 
made a verbal n. i. q. \& J^ So be it!, mduninfl. upon 
Fath ; and to be sometimes lightened by elision of the f , 
as vul upon the measure of ^>/ : but there is nothing 
to prevent its being said to be orig. abbreviated and 
afterwards prolonged ; and in that case it is Arabic, orig. 
an inf. n., like yl*> and yi& , and afterwards made a 

verbal n. (R). You say ^J , as says the poet 

|j*i lii^j U ftllfol^ .ft*! * «** vf ; Jala* -i* d*ly 
[Fa/£a/ awrf Me son of his paternal uncle have held 
aloof from me. So be it ! Then God increase what is 
between us in distance ! (N)] ; and, if you please, ^f , 
as says the poet [AlMajnun (N)] 

• #» y • *Ay sli^o S, A// */* / £* m/*h'* w* • 

[0 my Lord, do not Thou ever deprive me of her love : 
and God have mercy upon a servant that has said 
" Amen /" (N)] : but do not double the p for it is wrong 
(Th). By analogy the verbal n. that is orig. a prep, and 
g-ew., as uCaI! and uXxb , should not be called a verbal 

n., because we call an expression like &<o and j^ a w. 
from regard to its o./, whereas the prep, and gen. are 



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( 658 ) 

not a n. ; but they apply this name universally to every 
expression occasionally transferred to the meaning of 

the 0., so that s^^ in such as 3***^ *r*^ [below] 
may be called a verbal n. (R). The correct opinion is 
that the verbal n. has no place in inflection [159, 199] 
(Fk). Some assert that the verbal ns. are nom. in 

place, as inchs. having no enunc., as in ^^S ^ 

[24] : but this is of no account, because J&, though it 

resembles the r., has the meaning of the n. 9 i. e. ^ y$ , 
so that it may be an inch., contrary to the verbal n., in 
which the quality of n. has no meaning; and no regard 
is paid to the letter, since £*w in £lf £*w , though 
literally a v. } is an i/icA., because it has the meaning of 
the n. [2]. The verbal n. then is like the ^S of uflj 

[172], and like the distinctive [166] according to those 
who say that it is a p. : each of these two had a place 
in inflection, because of their being ns. ; but, since they 
have been transferred to the meaning of the p.> they do 
not retain that [place], because the p. has no inflection : 
and similarly the verbal n. had orig. a place in inflec- 
tion ; but, since it has been transferred to the meaning 
of the v., and the v. has orig. no place in inflection, it 
also does not retain a place in inflection. Nor is what 
some mention, vid. that the verbal ns. are aec. in posi- 
tion as inf. ns., of any account, since, if they were so, 
the vs. would be supplied before them [41], so that they 



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( 659 ) 
would not act as substitutes for the v., and therefore 
would not be uninfl. : nor do we say that uX*Uf i. q. 
r o£? [199] is governed in the ace. by a supplied v. [498], 
but the sign of the ace. in it becomes like the Fath of 

$'A / /A// /A/ 



the lJ in £**- ; nor that uXUs and i*OJI , when verbal 
ns. y are />rej0$. dependent upon a supplied [v.] ; but the 
pre. and pos/. in the 1st, and the prep, and gen. in the 
2nd, become like one word. Thus the inf. n. and ej. y 

* A /A/ #55/ 

when verbal ns. y become like J-^l and &*? [4] when 
proper names of a person; and the pre. and post, and 

r Jk**» *A/ 

the />rqp. and #en., when verbal n*., become like &*M j** 

55 s /£$/ 

and ^ ***G when proper names: so that they are 
transferred from their original meanings to the meaning 
of the v. in the same way as proper names are trans- 
ferred. And what some say [above], vid. that &* e.g. 

A # A* 

is a n* denoting the expression <juX~f , which is indi- 

A • 

cative of the meaning of the v., so that 6*c is a proper 
name for the expression of the v. y not for its meaning, 
is of no account, since the pure Arab sometimes says 

Ay A S A# 

&* notwithstanding that the expression c^X»f does not 
occur to his mind, and perhaps has never been heard 
by him at all ; while, if you said that it was a w. denot- 

A * A# • /A^O y A • A 

ing is^*^| or Jltf! ~# ^JuUf or anything else that 
conveyed this meaning, it would be correct : so that we 
know that what is intended is the meaning, not the 



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( 6G0 ) 

expression. And sometimes the v. becomes a verbal n., 
as in the saying of 'Antara 



o 

^ / ui y y*#/y y yA#^ y / y 

, A^o/ * .P y 



■y* ju ,u, ^Ai-Jf Vl *r 



^ou Gja* .xtiU «^iT f 

Take wine and cold water of a waterskin : if thou be 
asking me for an evening-draught of milk, get thee gone, 

* yA 

when related with ^^1 in the ace; and similarly in 
the saying of him who on looking at an emaciated he- 

•£**> y *A h*& y Ay/ y y y 

camel said to its owner ,5;*Mj ;}*M t-&A* ^^ Keep 

y 

yA A 

to, and Take, seeds and date-stones with jyA\ in the ace. : 

y 

IS says that Mudar make it govern the ace, and 

yA h*o y A/y * * * 4A/A 

AlYaman the nom.; for *)**« L-** 1 * «^o^ means **jlf and 

* A / 

8ii*. , because, lying being held by them to be extremely 

disgraceful, and an act whose author the person lied 

against is instigated to keep to and seize, ^H* tywif 
Such a one has lied comes to mean an instigation to 
keep to him, i. e. Keep to, and Seize, him, for he is a liar ; 

* A/y 

and, when conjoined with l-XaI* 9 it becomes more inten- 
sive in instigation, as though you said He has forged 
against thee ; therefore seize him ; and afterwards it is 
used in instigating to keep to every thing, even if it be 
not such as lying proceeds from, as in the saying [of 
'Umar to 'Amr Ibn Ma'dikarib, when the latter com- 
plained to him of pain in the sinews from walking (D),] 



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( 661 ) 

* ' sA<* s A// * • / y / / A*0 • A// 

Jl«»alf lJCJU ^.yxiT A:^/) to trotting, i. e. ^lLyjJb i»Xa1* , 

• / 

and in the saying of the poet 

3 33**0* P Sthi* * * * tit / • A ^ ht Si sA 3* 

f-4wrf {many) a DhubyHnl (woman was there) that 
enjoined her sons to keep to, L e. take care of, the coats 
and leathern cases (N)], i. e. t# JZA* , and in £*>M \->o£ 

• A// /A// 

7T^6/? to /Ac pilgrimage, i. e. *> i-jOi* ; so that, as u&l* 
and uX&ff, becoming i. q. the imp. v. [199], may govern 

£ / / / / A/^ / // 

the ace, so *,*]/ and l-OJ* v^j^, becoming i. q. the 

A/A 

tm/>., may govern the ace, as -JM does (R). The 
verbal ns. have the same government as the vs. that 
they act as substitutes for : so that, if that v. govern 

A / 

the now. only, the verbal n. does so too, as &* i. q. 

A 3*3 A/ A 3S3 $A/ //A/ $ A / / */ 

ts*-£~f , &« i. q. u-itff , and v^J cyl^D i. q. v*>j a^y , 

A / A/ A * AS 

a latent [165] prow, being in &«0 and 6* , as in d^I 

UAj $ A./ 

and vJ*tfl, and <>i3 being governed in the nom. by 

• /Ay / */ 

ctstgJb [20], as by *±*> ; and, if that 0. govern the nom. 

*A/ /y 

and aa?., the verbal n. does so too, as fj^j c5l^ i. q. 

JA A# *A/ // *A A * 

6f ol and t *•* v^ *• *i* *0*1 > a l fttent pro». being in 
• / ' • 

// / / '*' '*' 

4^l;0 and v'r* > an( * ^3 anc * '>** being governed in 

the occ. by them [44] (IA). The i^ is often red. in 

88 



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( 662 ) 

• A// 

their oty'., as *> UCaI*, because, being weak in govern- 
ment, they are supported by a p. accustomed to con- 
duct the intrans. to the obj. [433, 503]. According to 
the BB, they are not preceded by their aces., from regard 
to the o./., because they are mostly inf. ns., which may 
not be preceded by their regs. [342] ; or ejs. aplastic in 
themselves, transferred to the cat. of inf. ns. and thence 
to that of the verbal n. ; or advs. or prepe. and gens. y 
which also are weak before the transfer, since their 
government is [merely] because of their implying the 
sense of the t>. : but the KK allow that, citing as evidence 
•jjf J>{J\ l$j b [my iuc&el take thou{Jsh)] ; whereas, 
according to the BB, u# ;0 here is not a verbal n., but 
an adv., enunc. of ,3 jk [1], i. e. my bucket is before 
thee: (then take ty (R). The verbal n. % like the 0,, is 

• Av *K*S 

not pre.: and therefore they say that *lj and ^ } in 

A/ /A/ *' *Ay# 

oi; &*> [192] and **•*) *>*;) [188] are t»/. ns., the Fatha 

* * h* •A, * A* yA/# 

being a Fatha of inflection ; and in I J*j &1> and l*ij *>)) 
verbal n*., the Fatfcia being then known to be a Fatha 
of uninflectedness, because of the absence of Tanwin. 
The aor. is not governed in the subj. in the correl. of 

the requisitive verbal n. : you do not say u^J^li 6*0 

with the *tti/«, contrary to the opinion of Ks [411] ; but 

y x • 

the oar. is governed in the apoc. in its correl, as uCitfct 
£jf [420, 421] (Sh). Most of the verbal ns. are i. q. 



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( 663 ) 

the imp., since in command one often contents oneself 
with making a sign instead of articulating its expression, 
and much more therefore may one content oneself with 
an expression acting as a substitute for it; whereas 
enunciation is not like that : and the meanings of the 
verbal ns., whether imp. or otherwise, are more intensive 
and corrob. than those of the vs. that they are said to be 
in the sense of ; while all that are enunciatory contain 

• s Ay 

the sense of wonder, so that *u>t#JD means How far/ f 



/ /A / 



^UA How different f f ^y* and ^£&j How quick f, 

and ^ttaj How slow!, the wonder being the corroboration 
mentioned All of them are without any sign for the 
[attached] pron. governed by them in the nom. [161, 
163, 165], the prominence of which in any of them 

proves it to be a v., and not one of them, like J*> [189] 

and uuUb [below]. The affixion of the i*S of allocution 
[163, 560] and of the Tanwln [198, 608] is not regular 
in all these n$., but is restricted to hearsay. When 
the i*S is attached to these ns. y then, (1) if it be attached 
to what is orig. an adv. or prep., it is a n. governed in 

the gen. from regard to its o.f, as in uC*L| and ljCJI 
[199] j (2) if it be attached to what occurs both as a 

Ay • As* s/t, 

pre. inf. n. and as a verbal n., as ^j j*>^ and (^ 
[188], it may be either a n. governed in the gen. from 
regard to the n/s being an inf. n. pre. to its ag. 7 or a/?, 
of allocution from regard to the n.'s being a verbal n. % 



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( 664 ) 

as in l.^; iJ±i)) [161, 188, 560] ; (3) if it may not be 

post., it is a p. of allocution, as in u^Ub [190], since 

A/ S 

i±j) la> does not occur (R). As R says (Sn) f according 

to the majority (R), the Tan win affixed to some of these 
ns. denotes indeterminateness [608], not of the v. signi- 
fied by that n. pronounced with Tan win, since the v. is 
neither det. nor indet., but of the inf. n. signified by that 
n. before it became a verbal n., [because the verbal n. 
pronounced with Tanwln is either an inf. n. or an ej. 
firstly substituted for the 172/. n. and secondly transferred 

to the cat. of the verbal w., so that l<c means U Uj£~ : 
and therefore the verbal n. divested of Tanwln, out of 
those that Tanwln is affixed to, is like the del. (R),] so 

that fco means ^^m J f %»jg*Jf %&>j£*Jf ^X-l Be silent 
with the known, specified silence ; [and, specification of 
the inf. n. being by specification of its reg., i. e. the 
story that silence is kept from, this means ta^£~J| J*if 
*£*J| L^oaJI f«ia> ** Keep silence from this specified 
story (R)] ; and accordingly it is allowable for the 
person addressed not to keep silence from something else 
than the story indicated ; [and similarly &# means Abstain 
from this thing, and &>f means Tell the known story, the 
determination in the inf. n. being reducible to determina- 
tion of its reg. (R) :] and [the indeterminateness is 



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( 665 ) 

y * * S A S hS 

similar, so that (R)] 6*0 means GjC* 4&"*£~f, i.e. Keep 

unrestricted silence, {applicable to every silence suppos- 
able (R),]/rom whatever story it be (R, Sn), since there 
is no specification in it (Sn) : and, according to them, 
omission of the Tanwln is not evidence of determination 
in all the verbal ns. [198], but only in such as the 
Tanwln of indeterminateness is affixed to (R). From 
this it follows that the verbal ns. in the state of determi- 

nation belong to the class of n. made det by the Jf 
denoting knowledge [599], which is plainer than the 
saying of some that they then belong to the class of n % 

made det. by the Jf denoting genus, and than the 
saying of others that they then belong to the class of 
generic proper name [198] (Sn). But, according to ISk 
and Jh, its affixion to such of them as it is affixed to is 
evidence of their being continuous with what follows 
them, and its suppression is evidence of pause upon 

A y y Ay y 

them : you say *-* &«* and &+ 1+ with Tanwln in the 

1st and quiescence of the 8 in the 2nd ; and the saying 
of Dhu-r Rumma 

**hf° s m*& As * / y y y wP Ay yA*y y Ayy 

[198] We stopped, and said, Tell us more about Umm 
Sslim ! And what is the good of speaking to the empty 
dwellings t occurs, say they, without Tanwln, though 
he does continue, because pause is meant to be under- 
stood : so that, according to them, the Tanwln is orig 



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( 666 ) 

the Tanwln of declinability indicating that what it is 
affixed to is continuous with what follows it, not paused 
upon [609, 640], being divested of the meaning of declin- 
ability in these ns., and put to indicate the meaning 
mentioned (R). The verbal ns. are of two kinds, (1) 

imp., which has the prevalence, (a) trans., as (a) ^y 
l^t} Deal gently with Zcdd, and Give him time [188], 

SS hf SA A$ ,h 

i.e. to^f and &l$*f, [orig. the inf. n. of ^f , and mader 
a curt dim. by elision of the augs. (291) ; or, as Fr says, 

$ * *A* * A* *Aa$ 

dim. of O)) gentleness (IY)] : (b) f*>£J uvJ i. q. ju^ , 

As / / *• 

[and Wj *-**&? transmitted by the Bdd, most probably 

derived from &o£> slowness, the lJ being a « perma* 

nently changed into >&>, as in *\)f (689), and the £ 
being a Hamza irregularly changed into ^ for a kind 

of alleviation, as in &*f for s*>\f (685) (IY)] : (c) 

*A/ 3*y jams 

W) (J* -Bring JZafcJ wear, and Present him> i. e. &e/ 

*AA* s A 3 <* S ' 

and 8^o^f [189] : (d) sJUS */&> Give me the thing 

A* 

[428], i. e. *Aila*f , [which has the pron, of the du. and 
pi. affixed to it, because of its strong resemblance to the 

S S *A* 3 / 

v. (IY),] whence II. 105. [and in tradition )y&* ^ f ylfc 

AS /A* ' 

f#fj«f Otoe #e /fie /owr*A (jf Me /era Ms 0/* yowr goods, 
Kke fX*> (189) and >lto (190) (IY)] : (e) f^ /UD Take 
Zaid, i.e. Sii. [190] : (/) *$\ J^., i. e . *fcf [191]: 



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( «67 ) 
(g) loi; «lf £e< afo«« Zbtrf, i. e. &*i> [192] : (h) l#\f 

y hSh* *Av /- A/* 

Leaoe /Am, i.e. \#f\ [193]: (t) l^j t^J* .K^p to 

t A/A «• S'/ 

Zaid, i. e. «U)»f ; and Id*; ^* Present Ztw'rf to me and 

' A* ill *AwS 

Brtnff Aim near to me [199], i e. euity [and ^** **;» 

° • /■ y y y • 

A / A * A* 

( AAz)] : (b) in trans., as (a) *-0 i7i/$A, i. e. c**&»f : 

A y ** A * 

(6) &* Bold, i.e. U^l : (c) &*t TV//, or ^rfrf more, i.e. 

A W y A * 

t**j^> [or 05, which is mentioned with the intrans. 
from regard to usage, since they hardly ever say &if 

• A •A^ ' 

i^jaH , though analogy does not forbid it, but rather 
requires it, because &>1 acts as a substitute for a trans. 

A IMS * ' # ' Ay A A* 

v . An*a> or O; (IY)] : (d) cH* J/afo Aotfe, i.e. £y*f , 

y ' ' 

[which is said in calling, as says the poet 

/A /I y • A^» / * y # A*A,o y * A A* 

IVI lot jyn l&f ^JJf /.-I £fl 

/A/ y A/y /A/ $// #yA*/ • A*« fi£ 

Conwy thou to the Commander of the Believers, brother 
of At Ir3k, when thou comest, that Mlrak and its people 
are devoted to thee, then make haste, make haste, meaning 

* Ay 

'All Ibn Abl Talib; and has three dial. vars. ss*& 
(IY)]: (e) [ ji or (AAz)] J* [or ji (191) (IY)] Make 

A h% * y y y 

haste and Come 9 i. e. £y*f [and JU3 , orig. a chiding 
for the horse (191, 200), and afterwards made a verbal n. 



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( 668 ) 

• S3 / 

(IY)]: (/) lXaJD Make haste in what thou art about, 
[the n. being ^ , and tbe kJ a/>. of allocution (IY),] 

• A / 

and u££*> [lightened by elision of one ^ (IY)], and 
Ufc , [the I being put for pause when the u* is not 

* ht • A A 2 

affixed (IY),] i. e. &aS c^Jf Ua3 &y»\ y as 

S3 • $ • 5 / • • S3 A* */• £ *A^ 

^ J*-** j& r ,oU * *^ **/ tM&t 

35/ £•• * Ai^ • • Ay* 

UJD L$i JjJJf Lj oii 
[by Ibn Mayyada (IY, AAz), addressing his she-camel 
(I Y), Assuredly thou shalt make a rapid journey by night 
to the watering-place of the morning, so long as a young 
weaned camel continues to be among them. (If thou 
resolve upon journeying, the lJ being the correL of the 
prop.,) the night has grown dark: then make haste, make 

" A A 

haste (AAz)]: (g) JVy Alight, I e. Jy\ [193]: (A) 

lJoS and uXk* Be satisfied and Desist, i. e. Uuff and 

i A . . A ' ' ' *' 

&^f, [the u£ beinga/>. of allocution, and oi' and LaS 

contracted from *>S and 1^ , because they are derived 

• A £ <o P S S / * h fi * 

from sJiA\ **ij* and «^»ta» / cut the thing along 
and across, as though temg- satisfied were a cutting off" 
/rom even/thing else (IY)]: (i) uCJf Be of , i.e. <*«, 
[as in the verse {of 'Atad Ibn AlAbras (SR){ cited 
by Th. 



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( 669 ) 

*% * h ai / / A* A / A 

£<*• A / h<* AC / • A^3 A t 

Go, te off, for verily I am of the Banti Asad, the people 
of the tents made of ski?is, and the people of the horses 

m '* A • A 

and the assembly, as though the poet said ^kj ^fcjf 



W 



(IY)]; and ^f / will be off, heard by Akh from a maa 

• A* £ 5 /• 

when UOJ! was said to him, as though ^i3 had been 



£ 25, • * 



said to him, and he said ^^^1 [199]: (j) go Recover 

A *A 

thyself i. e .£*^ > [said to the stumbler or to hiin that 
is afflicted by a calamity, as 

• ^ *• A* * A/ ^JL^O / / 

, •A/ *A i^» #»• Mi/ A/« t * 

Gorf shame a people that say not to a stumbler, nor to 
a son of a paternal uncle that fortune has afflicted, 
"Recover thyself 7" (IY)]; and UJ Uj or Uj^^, [which 
is, however, an iw/l. inf. /i., like l-X' U*~ (IY), because 
it is explained by the p.] : (k) v-4 and vu! Answer 

A •A 

TAom, [said in prayer (IY),] i. q ^»X-1 : (2) enun- 

• • • • A • 

ciatory, [which is rare (IY),] as (a) tJlo y*A&a> Fe^, 
or Wholly, far is that! [195], i. e. [ \*± (IY)] **> for 
•**jif J* , which requires an ag., like the v., as uvl^ 



89 



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( 670 ) 



- - * **— s sat 

e»' J^x/l *,l#* (above): while ia XXIII. 38. (504) 
"»mc say that tho J is red., and U the ag., i e. «^a> 
£»f U «,1$a» Far,/ar o# fr w^ efe; some that tbe Q ^ 
is suppressed, i. e. <Jl U jj^J J.,'/ F „ rj /</r ^^ 
fulfilment) of what etc.; and some that the ag. i sa pro/i. in 
~<<h» , i. e. f O*, <J£> jfor, /ar 0#i5 y0Mr rBM|mw . 
rto* or ^1^1 y OUr beinf , brought forth, because the 
gl/^t is "previously mentioned (IY)] : (b) ^\ ^j ^u* 
[19G], i. e. Sfi\ and lL'£, [the ^ of which is Mma . 
times pronounced with Kasr (IY)]: (c) %\X\ fj 'C 
i. e. t ?* , [ a /,,<,„., meaning How quick is this as melted 
fat!, &14I being in the ace. as a .7,. (IY)]: (d) 6 'u*,' 
^ [a"d ^f (IY)Jf j. e . ^; [and ^ ^ 
9«fo*, and jw,, is this in coming forth, fc^L being in 
the ace. as a V-JIY)]: (e) jf / flW ^^ • q 
,^l [ I97 ]: (f) ^Slampavn'ed,\. q. ^jf (M}> ^.^ 
has several cfo/. vars., fof ... 5 | } as 

Am., Ua« ^ ; l ±".4*)* l € ;/o U (Of U6I/JJ »£' 

[Then alas for the remembrance of her, whenever I 
remember her, and for the distance of earth between us and 
shy! (N)], w, ,,!, y. and ^ (IY) The ^^ 



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( 671 ) 



is ty with Kasr, Damn), or Fath of the 8 , Kasr being 
the most prevalent, as £l| UM/JJ » ; li (D). oS is (1) a 
n. *y/t. with w^**** , (a) mostly uninft., because of its 



A • 



resemblance to the p. ^ [575] in its letter, and to many 

4 /A A/ A/ 

/>*. in its [At7. (DM)] constitution, as (fi>o J*; a? Zaid's 
sufficiency is a dirham and ^oi jl/y sufficiency ; (b) 

f / A A/ ^ • A • 

seldom in/?., as J&^o oj} ^ w ^ [ «>* * tt (DM)] the 
worn., like J&>a oe; »-— ^ > and ~Ji , like l5 **~ & > • (2) 

v ' * ' ' A, 

a verbal w., [always uninfl. (DM)J syn. with ^i, as 

$• A ^A/ A, A' ' 

f*;^ W) *** ^ dirham suffices Zaid and ^oS suffices 

' §,A *K, A* A/ *, 

roe, like Jfc ; o fj*; jilut and ^/^i [170J. « is (1> 
• / ^ • • 

$ A • $/ A , 

[a ». (DM)] *yn. with -^^ , as Jt^o JaS >/y suffi- 

/ A • As A * 

ciency is a dirham and t-StaS 77/^ sufficiency and t>ij *** 

9' * * ' ' SK * 

Zaid's sufficiency, like ^^ ^^^ and lXa~&» and 

Ax S h * 

0^3 u-***^ , except that it is uninfi., because it is consti- 

' * A , 

tuted of two letters, whereas w-^**^ is infl. : (2) a verbal 

A/ A • Ax 

n. jyw. with ^i , as ^^5**** Suffices me, like ^J^&t ; 
and the * of protection is allowable in the 1st case also, 

§ A x 

[where it is syn. with ^~ 2* (DM),] for preservation of 

A , y 

the uninflectedness upon quiescence. Jsbj is (l) a 



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( 672 ) 

Ay 



verbal n. syn. with ^i. as t5 il» Suffices me, [like 

Ay ' 

^*&l (DM),] which [usage (DM)] is rare: (2) a n. syn. 

' ' t A , 

with *-'*"*' , as vi^ 3 ^ -^ sufficiency, whence 



y 

* • y A* 



IXJU. ^f &Jy£ J.A V| 
h * * A • S^ y A •• yf 

[by Tarafa, JVow, verily I have drunk a dark, black 

(poison): now, I have had enough of this draught, now, 

enough ! (Jsh) ; and in this case expression of the ^ 

y 
is rare (170) (DM)J. t, is a [verbal (DM)] n. i. q. 

* 4 A* 

A , as 



S * h**& A" 35 ^ /S^/ ^ • A£a#* ,#y A$ f y 

* y s * * ' 

S s *i A y Ay $ y Ay A* 

• • y 

[by a Rsjiz of Taim (FA), / marvel at thy beauty {with 

my father be thou ransomed/) ; and thy cool sweet mouth 

is as though saffron had been sprinkled upon it, or ginger, 

which to my mind is nicer (FA), DM)]: and sometimes 
* y 
Ufctj [198] is said, as 

y yA /2l A/ y*A#^ y y y 4 y 254 •Ay * y 

[by Abu-nNajm al'Ijll, / marvel at the niceness of 
Salmd, again I marvel, 1 marvel ! She is (the object of) 

desires — would that we had got them ! (Jsh)] ; and ^ 
[200], as 



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( 673 ) 

m 9 X A x A X A xAx A •• A / * A > $ X / -Py A J/ A / A? X A X 

>** J*?J*± &**> ^) ^* — "4 ^^ ** ^ cT 1 e^ 35 

[by Sa'ld Ibn Zaid asSahabl, I wonder! Verily he that 
has wealth is beloved, and he that is needy lives a life 
of hardship (J sh)]. And sometimes the i^$ of allocu- 

A X S x ht 

tion is affixed to this [ 3; i. q ^^ (DM)], as 

A% x*Ax xA' s th^a S s s* * isht* A/ x x A xxx 

fS>\ yuU U^i) j")!^ J** * *4**~ '>*'; ^5-^ ^^ ^j 
• x ^^ ' ' 

[by 'Antara, And assuredly the saying of the horsemen 
" I wonder \at thee (Jsh)\, k Antara, advance!" did heal 
my mind, and cure its distemper (FA, Jsh)] ; but Ks says 

, A/ XX A/ 

that '~£t) is orig. l-XOj } iu which case the i^S is apron, 
governed iu the gen. [by prothesis (FA)] : and, as for 
ilM J Uk } XXVIII. 82. [200], Akh says that ^ 

A X 

is a verbal w., the lJ a p. of allocution [affixed to ^ > 

#w/xAX/AX £ £ 

as in £M >*i* t-*d; (K)], and ^\ [in the position of a 
gen.] by subaudition of the J , the sense being / marvel 

A • 

because God; but Khl says that ^j is sej)arate [from 

£1 £/ #w A x A £x A x 

^tS (K)], as in £lt ^ ^tf ^ [above], in which case 
^t$ denotes verification [531], as in 

/ ; A/ xAxx x A x 9* x J 9*t* 9 x A* x 2$S 

X X # X XX 

[by Sulaiman Ibn 'Abd AlMalik, or, as is said (Jsh), by 
'Ulnar Ibn Abl Rabl'a (KA, Jsh) alMakbzuml, Verily I, 
when I enter upon the evening while she speaks not to me, 



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( 674 ) 
«■ • thrall that lon gsfor wkat ,,. mt tQ bg ^ (J ^ 

«■ e. ^M, [the sense being / ^w, f^ o«n 
(ML). 

§ 188. * /;; is (l) iuninA (M))] a verba , n 
transferred from the fa/: n. [187], through frequency of 
usage, by the v.'s not being supplied before it, but the 
tnf. «/s being made to act as a substitute for the v and 
pronounced with Path only because it is uninfl. „ poa 
the vowel appropriate in inflection [199] (R), trans to 
a [single (IY) direct (R)] ^., as £3 j£ (Iy 
the poet [Malik Ibn Kl.alid alKlmna'l (DH)] says ' 

ur f«"~v 4) ^ * f^f ^a^ U o*. LI* jj 

[/-I <Ah alone for a w hile: their relationship * us ha* 

been cut off, but their hatred is ol d , remote (M)] 

*A being a tribe [of Kina'na (ISk), U red. (DH) ], and ' 

^ a met. for ^(IT) f . and [sometimes U is re dun. 

dantly added to ^ when a verbal «., as (R ;] an Arab 

rl rt ! h : s / el,ow ™ ^v<;^ ^;;^ 

if« «- --x> (M, R), i e. * gw- ?/ thm hadsed ^ red 

dtrhams, 1 W ould have given to thee: [then (IY)] let 
poetry alone, [thou hast no need of it (IY)] ; and [some- 
l") 6 ! ^ ° f a,, ° CUti0n is affixed *o it, so that (IY)] 
^3^;;n61,187,560]issaid(IY,R),whereitmaybe 



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( 675 ) 
either a verbal «., the ^J being a p., or an inf. n. pre. to 
the ag. (R): (2) infl. (M), (a) an inf. n. (IY, R) i. q. the act. 
part. (R), used as (a) an ep. [of an inf. n. (R)], as f ;; L* 
fjjl» twu* They journeyed with gentle journeying, [i. e. 
lo 5r t (R)] ; (*) a tf. *., as f jj>j ; f j; U 7%*y journeyed 
gently (M, R), i. e. ^o jr t (IY, R): it is an */>. of the inf. 

n. when you mention the latter, and a d. s. when you do 
not, because of the weakness of suppressing the qualified 
and putting the ep. into its place [149] ; but what is meant 

may be f j^ t^ I ;;l~ , the qualified being suppressed, 
and the ep. put into its place, though this construction is 

* • A 

weak (IY) : (b) an inf. n. (M, R) i. q. |of^ ; J (M), which 

is the origin of the two other kinds, [vid. 1 and 2 (a), 
and is sometimes] (a) trans, to the direct obj. (R), as 

\*i) )*.» ( 1Y » R '» l e - ***» fi **5 °;^' the *• being 

suppressed, and the in/, fl. made to act as a substitute 
for it (IY), like fj^j b,i [41] (R); (b) pre. [to the obj. 
(IY, R)], as 0^5 it y> , like y*yt vr ^ XLVII. 4. 

^A/# A*A A* • /A<« tu// 

Smite «« Me necks (M, R). In t^ ;; ^t j£,M0l J«*> 
LXXXVI. 17. TAcn te* *A« unbelievers alone, let them 

* /A 

atone aufe/fr it may be an fa/, n. [i. q. Vl^f (MAd), a 
corroft- upon a corrob. (Sh on the corrob.y] ; or an q>. 

* • # /A 

of a [suppressed] *n/ n., [i. e. |^u*e %>t (K, B)];or 

9 



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( 676 ) 

m* / * h / * $ A/S 



a d. 8. (R) : the poet says ^1] Ju^ ^ fj^ [156], 

/ A/S ' 

which is also related jju^ (IY), Leave off, Banic ShaibSn, 

AS • • A/ 

am* of your threatening, *?&&% .%£*> being the ob/\ of 

*A/S ' ' /-A/S 

[the in/", fit fjj^ or verbal w.] oj>^ (FA, Jsh): the 

«* as • / / a/s 
Hudhali says ^Jl ja. ^U jj^ [above] (ISk) : and the 

£ / /A ui ** * * A/S 

pror. says u^* ;*£Jt u^j^.j; Leave the poetry alone. 

' ' * A/ • yA/S 

/< u>*7/ remain a night, [like f j^j »-*<^)] (T). 

Si/ 

§ 189. J^D is compounded, (1) according to our 
school, from the premonitory p. [ to (IY)] together 

Ss »i / 

with J, [its o./., says Khl, being J to, from the say* 

S * / • Sj|^ MS S/* / 

ing *£*£ $JJ| J God unite his disunion f,\.e f * # ^ , as 

/Ax • • A/ 25s 

though the speaker meant UuJf lX*& J CTfu'te (thyself 

A SAS £ 

to t/*), i. e. ^j5| -Draw near ; and (IY)] the f being 

elided from to [for alleviation, because of frequency of 
usage, and because the J after it, though mobile, is in 

the predicament of the quiescent, since the o. /. and the 

***** ' 
stronger of the two dial, vars., vid. the Qijazl, is *Jf to 

(731), so that the | of to is elided because of the con- 
currence of two quiescents (IY)J : (2) according to the 

A / S? 

KK, from Ji> together with J, [its o./., says Er, being 

fi{ A/ A A 

/A J*> > *• s- fc^' an( ^ (1^)] ^ e Hamza being [alleviated 



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( 677 ) 
by having its vowel thrown upon the J, and being 

£* x Ax 

(I Y)] elided, [so that the word becomes Jto ; and the J*> 

compounded with J being the one denotative not of in- 
terrogation, but of chiding and urging, from the saying 

Ax 2?X Ax .# x A x Axxx 

X 

(191) (IY)]. The IJijazIs make it uniform in all numbers 

Ax Ax 

and genders, [like 6*0 , &• , etc. ; which form is in 
accordance with analogy (187), and occurs in the Reve- 

x Ax 33#x A x A x w/Acfl/ 

lation, as Ua1| c JLiJ> ^lyJ/ ^Wf. XXXIII. 18. And 
* x " *' " 

the sayers to their brethren. Come hither to us (IY)] : 

but the Bank Tamlm, [having regard to the v. J , and 
giving predominance to its side (IY),] say Llfc , f^JUfe , 
^5*1*) , and [according to the BB and most of the KK 
(IY)] ^ j ** 1 1 ** , [because the J of the word becomes 

X Ax X 

quiescent upon attachment of this ^ to it, as ^>yb , 
and, when the letter before the ^ becomes quiescent, 
the incorporation is annulled, and the word becomes 
like «jo ; ! (731) ; while Fr asserts that ^J^> ought to 
be said, because, this ^ being always preceded by a 
quiescent, they add a 2nd ^ before it for the quiescence 

m» x 

to fall upon, in order that the Fatha of the * in Jfr 

Ml I* X 

may be preserved, as they say ^^U and ^^ , adding a 

90 



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f 678 ) 

A A / 

2nd ^ in order that the ^ of g* and ^ may be 

preserved from Kasr (170); and ^t^> also has been 
transmitted from some of the Arabs, the letter added 
for protection being made a ^ , which is anomalous 

*A / £*s *Aw/ JA A* 

(IY)]. It is trans., [as Wj #1* , i. q. «j)5 and Sj-a^l 

* 9 h* * *** 

(IY),] like ct^UD ; and intrans., [as oj^ ^ (& (IY),] i. q. 

S /y A A^ ******** m*S 

JU3 aud Jol : e.g. ^>»J^^ ^ VI. 151. Bring for- 
ward your witnesses and XXXIII. 18. (M). And 

sometimes l-<J J^> is said, J& being explained by the 
J , because, though not orig. an inf. n. 9 it is treated 
like the verbal n$. that are explained by the prep, from 
regard to their o./. when they were inf. ns. } as XXIII. 

* A* 

38. [187, 504], i. e. Iu**e (R). And As relates that, when 
[|^ J\ (IY, R)] ^ [or lir Jj* (IY,R)] is said tg a 

£ A/ ui*/t • *$**t * 

man, he says [ *fJl (IY, R)] *)&\ V (M, R) or &M>\ V , 

£*i ' * $** ' 

orig. *)) V (IY, R), like o ; l V (IY), the 8 pronounced 
with Fath being aug. (R), as though he restored it to 

v»*i * 

its o.f before the composition (IY) ; or ^ V according 
to the other opinion, the 8 and J not being altered in 
the reply from regard to the form of the address (R) : 
but this is anomalous (IY). 



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( «79 ) 

§ 190. to is i. q. Si (M, R), jy2 , and the like 

(IY). It has 8 dial, vars.: — (1) you say Ufc with a single 
quiescent f for the sing., du. y and pi., masc. or fern. (R): 

(2) you affix [to this single I (R)] the [p. (IY, R)] lJ 
[of allocution (IY, R)]; and vary it [according to the 
states of the person addressed (M) in gender and number 
(IY)], as Ju> , [ L^li , Cfto , ^U) , and J&> (I Y, R)] : 

(3) you affix [to the I (IY, R)] a Hamza in place of the 
±S ; and vary it like the \J , as itfc (M, R), ste , U^UD y 

f jt*, [whence LXIX. 19. (22) (IY),] and ^£ (IY, R): 
this is the best dial. var. (IY, B on LXIX. 19.), and is 

the one that occurs in the Scripture ; but ffyto is strange, 
because the * is found in the pron. of the 2nd pers. only 

when it is not in the imp., as **♦* and Ui*? (IY) : (4) 

you combine the Hamza and the lJ , [as u£*U& (M), to 
corroborate the allocution (IY),] pronouncing the Hamza 

with Fatlj, and varying the «-£ (M, R): (5) you say 13> 
with a quiescent Hamza after the 8 for ail [numbers and 

A s 

genders]: (6) you conjugate this 5th like go (R); [for] 

£r A • 

some say U> upon the measure of !-**&> , and conjugate 

b* * * * * / , %, 

it like the latter (M), as to , gl* , H* , I j£* , and ^U) 

£ *• £• ,*, 

(IY): (7) you conjugate it like i-ii* (IY, R), as U>, ;U> 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 680 ) 

or £*&> , U&> , \/)to , and ^Ufc , making it a v. [below] f 
which is corroborated by the saying /tol #r *-t From 
whom shall I take? transmitted by Ks as said in reply to 
>U& , like cili-f *** ; and, according to this opinion, it is 

on the measure of J** J**e , like c^k* JkU f for which 
reason the Hamza of its initial may be pronounced with 
Kasr [404] (IY): (8) you [affix a Hamza to the f, 
and (R)] conjugate it like (M, R) 06 (R) [or] r f; (M), 

s s 

as JU* , gJlto , t^l* , ^yp* 9 and ^l* ; and the saying 
of 'Ah 

• •/ A 3 h/* Z/S ,hS shZ*> m*/ * *t 

[ Fstima, take the sword not blamed; Jor 1 am not 
dastardly, nor base (DA)] may be of the 3rd dial, or of 
this, the ^ being elided in the latter case because of the 
quiescence of the J after it (IY). The last three are 
aplastic vs. [above], having neither pret. nor aor., not 
verbal ns. [187] (R). 

§ 191- J^i^ is compounded of ^ and [ J^> or 

A y 

(AAz)] J& , [two ejs. meaning urging and hastening 



(IY)]. It is nninfl. upon Fath, [as Jgp* , whence Jof 

• •.* */**** ****** 4 /S y 

>*»> Js*»> ^^UJf ^6 (below) (IY)]; and %•■ 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 681 ) 



«•» / iA; ^/5 / 



with Tanwln [198] is said, [whence £\ ^f+yl H$6»> 
(below), according to the usual version (AAz)] ; and 
U$a*> with the t : S mentions these dial, vars.; and 

A/ S • *» / / // 

others add J$A=* , [whence £M ^3;^ (below) (IY),] 

/AS/ * aSi / 

and J$i^ , and M$^ (M). When you pause upon 

^sSf • # Ami • 

U^apw and %p-, you convert their ^ into f [615]; but 
in continuity expression of the 1 in them is a vicious dial.: 
and Labld in his saying 

A /Si/ A/ .0/ A / A/// S t K» *** / /// 

/ / / 

[mentioning a fellow-traveller whom he was bidding to 
start, He doubts about what I have said to him; and 
assuredly he does hear my saying " Come along" (MAR),] 
makes the J quiescent for the sake of the rhyme ; but this 
is not allowable except in pause : and the KSh gives J>$£*. 
[187] with [Fatli of the 8 and (AAz)] Kasr and Tanwln 

of the J (R). It is (1) [i. q. vs^f , and therefore (R)] 

/ * 

/ 25 *° * Sm * 

trans, by itself, [as ±ifiS J**"* Come to the crumbled 

h hi 
bread moistened with broth (R)]: (2) [i. q. £y*J , and 

therefore (R)] trans, by (a) the %^> , as [in the speech 

of 'Abd Allah Ibn Mas'ud (AAz) in tradition (M)] lil 

yM> tt^Aaai ^^sJUJI yo [TPAfn the righteous are men- 



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( 682 ) 

A A A t 

tioned, hasten (the mention of) 'Umar, i. e. 8/i* fH ' 






the o denoting making trans. (R)] ; (b) J! , [as J$J* 
o^pl Jl #a*te to */u? e/c. (R)]: (3) [i. q. JaSI , and 
therefore (R)] <ra»*. by J* (M, R), as *>) J* J$«- 
Approach Zaid. According to F, tlie two members of 
the comp., as regards assumption of the pron., are io the 
same state as j^^ ^ [31], i. e. each of them contains 
a pron., as before the composition, while the aggregate 
after the composition contains a 3rd pron., which is a#. 
of the aggregate, because the aggregate is i. q. t»-ij , 
lyls , or J*>\ ; but, according to others, they contain a 
single pron., and not each of them a pron., because the 
predicament of independence is obliterated from each of 
them by the composition: and, as for the saying 

[mentioned by S as being by a man of the Banu Bakr 
Ibn Wa'il, And he (the camel-driver in the preceding 
verse) roused the tribe from an abode; and a day, whose 
calling of one to another and " make haste" were many, 
W as spent by them (AAz)], the Damma of the J is a 
vowel of inflection, and the aggregate is a single term 
without a pron., because every expression other than a 
prop., to whose form a predicament is attributed [194], 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 683 ) 

may be imitated, as j*U J*i ^>yi> Daraba is a preterite 
verb and 

[by Muzahim al'Ukaill, or, as is said (AAz), by Aq 
Nabigba alJa'dl, With " ifcfa&e Aasfe" *Aey drura on evert/ 
riding-beast whose incessant journeying is before the 
- riding-beasts (IY, AAz)] ; or may be declined witb the 

cases of inflection [206], as 

/<**// £ A/ £ S uJs 2 5 A/ SW /A$ • A /A/ 

[by Abii Zubaid (H),] Would that I knew — and where 
on my partis " Would that" 1 Verily "If" and verily 

" Would that" are a weariness [200] and &ty*±) &£Oli3 

[above]. And sometimes uXA^ [560] is said (R;. ^a. 

A • 

and JJ& are combined only for the sake of intensiveness ; 
and, when you mean the original call without intensive- 
nw* (IY), ^ is used [alone (M)] in the sense of J^f , 
[made trans, by ^ (R)J as in [the saying of the 
Mu'adhdhin (M),] 8jLoH ^ ^ Come to prayer (M,R), 
wbicb is only a call to prayer (IY): but, according to Akh, 
some of the Arabs say S^LaM J^a. Come to prayer ; md 
^ occurs torn*, in the sense of «u^! (R) 3 whence 



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( C84 ) 

• x 
x ' x Ax / A2^C / x * # A^S X 

(IY, R), by Ibn Ahmar (IY, MAR), / commenced asking 
him what was the case of his fellow-travellers. " Come 
to the camels laden with litters : for verily the riders have 
gone" (MAR): and [sometimes (IY)] Ufc [is used (AAz)] 

a a* a a$ 

alone [in the sense of J*S| and * yA (AAz)], as 



• * • 



, M , J £/£ *A* A X X A xx x ' /• X ,*X xAx X A* '# 

bou >i» l r l o~*J\ oJU * Ua> t$i JTy, JJ UUi IK 

x x 

(M), by AnNabigha alJa'dl (IY, AAz), satirizing Lailk al- 
Akbyallya, Now convey ye two (my message) to Lai Id, and 
say to her, " Come up 11 . (By God,) she has perpetrated a 

x X 

glaring, notorious matter, where US> contains a reproach 

*,„ a* 

and rebuke to her (AAz), i. e. ^J^i and ^J^S ; but the 

U X Ax 

use of ^ alone is more frequent than that of J8> alone 
(IY)/ 



• A/ 



§ 192. 6k is (1) a [verbal (M, R, DM)] n., [i.q. 
£0 (IY, R, ML), i. e. tJ$f (DM), as faej &b (IY, R), 
like l*>4 ^ (R)]: (2) an <»/• »• ( M > R > ML )> »• <1- *-*& 



A x x Ax 



(M, ML), pre. (M) to what follows it (I Y), as o*) &i> 

Ax x Ax * 

[with prefixiontothe o#. (R)], like o*) ^ (M, R), of 
the caf. of XLV1I. 4. [188] (IY); and AZ relates that it 



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( 685 ) 

A / /A/ 



is transposed, when it is an inf. n., as ^.} J# (M): (3) 

as transmitted by F from Akh (R), a rc. (ML) i. q. >-**? • 
(a) what follows it is governed in [the ace. according 
to the 1st, the gen. according to the 2nd, and (ML)] the 
nom. according to the 3rd (R, ML) : (b) its Fatfc is unin- 
flectional according to the 1st and 3rd, and inflectional 
according to the 2nd (ML) : (c) the saying [of Ka'b Ibn 
Malik asSaJiabi on the day of the Ditch (Jsh)] 

s 

, \ S h* •£*• m ***** *h' 'St* * ' ' ' ' h ** * ' ' 

[They (the swords mentioned in the preceding verse) 
leave the skulls with their crowns laid bare, let alone the 
hands — or how then are the hands? — as though they 
had not been created (Jsh)] is related with [ *-ifV| in 
(I Y, R ] the ace. and gen. (M, R, ML) and nom. (R, ML) : 

• Ax A 

(d) when it is i. q. ^V , [says R (Dm),] ^ may be 
prefixed to it [499] (RJ Dm) : AZ transmits V UUi ^f 
S^uaJO Jb J &1> j*» tfil I J^su Ji jdai Verily 

+ * * ' ' ' ' 

such a one is not able to carry the stone : then how shall 

• A • 

he be able to bring the rock ?, i. e. uixf (IY, R, Dm) 

• A* A 

and ^jd1 ** whence f (R, Dm) ; and another version is 

• Ay A 

J# cJ* by transposition (IY, R) : (e) a strange circum- 
stance is that the SB in the exposition of the JS of [the 
32nd Chapter of the Kur named] »aaau*J| contains [the 



91 



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( 686 ) 

• £ <* x tt /aI 

following words], " God says, *iaoJtafl ^goU*! cL*oo*f 

* x *** 

xx Ax xx x x x xx A x x $ *£ xx A 1/ $Ax x X 

A/X A#A/£,0 X Ax A * A # 

&xJ* Jt*lb» U &1> #r # fyawS / have made ready for My 

x ■ x u / 

servants the righteous that which neither eye hath seen, 
nor ear heard, and which hath not occurred to the mind 
of man, as a treasure, other than, or not, what yc have 
become acquainted with 17 , so that it is used infi., gov- 

A 

erned in the gen. by •- , and excluded from the three 
meanings [above mentioned] : but some expound it by 

Ax 

ja* , which is plain ; and this corroborates those [vid. 
the KK and Bdd (DM)] who reckon it among the excep* 
tive expressions (ML) : (f) this tradition is related with 

xAx 

Fath or the sign of the gen. in 6h , and in both cases 

A 

with ++ : the version with the gen. has been explained by 

• Ax 

IHsh ; and in the version with Fatli &*> is [uninfl.,] i. q. 

X Ax X Axx 

ui^f , and U infinitival, the pron. in *£** relating to the 

X 

treasure, i. e. How, and Whence, shall be your becoming 
acquainted with it t (Dm) : (4) as held by Akh, [and 
transmitted from him by 1UK (Dm),] a prep. (IY, 
R, Dm), like 1^ [512] (IY, R), &L (R), and Ju^> 
[511] (IY), i. q. gy [89] ; and hence, as is said, the 

A// hPS Ax A I x XAX 

saying of the Prophet &d* f&*&>\ U *if besides what 1 
have acquainted them with (R). 



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( 687 ) 

§ 193. Jl*S [un infl. upon Kasr (Mb)] is f commonly 
held to be] always fern., det., and made to deviate 
from its proper form (Mb, IY). It is of 4 kiuds, (1) [a 
verbal n. (Mb, IY, R), i. q the imp. (M),] like Jl£ 
Alight (Mb, M, R). i. q. J/f [187] (Mb, IY, R), lJU* 

Overtake, [i. q. ^M (IYj,] and [ok* (IY)] oU [said 
in battle (IY)], i e. Ze< eacA of you take his adversary 
(M) : (a) according to S, it is universal in the tril. [be- 
low] (M, R), because of its frequency : but it is said [by 
Mb (R)] to be confined to hearsay, since no one may 
invent a form not spoken by the Arabs (IY, R), nor may 
we act upon analogy in the intensive forms ; while An 
says that Mb's disallowance is strong ; and therefore it 
is better to interpret what S says by supposing that by 
universality he means frequency, so that Jl*> is quasi- 

regular because of its frequency (R) : Jui as an imp. 
does not occur in the Revelation, except in the reading- 
of AlHasan j*l~* V XX. 97. Touch me not [below], 
which in the prefixion of V to the verbal n. is like their 
saying to the stumbler, when they imprecate upon him that 
he may not recover his footing, [v-XJ (MAd)] Ld V May si 
thou not recover thy footing ! (Sh) : (c) it is rare in the 
quad. (M) ; and is then JH*i , not Jt*J (IY) : they are 



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( 68S ) 

4 

agreed that (R) only two words of it occur in the quad., 

•A/ A Ay 

vid. )Gf (IY, R),i. e. £f (IY), as 

/A h*> $ * S/h^3 , ,, ht*s * A/ * £ 0^ S ** A •• 

[7%e breeze of the east wind said to it (the cloud) " /forn- 
ix ( iri/A thundery 1 : and the ground «?<?/ tr«7/i raaVz be- 
came bleaded with the dry ( AAz)] ; and [ }*f (IY, R), 

s 
Ss* A/A 

i. e. P/ay a* 5j*j»Jf , which is a g-awe of theirs (R)], as 

• A/ A## •A • *A/ • A/ • •* AxA • • /• ^ 

(M, R), by AnNabigha adhPhubyanl, Surrounding the 
two sides of ^Ukdz^both of them, while their lads call 

J» • /A/A 

out in it. Play at 5;*>*ff (ABk): Mb says that deviation 
[from the imp. v. to the imp. verbal nJ] does not occur 

• A, 

in the quad, at all, fif being only an imitation of the 

,A, 

sound of thunder, and }*)* an imitation of the cries of 
boys, as Jl* JU [200] is said; but Sf replies that what 
S says is better, because in imitation of sound the 1st 
does not differ from the 2nd, as JJl* JJl* , so that, if they 






meat imitation, they would say ;b ^b and ;U ; U ; while, 
according to Akh [in the Book of Etymology (AAz)], 

• A/ 

jU*i as an imp. [verbal n.] from the ywarf. is regular, 
[because intensiveness is not peculiar to the tril. (AAzJ]: 
(d) the GG hold that this jUi is made to deviate from 



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( 689 ) 
the verbal imp. for the sake of intensiveness, this inten- 

sive form for the imp. being like the intensive jUi and 

S „ % , " *** * 

J**S for J*ti : Jj says " the o. f. of Jfy is J}>! J/t 

A A#* 

4< Jy' , 3 or more ; and, 3 or more being />/., and the pi. 

' A 

a being fem. y ^J'fi is said : they affix the £ , which is the 

' * ' 
"pron. of the /em., to the «?. as an indication of the triple 

" repetition, as they affix the 1 in flf* J USIf L. 23. 
" Cast, cast thou into Hell [233] as an indication of the 
" double repetition, its o. / being ^1 JyM , [like b 

"^M l5 -;^ (607) (K)] ; and what is meant by the 
44 repetition is intensiveness : and afterwards they make 
u JVy deviate from ^, so that J\y is then fern., like 

' A 

4< JjjJ ; and the evidence of the femininization of the 

"' '.' 
" imp. J 1- * * s the saying [of Zuhair (Ahl)] 

A Jg ^ 5J#^ •• A • S A * * s* h 9 * hi * *t** 

)*& J **) J V f ***** * 3f ** M cT £^ f ^J 

" Andassuredly thou art braver than the lion when Alight 
" Aas ieen ca//ed outf, and Jri%ht has been excited " : but, 
in my opinion, the verbal n/s being made to deviate 
from the form of the v. is a thing that they have no evi- 
dence of ; and, the general rule being that every [expres- 
sion] made to deviate from some thing does not pass out 
of the species to which that thing belongs, the v. cannot 
- by deviation pass from the quality oft;, to that of n. : and, 



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( 690 ) 
as for the infensiveness, it exists in all the verbal ns., as 
We explained before [187]. not in the manner asserted 

bj Jj ; and the femininization of the v. in J'/ *s-**o 

• x 

xx 

does not prove the o. /I of J*/ to be an trap, t*. repeated, 
but is due to the paraphrase of J'y by the £J^ or Steal 
or *j*o : (e) similarly the 2 kinds of the inf. it. and *p. 
are not devoid of the sense of intensiveness [194], so that 

XX XX S A xA Smm*hS 

oU^w and ^UJ are more intensive than o**sJf and >l*# 

X X 

*(R): (2) made to deviate from (Mb), [and therefore] in 
the sense of (M), a [det. (M) fern. (IY)] tn/l w. (Mb, 

X X 

M, B), being a proper name for it (IY), like <fe& Wicked- 

$* A xA ^ ^ 

new [a proper name (IY)] for 8ja*H [8] 5 cUa. fur 

* * * S XX ^X A xA ' 

Oyapl\ [below], and oUa. for Kj^aaJf (M), as 



XX x A x x Ax^x xSx^Axxx xx Ax /A/»# xAx /A*« £ 

by AnNabigha [adhDhubyanl (Mb, ABk), Verily we 
have divided our qualities between us; and I have borne 
off goodness, and thou hast carried away wickedness 
(ABk), i. e/sypM (IY)], and 



xx A x .# x A £ x* x x x *x x x * X XX XX* 

oU* «»>jto U >fcoJ» Jl^b * ^^J IT, oUa. t$» oU** 

^ X • X ^ x 

[by AlMutalammis (Akh, IY), blaming wrine (Akh),) 
" Stagnation" {say thou) to it, " stagnation ,r f anrf sop 
ihounot (Ho it) y throughout the length of time, so long a» 



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( 691 ) 

it is mentioned, " Praise," I a (^ ^ Jfii^\o^L^ J^ 

* * ' . ' ' 

fti^ (Mb, IT), this being the sense, though it is made to 

*>* 
deviate as a [dot.] fern, [above] (Mb) : and hence of jj , 

s 

as in 

Old* d£**H ^ jjjJ Ji»M j # &>£ jiaaJ! *aJ ^ c^/Oj 

[below], by <Auf [Ibn *A$ya (KP)] Ibn AlKhari* [<Amr 
Ibn ( Abs (KF)J And thou remembered** a draught of the 
milk of the herd of camels branded with a mark like a 
ring, when the horses were running on the surface of the 

f* * * m* ** 

ground dispersed, i. e. too> i. q. SooaJU , an inf n. i. q. 
the act. part, like Jj^ i q. JoU [76, 143], being really 
a [generic proper] name for a del. /em. wjf. ft., like Sj^jJf , 
even if such an inf n. has not been spoken, as though 
it were an abandoned o.f ; and similarly in 

by Hassan [Ibn Thabit, describing the day of Dhu Karad 
(SB)], Wf were eighty and they were a noisy host : 
and they were pierced with the spears, when dispersed, 

i» e. v^uVax4 ; for the d. s. may occur del. when it is 

* * * ** * ***** * *' * * * At* ** / hi 

an inf. n., as t^iif* *IUi and uCSU* and ^fj*Jf t$L^f 

[78] (IY) : (a) they say "[made to deviate from (AAz)] 
a deU fern. inf. n." : but to me no. decisive evi- 
dence of its determination or femininization has yet 



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( 692 ) 

presented itself : they hold, however, that it is [det. 
as being] one of the [genericj proper names for id. 

objects, like [ ty , ] ^ [8], and J***** , [ ty beiag 
a proper name for all goodness, and As&> for a// wicked- 

ness (Akh)] ; and sometimes the femininization of the 
verbal n. and inf. n. is argued, upon the ground of 
uniformity, from the femininization of the ep. and per- 
sonal proper name, which oxe/ern,, as will be seen ; but 

tbis argument is wonderful : (b) ^bai is said to be 

<* /A / /A^ £ ' 

det. in ^J| U**JS| ti| [above] because of the determina- 
tioo of its companion, vid. fy ; but this argument is like 
the 1st in strangeness, since assimilation of one word 
to another in determination or femininization not with* 
standing that the word assimilated is not used det. or fern. 

is a novelty : if indeed qualification of such as Asai by 

JJ / /A** • • ' 

the det. fern., as &suui)f %lsai , were authentic, it would 

be a good argument for both matters, determination and 

' 
femininization : (c) even if we admit [that ^laai is det.], 

there is no evidence of the determinateness of its sisters; 
and in their saying about the gazelles U* /U| u^O;; t*3t 

s$ '/ A s As s s s/ ' # 

i^! US oj3 J lot j w^JU^ fT/i^n tf Aey come down /o *Ae 

water, Mere w no drinking deeply ; and, when they come 
not down, there is no yearning (for it), i. e. u ^** U» and US 



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( 603 ) 

s^S meaning fcJf gy V , and the saving of AlMutalammis 
£l| t«l oUa. [above], i. e. J! fO^e- W Jj [as above], 
and the saying of the Arabs ^ l~** V J\ T o touching ! 
[above], i. e. } j»* V , the indeterminateness is obvious : 
(d) according to those who hold that all the measures of 
JUi , imp,, inf. n., ep., and proper name, are fern., they 
must, when used as [proper] names for a masc. [194], 
be diptote, like J}U* ; whereas, according to the GG> 

they may be triptote, like c ^ ; and this shows how the 
GG vacillate about their being fern. (R): (3) made to 
deviate from (M) a [fern. (IY, R) prevalent (Mb, IY)] 
ep., [which occupies the place of a substantive (149) 
(Mb) : this ep. does not occur in the masc, is always 
used without a qualified, and is moreover of two kinds 
(R),] (a) uSed [(a) in most cases (IY) only (IY, R)] in 

the voc., [according to hearsay (R),] as JjUi b [56. A], 

±£L k, and £W«i (Mb, M, R),i.e. &-lib, ^ji-O, 

aiid /l*£J L> (Mb, It), because in the voc. it is in the 
position of a del. (Mb), since the voc. becomes det. by 



** 



specific intention, like Ja.j in J^ [48] ; (b) some- 
times in the nori-voc, by poetic license, as lJ^I [497] 
(IY) : (a) this JUi and the tmjp. jUi may be formed 

with universal regularity from every tril, [above] att 

92 



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( 694 ) 

[completely (MKh> plastic (MKh, MAd)] p., as J1>? , 
wUu , and V W from Jy , ^Jt>6 , and u-# , and as 

/ / # 

^U» te , ;t«i b , and /Jj J from J-li , ^ , and J\ : 
but not from such as &u*yaUf , because it has no v.; not 

//Ax •/A/A ///A 

from such as c y*a, g>»u»l , and jjllafl , because they 

" ' //A* 

exceed three letters, [such as ^SSy^ from i^of being 

confined to hearsay (MEh) J; nor from such as JS f J& , 
/ / / / 

ut>t? , and )l* , because they are non-att. (Sh/ ; nor from 

/A /A 

such as f *J and j»*i , [because they are aplastic] (MAd) ; 

*^/ #// 

nor from &uch as ;o* and £*> [4&2], because they are 

not completely plastic (MKh) : (£) this kind, which is 
used only in the vac, does not occur as a generic proper 
name [7], i. e. does not, by prevalence of application to a 
[particular} qualified, become a proper name for it (R): 
(b) used in the non-v.oc. } [which is of two kinds, (a) what 
by prevalence of application becomes a generic proper 
name, like &-M (7), which is the more numerous (R)J as 

/ / / / 

^1U [and oU*. (M, R)] for Fate (Mb, M, R), ma de to 
deviate from 62JU and Sii*l*. (AAz), orig. general eps. for 
all that shears aud drags away, and afterwards, by preva- 
lence of application, peculiar to the genus of The Fates 



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( 695 ) 

(R) ; and [similarly (R)] JuL' and c t>? for The sun [from 
oJLsJI roasting and «yJf se«tn# (R)] ; and 1*U* for Fewr, 
[because of its spreading through the body, from >*^1 
LaJ! Lank hair (R)] ; and [many others, like (R)] ;</ 
for The bead that the woman charms her husband with /, 
[which is named )!/ because by their assertion it re- 
stores the husband (R),] whence their saying &>/ ;!/ k 
&»*»»» J-i>' t^S *i°/ *°' u)' ° cAarm, res/ore Mm .• if 
Ae depart, bring him back ; and, if he approach, make 

// ttstt */ 

him glad ; and £*>; &**/ / iranrferf him with the £t*; » 
which is [the proper name of (R)] a [particular (AAz)] 
brand upon the two haunches (M, R), or along the head 
from Us front to its back (M), in the ace. as an inf. n. to 

**A" >'„ ' *?' . ff'.M /t >\ L 

&i> / , i. e. **>tj ^ meaning &«•)« (K), whence 

H$, „ »h,* A/ * / * * * * **' 

A\ us* & «^ a * 'r - r*** ***** ,of "^j 

C * ,*V > ' ' ' * 

(M), by <Auf Ibn AlAhwas (1Y, AAz), ^nrf J was wont, 
when I was tried by a foe of evil, to stalk up to him, and 
brand him indelibly (AAz) ; and f* , [ f tS , and ^ 
(R)] for the she-hyena [below] (Mb, R): these [expres- 
sions (IY), and their likes (R), (among which IY in- 
cludes those given below under (b) except of*?, which 
he places above among the inf. ns.), though orig. eps. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 696 ) 
(IY),] are [used as (IY) generic (R)] proper names 
(IY, R); and are therefore deU (IY), as is proved by their 
qualification by the det., as &*KIoH oCU- The rising sun 
(R): and [(b) what remains an ep. (B),] as kUaS , [i. e, 
S^tf £l*6 (R),] whence 

y * A • • A'*/ / • .# A •• •• S / Al/ / S h t % 

blloS c^>(^ f6^j~ oiiJ *UfJf ^^Xa* j^l^f^ c^ibf 

[by 4 Amr Ibn Ma'dikarib, when his mother had been 
killed by a tribe of the Arabs, I prolonged the period of 
my forbearance with tAetr Aa*(y cfeerf, until, when I had 
slain their chiefs, it (the &£» slaughter) was sufficient 

** 9 9* +* • 99h/f 

for me (AAz)]; and ^I)J &y& by &**i*« I reproached 
him with a reproach that will be indelible, i. e. &*jlf ; and 
JUf ^gu^-U UU* J*y 1/ , i. e. &l> (M, B), meaning -4 bounty 
shall not light upon such an one near me, nor a benefit 

m> 9 A • 9 A • K**fi 

reach him from me ; and i>Jf j**2 JxiaJ|^ [above], i. e. 



*/«// 9 4 t m // 9 

•••• 



<J^U Sj^* , so that it is a d. s. [78, 140] (R): (4) 
made to deviate from &*t» in (M) a [personal (R) proper 
(M, R)] name [of a woman or /em. thing (Mb)], as ^f Ja, 
[194], f lbS (Mb, M, R), j*t5; (Mb), -fell (R), and the 

like, made to deviate from iuJ>U. , &*(*£, etc., when used 
as names (Mb) for [certain (R)] women (M, R\ -Ja* 



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( 697 ) 
being for the woman [of the Banii Yarbu' (IY)] who set 
up for a Prophetess (M) in the time of Musailima (IY); 
^XJr [61 and cilLiX for 2 bitches (M, K); ;Ua> , f l£ 

and Jj£>» for the she-hyena [above] ; u^Uaa. and ±J&~ 

> , , ' '**,a* 

for 2 Aorm (M), cJt^a. for a stallion^ as in the prov. f^l 

, • • A 

ijl*£, ^l^ ^ Bolder than the g elder of Khasdf, be- 
cause one of the kings [AlMundhir Ibn Imra alKais (KF)] 
demanded him for covering from his owner [a man of 
Bahila, said by Abu-nNadi to have been Hamal Ibn 
Yazld Ibn Dhuhl Ibn Tha'Iaba (Md)], who refused and 
castrated him [in the presence of that king (Md)], and 
v^K~ for a mare (R); $f for a cow (M, R), as in 
the prov. [applied to every pair of equals (Md, IY)] 

• A / " A •**/ 

JaaXj ^j* sajsli ^ArUri was slain for Kalil (M), they 
being 2 coir* that gored each other to death (Md, IY) j 
}>+ and uilj& for 2 countries*, and u3l«af (M, R) for a 
mountain (M), an afiotfe o/7Ae £anti jTaroim (IY, R), as 

^ * A# A / 

iJf i**tf t>5 [below] : (a) this kind [of proper name] is 
coined [4,194] because it is not made to deviate before 
its use as a proper name corresponding to an object, and 
afterwards transferred to the cat. of proper name ; and 
the difference between this kind and the preceding one 
[3, b, a] is that in this kind the sense of qualificativity 
is lost sight of, whereas in the preceding one qualifica- 
tivity is meant [194] (IY): (b) all (R) these expressions 



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( 898 ) 
mb fern. (Mb, R), even if the [person or thing] named 
by them be masc; and in the saying 

>•»! *+> j**y «-*^ fob # &Aii. o r ! jC*«*a>| cuJS^S 
I have been wont to account you to be lions of a thicket; 
and lo / in La§afthe larks lay eggs ! the pron. of v-it*af 

A/ 

is made masc. because it is renderable by the £-*«* ; and 

there is another version 1$aJ , [as in the Bk and IY] : 

• 
(c) sometimes such ferns, as these are used as names for 

a man, like oU« and w^j (R), 

§ 194. IM says in the Tashli « They are agreed 
" that [the J of ] JU* , when an imp., inf. n., d. s. t or 
*' ep. used as a proper name or only as a voc. 9 is pro* 
" nounced with Kasr ; and each of tbem is made to deviate 
"from nfem.i so that, if one of them be used as a [pro* 

"per] name for a masc. [193], it is like JUU ", i. e« 

$ / • 
diptote ; " but is sometimes made like JL^c ", i. e. trip- 
tote; "and, if it be used as a [proper] name for a/^m., 
"it is like j*G; [193]" (YS). [The J of] JUi in the 
imp. is pronounced with Fath by the Banii Asad (R, Sh) 
for affinity to the I and Fatha before it (Sh). The inf. 
ns, and eps. are uninfl. by common consent, because 
of their resemblance to the imp. jUi [159] in measure 
aad intensiveness [193]. The generic proper names 



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( 699 ) 

ought to be infl., because the uninfl. word, when used 
as a [proper] name for something other than its form, 

must be infl., as when a person is named *jj ; [and may 

not be imitated, as when it is used as a (proper) name 
for the form (191;, because in the former case you do 
not observe its original meaning, on account of which 
it is orig. uninfl., but totally exclude it therefrom, 
whereas, when you make it a (proper) name for the form, 
you do observe its meaning in some respect, since the 

#/A/s # As S 6 

meaning of £* y* u*^<qA3 A is J , whose meaning is 

verification, governs the nom. and ace. (R on the proper 
name)] : but they are uninfl. because the generic proper 
names [7] are [only] lit. proper names, [which have tho 
predicament of proper names in letter, such as diptote 

declension, anarthrousness, and prefixion of ^f and J , 

as in the surnames of human beings, and occur as is. 8 , 
and are qualified by dels., but notwithstanding all this 
are applicable to the indet. (R on the proper name)] ; 
so that the sense of qualification remains in all of them 
[193], since they are prevalent quals. (R). As for the 
[personal (R)J proper names [of ferns., they have 3 dial, 
vars. (Sh):] (1) according to the people of AlHijaz, they 
are uninfl. (R, Sh) upon Kasr, unrestrictedly, [i. e. 
whether they end in * or not (YS),] as 



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( 700 ) 

(Sh), by Lujaim Ibn Sa'b, When Hadhftm (the wife of 
the poet) says a saying, then believe ye her: for verily 
the true saying is what Hadham hoe said (Jgh) : their 
making these names uninfl. is contrary to analogy, since 
qualification has no meaning in them, so that the unin* 
flectedness belonging to them in the state of qualification 
might be observed ; but, seeing that there is no contra- 
diction between qualification and the quality of proper 
name as respects the sense, they make them uninfl. like 
the quals., although they are coined [193], not transfer- 
red from quals., in order to treat them like the proper 
name transferred from the qual.> because it is more 
numerous than the other (R) : (2) according to a few of 
the Banu Tamlm, they are infl. as diptotes (B, Sh), un- 
restrictedly (Sh), in conformity with analogy, being infl. 
because denuded of the sense of qualification, and diptote 
because of the quality of proper name and femininization 
in them [18] (R) : (3) according to most of them [and to 
their chaste speakers (R)], they are uninfl. [upon Kasr 
(Sh), with a view to ImSla (634) (R),] if they end in ; ; 
and diptote if they do not end in ^ (R, Sh) : the poet says 

& i^y tS** t 6 *] ; an( * A1A ' shi [Maimun Ibn K!ais 

(MAd), whose abode was in AlYamfima with the Banii 
Tamim (IY)J says, combining the two Tamlml dials., 

*,ZM>S *hZ* * /A* '//*/ Ass A/f 

St* */A / A //•• // S/0AS 2Ss S 

;V; *;**■ c^ 3 ^ * jiy J* )/*> /•> 



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( 701 ) 
(Sh) Saw ye not Iran and 'Ad f The night and the day 
destroyed them. And a time passed over WabSr } and 
Wabar perished openly (AAz). 

£ /A/ 

■§ 195. *&>(&& is pronounced with Fatfc of the %&* 
[in the dial, of the people of AlHijaz (M)], Kasr [in 
the dial, of Asad and Tamlm (M)}, and Damm [bj some 
of the Arabs (M)}. Sometimes its [1st (R, AAz)] v 
is changed into Hamza, [also with triple vocalization of 
the & (R)] ; and sometimes it is pronounced with 
Tanwln (M, R) in these 6 dial. vars. (R). It is read with 
all 3 vowels [in XXIII. 38. (504), with and without 
Tanwln (K, R) : for Fath is the general well-known react- 
ing, and with Tanwln is transmitted from AlA'raj ; Easr 
without Tanwln is the reading of Abii Ja'far athThakafi, 
and with Tanwln is read by II U ; and Damm with 
Tanwiu is the reading of Abu Haiwa, and without 
Tanwln is said to be read by Ka'nab (IY)}: the poet says 

[Thou hast called to mind days of boyhood that have 
passed: then far % far off is their return to thee I (AAz) J: 
and the saying of the poet [describing camels (IY)} 

/A/ / /A/ A #/A/ // mth/htO s A hfi 

cXqdb ifa*e* ** ~»t«i* * <*Mp ^1/«IV y***^^ 

93 



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( 702 ) 
[ They become in the desert wending their way : far, far 
off is their place, or time, of entering upon the morning !, 
^ being red. (AAz),] is related with Damm of the 1st 

and Kasr of the 2nd (M). Some make the **> quiescent 

A * A • > /A • 

[even in continuity (R), as cut$xft> ct>l$d& , which is read 
{in XXIII. 38. (K, B)j by 'Xsa alHamdanl, and is a 
version transmitted from I Al (IY)] ; some elide the ^ , 

• A / / /A/ 

[as l#JD (IY, R) ; some make it a ^ (M), as ^l&& 

sht *A$ y /A* 

(IY)] ; and some say t&t , [t$>! with Tanwin (R),] ufl&f 
[with the u* of allocution (IY, R)], and J&l (M, R) 
with a Hamza and ^ both pronounced with Fath, but, as 
the author of the MughnI says, with a ^ pronounced 
with Kasr (R). Sgh cites 36 dial. vars. of it, &%*& and 

/A* •A/ ,Si *K s x n| 

*%f , c^$a*> and *l>K&\ , and ^^^ and ^(q) , each of 
these six pronounced with Damm, Fath, or Kasr of the 
final, and each [of these 18] pronounced with or without 

' ' A ' * 'A* /M/A/ 

Tanwln ; and others cite l^I^aH) and lJI&J y ji^p an< j 

'#v/A$ A/A/ A /A* 

4&J , and %£> and 5l$j>t (A), making the total 42 j and the 
KF adds 13 others, ct*^ 1 ^ and *£%>} , and ^^to and 
^4$, with Kasr of the ^ because of the 2 quiescents, 
and with triple vocalization of the final, and *a>b) with 
charge of the two 8 s into Hamzas (Sn). According to 



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( 703 ) 
[some of (R)] the GG, (1) the one pronounced with Fath 
[of the **> (IY, R)] is sing. [646], its & denoting 

$ * / A / 

femininization, and its o. f. heing &***> ; (2) the onepro- 
nounced with Kasr [of the *> (R)] is the [sound (IY)] 
pi. of the one pronounced with Fath, its o. f. being 
uwU4i^ [234], and its J being then elided (M,R), because 
it is indecl.; (3) the one pronounced with Dainm of the 
*, may be sing, or pi. : but this is all imagination and con- 
jecture. The «* is pronounced with Fath in most cases, 
from regard to its o. f. when it was an unrestricted obj. 
[187, 1 99]; with Kasr because of the two quiescents [664] ; 
and with Damm to notify by the strength of the vowel the 
strength of the meaning of fatness in it, since its mean- 
ing is How far (he, or it) is! [187] (R). When pro- 
nounced with Damm, it is written, according to F, with 
the *t>; but, according to 1J, with the 8 (A). 



• •/* 



§ 196. J& isi.q. 3f*\ [W] with wonder, i. e. 
How different I i and therefore requires two ags., like 
£p\ , as y^l Id} 'J* How different are Zaid and 
'Amr! (R). <* may be redundantly inserted [after it (R), 
before the ag. (Sh), as £'>&£& <«*) < R >> 
whence 



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( 704 ) 
(Sh), by Al A'sha, How different are my sleep upon her 
saddle in the desert and the sleep of Hayyan the brother 
of JSbir / (MAd)]. And ^ £> 'Z £ ' U* i s said 



[in the less frequent and less chaste usage (R)], as 
S*"^ 4*H)i>1 ^> U ALU 

m ' A«* mtih,*, h / 9 , 

tf* fS f\, pi- 4*5* 

(R, Sh), by Rabl'a [Ibn Thsbit alAsadi (IKhn)] arRa^kl, 
[(## God,) Aow different are, or Aoto/fr is Mo/ {distance) 
which is between (MKh), or Aw/ar is the separation of 
(MAd), the two Yazlds in munificence (MKh, MAd), 
Yazld Ibn Usaid of Sulaim and the illustrious Yazld Ibn 
Hdtim (MAd) alMuhallabl/ (IY, IKhn),] this being allow- 

,, r 'A/ • h + s h 

able upon the ground that [ ^.L. is red., and v^f 
an o#. constructively ia the nom. ; or that (MKh)] '5a 
is i.q. o~, because the latter does not require two or 
more age., and U [conjunct (MKh),] a met. for *$ 
or £<~J! , [ V . of ^U* (MKh),] i. e . How far is that 
{interval or distance) which is between them / ; or that 
u,UA is i. q. o*> ; and U red., as it is without 'Ju\ and 
&X <*g- of ^UA , i n accordance with the opinion of Akh 
on f&#. J*k LX. 3, Your union shall be severed, where 
^ [159], says he, is the subject, but is not put into the 



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( 705 ) 
nom. from disapproval of its exclusion from the ace. per- 
manently belonging to it in most of its usage (R). It is 
disallowed, however, by As (R, Sh), who says that the 
poem is post-classical, because he holds that Ax& is du. 
of c^A separate, an enunc. of what follows it, [not a ver- 

• •/ A 

bal n. i. q. Jjjisf (YS, MAd),] he being misled by two 
things, a dial. var. with Kasr of the ^ [187] and the fact 
that the nom. after it is only a du. or i. q. the du., not a 
pi., [the last three in £'f f JA ^UA (187) being in the 
predicament of one, i.e. l^Io^ |Ja> ^tfa (AAz)]; where- 

• yyA 

as, if it were i q. JJj^f , the pi. might occur as ag. of 
it : but the chaster dial. var. with Fath of the ^ falsifies 

• fix 

his opinion ; and also, if ^UA were an enunc, it might 
be posterior to the inch., since there is nothing to neces- 
sitate its priority [28], whereas it has not been heard 
posterior (R). But, as for the saying of a post-classical 
poet 

[ Ye Aavc requited me for union with estrangement : 
how far is the separation of your dealing and my deal* 

• Ay • fi / 

* w # A cJ** being ag-. of ^U-fc , the construction in (MAd)] 
it was not used by the Arabs ; and it is sometimes ex- 

' • Ay 

plained by subaudition of U conjoined with ^# , [i. e. 



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( 706 ) 
how far is that (distance) which is between your etc./ 
(MKh), U being an ag. (MAd),] according to the saying 
of the KK that suppression of the conjunct [n. other 
than jf (MAd)] is allowable [177] (Sh). 

si 
§ 197. Of has the following dial, vars., (1) ;Jf ; (2) 

J| ; (3) oM ; (4) Jf ; (5) «M [187]; (6) Jf (M, R, KF); 

ui ' *ii ' t?.l 

(7) &f ; (8) Sf (M, R), sometimes followed by &*> , as 

&1 2f (R) ; (9) & (M) ; (10; S\ (R) ; but I do not 

know &' [41] with the 8 of femininization [as a verbal 

n.] ; and, if it does occur, how rare it is ! (IY); (U) 

»i *$ 

Ol (KF) ; (12) of (IY, KF), read by Ibn 'Abbas (IY) ; 

<13) of; (14) Jf; (15) if ; (16) of ; (17) Jf (KF) j 
(18) oM ; (19-21) ,yl [with the f of femininization 
(IY, KF), upon the measure of J** (IY),] pronounced 
[without Imala (KF),] with [pure (KF)] Imala (IY, R, 
KF), and betwixt and between (KF) ; (22) JS (**>**> 
with Kasr (KF), said by the vulgar (IY) ; (23) *yf ; 
(24) *i\ ; (25) t*f ; (26) *\ ; (27) of (KF) ; (28) of 



(R, KF) ; (29) of ; (30) iJl ; (31) of ; (32) of ; (33) 

't '* '* * 

Jt • (34) tif . (35) tt! ; (36) iJ! ; (37) « , like U| ; 
* * * * * * 



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( 707 ) 
(38) J>1 with Imala ; (39) J\ with Kasr ; (40) «Jf ; 

Ml & W*» $ M 

(41) Ol ; (42) Ol ; (43) Ol ; (44) of (KF). It is 

uninfl. upon Kasr because of the concurrence of two 
quiescents ; and its TanwTn in the reading of Nafi* and 
Hafs denotes indeterminateness [198] : Ibn Kathlr, Ibn 
1 Amir, and Ya'kub read with Fatfc, by way of allevia- 
tion ; and it is so read with Tanwln : and it is read with 

>A * 

Damm for alliteration, like iii* [203], with and without 
Tanwfn (B on XVII. 24). 

§ 198. IM says in the CE that, since these words 
are ns. as respects the sense, but ns. as respects the letter, 
they are made det. and indet., the sign of the det. being 
its divestment of Tanwlu [187], and the sign of the indet. 
being its use with Tanwln ; and that, since pure ns. are 
[of three kinds,] always det, like the prons. and dems., 

§ * * § • $ S/ 

always indet., like J^f , c-^>* , and ^bo , and sometimes 
det. and sometimes indet., like J*-) and j*f , so (A) 
these ns. are [of three kinds (M),] (1) always det, like 
[Jf? (193) (A),] *b'[192], and '^\ [187] : (2) always 
indet., like pfcf in restraint (M),] ^ [in instigation 
(M),] and Utf ; [187] (M, A) in wonder ; and hence /|ji 

* '* ' ' V A/ ' 

^Ib lJJ with Kasr and Tanwln, i. e. i^jiJ , as 

• •Ay /A #»•£ • • #'$.# shis^o , , m , h * 

f* j^ J u ^ r* ' u ; * f# ft/*» *■* '»•*• V 



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( 708 ) 
(M), by AnNabigha adhDhubyanl, Gently, let the peo- 
ples, all of them, and what I muster of wealth and of 
children, ransom thee! (ABk), ^fy^Vf being in the nom. 
as ag. of s\& , because it is i. q. lJ&uI (IY) : (a) t#>f 
may be an ej. acting as a substitute for the inf. n., 
infl., governed in the ace. like US«* [41], meaning UT, 
[in which case the Tanwln is the Tanwln of complete 
declension,] as ^ ^f Desist from troubling us; or a 
verbal n. uninfl., in which case the Tanwln is [the 
Tanwln of indeterminateness,] like that which is in 6*0 
[below] : and similarly every Tanwln after such of these 
ns. as are pronounced with Fath [of the final] admits of 
the two alternatives, as f J*j; [188], U#u* [191], and 
t#j (R) : (b) IS says that &if without Tanwln is allow- 
able, but rare (IY, R) : (c) sometimes the Hamza of &j) 
[below] and l^jl is changed into X ,as 6jJi> and l$*fc (R) : 
(d) s\%£ is uninfl. because of its occurrence in the place 
of the imp. v. [159], i.e t lJ*sa^ ; and is pronounced with 
Kasr because of the concurrence of two quiescents [664} 
(IY) : (3) used in two ways (A), det. and indet. (M), 
being divested of Tanwln when intended to be det, and 
pronounced with Tanwln when intended to be indet. 

(A), like *i and &* [187, 200], Cif and tJf [197] (M, 



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( 709 ) 

A), **J and **f [187, 200], JU and Jli [200] (M): (a) 

As asserts that the Arabs use only 6j] with Tanwln, 

and charges Dhu-rRumma with error in saying ItiSj 

^5 Ui£ [187] (IY, R) ; and IS says that he intends 
Tanwln, since his meaning is Tell a story, whatever story 
it be, about Umm Salim, but that he omits it by poetic 
license (R). - The Tanwln affixed to these ejs. only dis- 
tinguishes between the det. and indet. [608], not being 

found in a det. at all ; and only follows the vowels of 

%*, 
uninflectedness, not being like the Tanwln of Jgj [and 

J*>)], which follows the vowels of inflection in the det. 
and indet. (IY). What IM mentions [above] is the well- 
known opinion ; but some hold that all the verbal ns. f 
with or without Tanwln, are det. with the determination 
of the generic proper name [187] (A). 

§ 199- Among the verbal ns. are advs. and their likes, 
governing in the gen. apron, mostly of the 2nd per*., 
anomalously and seldom of the 3rd, as in the saying 

• A/ * A ' *** 

JU*J UaaaA &a1* [164] and the saying of the Prophet 

/l»., V J* rr all> &*1«» 5/U» JL. j&ZS _y. Whoso 
of you lusteth after copulation, let him keep to fasting, 
for verily it hath the effect of gelding by compression of 
the two testicles (R). IM says in the CK that this sort 

is not used except conjoined with the pron. of the 2nd 

94 



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( 710 ) 

9* h*s A/A/ f'hrn** C/ * 

pers.; and that &*•; **** i. q. r jld [164], s^iS ^ i. q. 

&&li;l , and ^1 i. q. ^j 30 ^ are anomalous : but his 
language in the Tashll implies that these are not anoma* 

/ • A •A /• * * * 

lous (A). c^i>i^ , ljO^J , and lX^ mean Take. The 

.# A# / $A/ • • A 

0# y, is 5<ia=i j^J u£jJU Beside thee is Zaid: then take 

Ami, and similarly 04) lXjjJ and o+) c-XJ^3 , what 
follows them being put into the nom. as an inch. ; but 
afterwards it is abridged from the nominal and subse* 
quent verbal prop, to the adv. f which is then so often 

A 9 

used that it becomes i. q. uii. , and therefore governs 
with its government : while the advs. are uninfl. upon 
Fath, because it is the vowel appropriate to them in their 
o. /. when they were advs., as we said of the inf. ns. 
that become verbal ns. [188, 195]; and they have no 
place [in inflection], like those inf. ns., because they 
act as substitutes for what has no place [187] (R). 

±fd)) means Keep back, and lX^UI Advance (R, A) or 
Be on thy guard from the direction of thy front : but 
these may be said to remain advs. y since they do not 
govern an obj. in the aco. [but see $ 187], like iS±U 
and l^oJ ; and in that case the full phrase is y&»f 

^Ss\^ and uXUUI [498] (R). And UCiUC* means «^f 
[420] (IY, A), so that it is intrant, (Sn), as ^ ^CitfU 



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( "1 ) 

A* »-**■• r 



fifSyS.) X. 29. Standfast, ye and your partner*, like 

jAS JiS f/*>l [158] (IY); and the KK transmit it as tram., 

e. g. Ud3 *-***" Wait far Zaid, i. e. *Jf*\ : but Din 
says " I know not what need there is to make this sort of 
" adv. a verbal n. ? nor why they do not make it an adv. ; 
" for the assertion of the verbal n. is good only where 
41 the combination of that [n ] and that v. is impossible, 
" as in 6** , lJCJU , and UCJI , not where it is possible ; 

•• • / A *A.# • y xf AS// 

" whereas l~£M£« ct-^f and uX«Ut fd£> may be said, but 

A s A S A# * *' 'A* • 

11 not *«* cuX^f , etc" (Sn). And W; i-^ is said 
[187], meaning Take Zaid, orig. 8j£.f lXaU . and juXJf 
J^ , orig*. j^ £j£j t~CJf uX5U ^-i Gather thy be* 
longings to thee, and withdraw from me, and afterwards 
abridged, as we have mentioned : and Akh heard a man say 

Jf meaning ^^j 80 ^ I will withdraw [187] , which is an 
anomalous enunciation contrary to the rule of the cat. % * 
since the rule of the advs. and their likes is to be imps., 

so that iJ* and ^y* are not said by analogy to it ; 
and, as for ^* meaning ^}f Present to me, it is con- 
trary to rule in another respect, since it is an imp., 
but the pron. governed in the gen. by it is in the sense 

#Ax S *0 

of the obj., as W; ^ c meaning Bring him near to me 
[187], whereas the rule is that the gen. should be an 



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( 712 ) 

*A/ 4»«* A/ s/ 

ag.) and Akh heard l*>e} &1M d** ^U meaning Bring 
Zaid near to l Abd Allah, which is more anomalous than 
J* , because ^* governs the explicit n. in the gen. 
And Ks allows instigation by all the advs. of place and 
preps, regularly; but others restrict it to hearsay, which 
is the proper way (R). IM says in the CK that there is 
a dispute about the pron. attached to these words, its 
position being that of (1) a nom. [as an ag. (Sn)], ac- 
cording to Fr ; (2) an ace. [as an obj. (Sn)], according to 

Ks, [the ag. being latent, as f J**} ljCaI* meaning f 3*f 

# h/ * * A / • ' 

to*) uC^fti ifoep thyself to Zaid (Sn)]; (3) a #£W. [by 

prothesis in such as u&jO , and by the p. in such as 

OUU (Sn)], according to the BB, which is the correct 

opinion, because Akh quotes fojtj ***' ***• ^k from 
chaste- speaking Arabs : [but in the first two opinions 
what is after the transfer to the cat. of verbal n. is re- 
garded, and in the last what was before the transfer 
(Sn)]. And, in addition to that [lJ in the position of a 
gen. (Sn)], with every one of these [verbal] ns. there 
is a latent pron. in the position of a nom. as an ag. % so 

that in corroboration you may say fj^j f&* f *&** with 
the gen. as a corrob. of the present gen., or the nom. as 
a corrob. of the latent nom. ; [and similarly, when we say 






that the u£ is in the position of an ace, +W is allowable; 



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( 713 ) 
whereas, when we say that it is in the position of a nom. f 
it is itself the ag, (Sn)]. 

§ 200. The ejaculatory n. is what is applied to (1) the 
address of the irrational, or of what is in the predicament 
of the irrational, such as the young of human beings; 
(2) the imitation of sounds : so [says IM] in the CE 
(A). The expressions that the GG name ejs. are of three 
kinds, (1) imitations of sounds proceeding from (a) dumb 
animals, like JjU [below] ; (b) inanimate substances, 

A / 

alike V* [below] : (2) sounds uttered from the mouths 
of human beings, and naturally indicative of meanings in 

Ml * MJ $ 

their minds, like of and yjZ ; for he that is disgusted at 

anything utters from bis breast a sound [ Ugh /] resem* 

".* 

bling the expression cJl , and from him that spits upon a 

disgusting thing proceeds a sound resembling Uu : (3) 
cries wherewith animals are cried to when something is 

• A * 

required from them, (a) coming, like ul>^; (b) going, 

like Ufc ; (c) some other matter y like U* for drinking : but 
I see nothing to prevent our hazarding the conjecture 
that these cries, with which the brutes are cried to, are 
verbal ns. i. q. the imp., as some hold ; because God has 
made the brutes like rational beings in understanding 
what is required from them. The three kinds are named 
ejs. because they are orig. simple or disconnected sounds, 
not words indicative of meanings. Afterwards, being 



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( 714 ) 

wanted for use in the middle of the sentence, they are 
treated like words ; and co-ordinated with the noblest of 
words, i. e» ns., the better to indicate their inclusion 
among the apparent kinds of words : so that the Tan win 

is affixed to some of them, as JJl* and c-if [198]; Jl is 



prefixed to some [187], vid. when the expression, not 

the meaning j of thee/, is intended, as iUf ^0 [123] and 
snj^U ***) Uf [below] ; some are made to mean i. q. inf. 



* 

* * mi ****** 



n$., as uXJ o! , i. e. l-*J WMjf ; and some are governed in 

* * * * 

the ace. like inf. ns., as utf tolj, i. e. t**!* [198]: and 

' * 
what some GG say, vld. that the Tanwln of JU [below] 

denotes indeterminateness [198], is of no account, since 
determinateness and indeterminateness have no meaning 

[187] in it ; nor is there anything to prevent your saying 

* 

the like of this about such as &* and Jbt , because such 
as &** is orig. an ej.\ and then we shall be relieved from 



the difficulty of explaining the Tan win in the two pre- 
ceding ways [187] (R). The ejaculatory ns. are [all 
(I A)] uninfl. (R, I A), because they are orig. simple 
sounds not entitled to construction, which is the requirer 
of inflection [159]; or because some of them are consti- 
tuted like ps. 9 i. e. of 2 letters, as is said (R); [or] be- 
cause they resemble the verbal ns. (IA). When they 
occur constructed, they may be infl. : Jahm Ibn 
Al 4 Abbas says 



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( 715 ) 

^^JHijr^* 1 ^; E U J ****** *f 
She is driven back with " ilfa&e haste" and " Gtef along"; 
and her madness is only inflamed from the " 6to along" 
and the "Make haste"; and the poet [Dhu-rRumma 
(AAz)] says £*! c j&* J ** 3 L 123 l : but another ['Uwaif 
alKawSft (FA) alFazSri (T)] says 

As x A//A**/ A S * * • 

• • a^ •#•• km #« • A / a^ / a# •• 

* * ' 

[£fe Ma* rode behind me called them (certain women) ; 

and they forbore at his voice, (and returned to him,) as 
thou urgest with the *&>;*» the thirsty parched (camels 
towards the water) (AAz)], by imitation notwithstand- 
ing the f and J ; and you say d»*# *^3 or d>i# / chid 
him with jaA [below], as you say in the case of ps. \j ^ 

£*i £191], and in the case of the uninfl. n. 6iff jou V 

A# / •/ • A t 

g>M J**> or ^M Ood (exalted be He I) is not limited 
by " Where ?" : and with the J inflection is more fre- 
quent than uninflectedness, as J €A^M ^ r UJ| ^# witk 

A^» ' ^ ' 

theg-en. and i^a~W j~k , because the J removes the n. 
from resemblance to the />• [2] ; but the I and J do not 
necessitate inflection, as is proved by J*\ [206] and 



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( 716 ) 

25/ 

^JJf [176] : whereas, when the Tanwln is affixed to these 
ns. } then, if their expressions be intended by them, as in 

• / AS* s 

p^5 J^^ 3 ^ > they must be infl., because it is then the 
Tanwln of declinability; but, if it be affixed to them 
without this intention, as in J>U [above] and &* , they 
are uninfl., because it is the Tanwln of coordination and 
correspondence, not the Tan win of declinability. Among 
the ejs. that are imitations of the sounds of human beings, 
dumb animals, or inanimate substances, are (1) £*&* the 

imitation of the sound of the laugher ; (2) JJl* or JJU 
the croaA? o/" *A* raven ; (3) t^&A the imitation of the 
sound of the lips of camels in drinking ; (4) iU the cry 
of the doe-gazelle when she calls her young one ; (5) J>U* 
and jjjk imitations of the sound of the fall of stones one 
upon another. Among the ejs. whefrewith the brutes are 
cried to are (1) Uto for chiding horses, i.e. Step out y and 

sometimes used to chide the she-chmel also ; (2) t~*±* 
for chiding the mule, and sometimes used as a name for 
a mule, both admissible in £ff j~J* [83], except that 
the pause upon the ^j» strengthens the opinion that it is 
for chiding ; (3) oxfc with four rfta/. oar*., and oU& with 
Fatfc of the o for chiding camels ; (4) *jj*> for calling 



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( 717 ) 

camels to drink ; (5) -U or g U for chiding the she- 
camel ; (6) U and y£J for calling the he-ass to water. 
And among the ejs. indicative of states in the mind of 

A s 

the speaker are (1) ^j, whiclj denotes repentance or 

w 
wonder [187] z (a) according to Fr, the o. / of Jty 

fa 3) i ^d the J is a prep., the o. /. being uXl ^ r 

* • * * 
i#. c-d U=* / wonder at thee I ; but is afterwards so 

AS 

frequently used [with ^ ] as to be compounded with it 
and become the J of the v., so that they say Ikj and 

**' $A, $A/ $Ax f A, 

Jij : while others hold Jt, , ^ , j~> j , and l^j to 
be distinct words meaning destruction, and to be inf. ns* 
having no vs. [41]: (b) the saying *JL^ [84] is related 
with (a) Dftmm of the J , in which case the o. yi is 
either (a) &*t Jj> ^ The destruction of his mother (is real- 



* *s* 



' <*- * r 

ized) I , an inch, whose enunc. is suppressed, i. e. Iflflte 
J.^1^, meaning Ood destroy her /, as *U| &13& God Jig ht 

against him I is said in wonder, because the thing r when 
it reaches its extreme, is cursed as a protection from the 
fatal eye ; while the Hamza is then irregularly elided [658] 
for alleviation, since &+1j>) becomes like one word im* 

porting the meaning of tjaa* : or (/J) &*V gs I marvel at 

* * * 



95 



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< 718 ) 

ssf • > * , , 

his mother, (what a child she has borne) !, i.e. ^ 41 U»* 

y*>4)) dJ. , the Damma of the Hamza being then irregularly 

transferred to the mobile J , and the Hamza elided for 
alleviation, because the composition mentioned is intend* 

mi As 

ed : (6) Kasr of the J , in which case its o.f* is &+V jj j , 

* * * 

and the Hamza is then elided with its Damma : (c) 

S$s A/ /Ji <^ «5 $sAs 

^UOj, as ia &1M ^tf*, XXVIIL 82. [below] , is, ac- 

A' 

cording to Khl and S, 3*, denoting wonder compounded 
with ^W [denoting comparison (B)] , uncontracted , as 

*» A • A 2/A • 

in the text, or contracted [525], as in ^1 ^ ^iy 
[187] ; but in this saying there is a sort of obscurity in 
the meaniug, because the meaning of comparison is not 

/ Aui^ ^ * A/ sJl<^ 2$ /A/ 

plain in such as £rf\ l*~*t &U! ^lO^ XXVIIL 82. 
[above] / marvel because, or verily [187], Qod enlarge 
eth subsistence, £M H^i, XXVIIL 82. [509], and JS^y 

t* A / A/ 

£" c)* [187] : while Fr says that ^ is a word of 
wonder, which has the ±S of allocution affixed to it, as in 

*m /A / • /h*& fi •/A/ • A * • • 

£*' ^i; ur;'^ 1 J** [187], i.e. u&j and uCU U»* 

/ wonder at thee, and ^jJ added to it ; and that the.mean* 
ing of XXVIIL 82. [509] is Hast thou not seen that th* 
unthankful etc ? , as though the person addressed were 
asserting that they did prosper, and the speaker there- 



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( 719 ) 
upon said to him I marvel at thee, and then, being asked 
" Wherefore marvellest thou at him ?", went on to say 
that [meaning because (K)] the unthankful prosper not ; 
so that the prep. [ J (&)] is suppressed with J and 
^ , as is the rule [514] : and he mentions, as evidence of 
its meaning Hast thou not seen t, that, when an Arab 
woman of the desert asked her husband " Where is thy 
son ?", he said et-*** 1 >';> M «-**; meaning Hast thou 
not seen that he is behind the tentt ; and that, since the 
meaning of J*ky becomes Hast thou not seen t, the lJ 
of allocution is not altered for the fern., du., or pl. } but 
keeps to one state: and this that Fr says is more proba- 

^ mf AS* 

ble as respects the meaning: (2) ot and ty , both 
mentioned among the verbal ns. [187, 197] : (3) # , a 
word said upon admiration and pleasure at the thing ; 

A/ A • 

and repeated for intensiveness, as £* £» : (a) if it be 
continuous, the £ may be single or double, being in either 
case pronounced with Kasr and Tanwin, as says the poet, 
combining the two, 

Us rafters are the most generous of rafters. Bravo to 
thee! Bravo to a munificent ocean of bounty!-, (b) 
When explained by the J , it is used as an inf. «., as 



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( 720 ) 

mt m 

before shown [187] : (4) Jl and jf , [a word said upon 
disgust (AAz),] which, in the saying of the poet [ Al'Ajjaj 
(AAz)] 

5 •• A/ 3 A/ * / * 25 s s S A 3 #* *A • • 

Ifaf. 



I, «Jua: V) * JU, # (««. U lot ^i&Jf 3 ^ V 

5 P • xA#^ iA/ • • / SsAsss'A m^ • /A<^S 

W s&>UH*f| J-^. y*0* * taaJ ct->;t^5 J^»jJf i&«J&f j 

[There is no good in the old man when he lets his watel* 
run, and Me dwc< <*/* Afo eye flows and fills with tears, and 
the leg bends and becomes curved like a Snare, and the 
Union of the blooming maids becomes loathsome (AAz)] f 
also related laaf , is treated like the inf. n. f and is 
therefore infl. y being an inf. n. i. q. the pass, ^ar/., i. e. 

*>>/* (R). 



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THE UNINFLECTED ADVERBS. 
§ 201. Some advt. [64] are twin/?* [1593 ( Sh > Jm )» 

A 

not all (Jm) : upon quiescence, like J I [204] ; Fatfc, like 
JW [206] ; Kasr, like j**! [206] ; and Damm, like 

* a, ' 

i£^a> [202] (Sh). Among the [uninfl. (Jm)] advs. is 
that [adv. (Jm)] which is cut off from pfothesis [by 
suppression of the post, in letter, not in intention ( Jm)], 

3 A* > A s 

like J*» and o*> (IH). The aicw. heard cut off from 

3 As 3 As 3 As * A, 3 ,i 3 $3 

prothesis[H5],are J^J, tnu, ca^dtJ, Jy, ^U», ^.1*?, 

.#*»•• .» ft S 3 * At 3 3 3 mf 3 s A sAs A 

'by » ^** » J*~l » «>r* » J^ » J* «r > and >** «>* ; 

and such as are in their sense, like w^ , JU£ , j£.f , 

etc., are not treated analogously to them. The post, [n* 

or prop.] is suppressed, if the suppressed be represented 

a% *>, s a 
post to a ft. in apposition with the 1st pre., as jf &U* Vf 

^U &>fj4 [128]: whereas, if it be not represented, it is 
not suppressed, except from what is indicative of a rela- 
tive matter, whieh is not complete without something 
else, like J*», +*i y and their sister* mentioned, and 

& 3 % A, A 

& > «J*** 9 an <* ^ i h0T even frotn this, except when 
there exists a context to specify that suppressed. These 
ades., when cut off from the po*/., are uninfl* because of 



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( 722 ) 
tbeir resemblance to the p. [159] in their need [497] of 

* A / A 

the sense of that suppressed. As for \&**a , o! , and 
l»Sf [159], although they are pre. to the props, present 
after them, still their prothesis is not apparent, since the 
prefixion is really to the inf. ns. of those props., so 
that [they are uninfl. because] the post, is as it were 

i A/ & * 

suppressed ; and, since the Tanwln in j**> and J/ is 
substituted for the post. [128, 608], they are not uninfl., 
because the post, is as it were expressed through the ex- 
pression of its substitute. In these advs. uninflected- 
ness is preferred to compensation, because advs. have 
little or no plasticity [64], and aplasticity is akin to un~ 
inflectedness, since the meaning of the latter is inflec- 
tional aplasticity ; but Tanwln as a compensation for the 
pott, is also allowable, though rare, in these advs., which 
are then infl., as 

- * A V » * ** ' * * ' *' /»*A«* /A// » A //* 

S^L Si' JU to* 1*jA U* * i/yLA o)t o3» I U1SS ^ 
J«rf we sfew Me Azd, the Azd of Shanu'a; and after 
(that) they drank not wine with relish and 

-piST iuw joii oW * its *^ vi/Ji ^ *ui 

[by ' Abd Allah Ibn Ya'rub, when he had taken his blood- 
revenge, Then wine became easy for me to swallow; and 
1 was wont before (this) to be nearly choked with tweet 
water (Jsh)], whence the anomalous reading J** j* 



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< 723 ) 

a«f >-#j XXX. 3. [128 J and the saying Vj &* fojf 
Begin with him, or i/, a* (Me) first (of the time) : and, 
according to this, there is no difference in sense between 
the infl. and uninfl. forms of these advs. cut off [from 
prothesis, the sense of the suppressed post, being intend- 
ed to be understood with both], which is the truth ; but 
some say that they are then infl. only because of their 
not implying the sense of prothesis, so that Ho means 
UtjS formerly, tf*l means UjjU* previously, and «* 

A/ A • A/ *w£/.#/ +m/*9 

***>. **) J** means l)=^*j Uj£i# previously and sub- 
sequently, [as though f**>j Ua* W6 re said, meaning 

A 

firstly and lastly (K, B),] because ^ i s retf. [499] (R). 
These ns. have four states, in one of which they are 
uninfl., while in the rest they are infl. : — (1) they are 
infl. } (a) when they are pre. in letter, as Ufcj^ saJjLS 
*;** ' / received a dirham, not another than it and 

Ay A/ A * A 

^5 «-k* uT ss> ^ J came tyore Zaid : (b) when the 

' ' * 

post, is suppressed, but (a) its letter is intended to be 

00 * * A • A • 

understood, as jj\ 3 o\j JaS ^ [128], the full phrase 

• • Ax A / ' ' 

being uXte J*i> j+ } f i n which state they remain like 
the pre. in letter, and are therefore not pronounced with 
Tanwln ; (b) neither its letter nor its sense is intended 
to be understood, in which case they are indet., whence 



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( 784 ) 

A/ A / K* A 

the reading «J** **) J*J *# XXX, 3. and the saying 

£M ^ySJ\ J £Ui [above] (I A) : (2) they are tmtn/k 

upon Damm when [they are cut off from prothesis in 
letter, but not in sense, so that (Sh)] the post, is sup- 
pressed [in letter (Sh)], but its sense is intended to be 
understood, as in XXX, 3. (IA, Sh) in the reading of 
the Seven with Damm, where IY [following Z in the M] 

Mi' A/ A 

supplies the ellipse as though the 0. /. were J^ J^ ^ 

As A / As 

K4«> **) s^b [128], which sense is true, except that 

A/ A f **<* A Z * 

8*ju ~#. u^liM J*> f before (the overcoming) and 
after (it) would be more appropriate to the context 
[502] (Sh), and in £>l c^aa5 ^. ^1 [below] (IA) ; 
and similarly in the saying of the HamSsI [Ma'n Ibn 
Aus (FA, Jsh) alMuzani (JshJ] 
*zi »a *** **' "»* " * '**' * ' *' ' '**" 

r^ ^ /t/e, / ^now »<>* — a, *d wri^ /am fnucA a/ratrf — to 
which of us fate will go in the early morning at (the)Jlrsf 
(of the time or hour) (FA, Jsh)], and the saying of the 
other ['Utayy Ibn Malik al 'Ukaili, cited by Fr (Akh),] 



/ #*#/ A */ A// xA/^ A • $ A/ /t * 



(Sh) When lam not reassured about thee 9 nor is thy 
meeting save from behind, behind (a curtain) (J&h), 
Mb relates the verse 



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( 725 ) 

S ** A Ay* $ / 9 fih* / S * A 'SB / # • A** / •* 

r f^S jt ^ jAd U J f /U* >> *U3 5»1M ^ml 

[by a man of the Banu Tamf m, <?od cwrje TaHlta Ibn 
Musafir with a curse that shall be poured upon him from, 

*fi A 

before (Him) ! (FA)] with ^oi ^ , making it indet. ; 
but Fr relates it with f^^t making it det. (Akh), 

w3 A ' A / &/A 

orig. Mo? ^* (FA). And F transmits #* !o* |^f 

Jy with Damm, by uninflectedness, because the post. is* 

intended to be understood in sense ; with Fath, by 
inflection as a diptote [357}, because the post, is not in- 
tended to be understood in letter or sense ; and with 
Kasr, because the post, is intended to be understood ia 
letter (IA). And it is said that these ados, [that ought 
to be) pronounced with Damm may have Tanwln with 

[the sign of] the nom. and ace, as J-o iJ&Ja. and U*S y 

like the voe. [that ought to be] pronounced with Damm, 

as /«* td and lyb* tj> [48, 608] ; so that !-**> f j>>~ Li 

and UaS is^ji^ may be instances of this (R). These advs. 
[cut off from prothesis (R)] are named " finals" (R, Fk), 
because after the suppression [of the post. (YS)] they 
become finals in articulation after having been medials 

L* $ A/ 

(Fk). But J^ and j**> , [when cut off from prothe- 
sis (R),] are not named "finals", because the compensa- 

tion for the post, is expressed (R, YS)* J* is a ». i. q. 

96 



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( 729 > 
£f , always used in two ways, (1) governed in the gen. 

A 

by ^ and (2) aprothetic [in* letter (DM)] y so that 

A £ ,* , A .P* A ,$ A# A „^ * 

^tauJ| J* #r # &?o£.f is not said, as *)1* ^ and &$y ^ 
are said : but many are mistaken in this [2nd matter, 
saying that it may be pre. (DM)]; and among them are 
Jh and 1M : and, as for the saying 

• AS22/ f / • Ay 5 .# ^ 

A*/ A s A$ s 4 A ' A */A* 

[by Abu Tbarwan, O many a day there is /or m# 

wherein I am not shaded, being scorched by the hot sand 

from beneath (my feet) and exposed to the sun from 

above {my head)! ( Jsh)], the 8 is for silence, [not a post 

pron. (DM),] as is proved by the fact that J.* is uninfl. 
[615] ; whereas, if it were pre., there would be no reason 
for its uninflectedness. When a det. [i.e. a particular 
thing, vid. a specified superiority in position (DM),] is 
meant by J^ , it is uninfl. upon Damm, by assimilation 
to the finals, [among which it is sometimes included 
(DM),] as in this verse, since what is meant is supe- 
riority in position to [the poef] himself not unrestricted 
superiority in position, the sense being that the burning 
sand afects him from beneath him, and the heat of the 
sun from above him ; and similarly in the saying of the 
other [Abn-nNajin al'Ijli (Jsh)] describing a horse 



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<( m ) 

kt A A* XS / S / # */- A $ / > A / A i5 /•* 

[(He is) lean below *( his belly), broad above (his back), 
returning again and again to the charge of u Retreat, 
advance", though the citation of this verse by IHsh is 
,B0t free from doubt, because the final of every hemis- 
tich in every one of these verses is a J pronounced with 
Kasr, and perhaps he was not acquainted with the ode 

( Jsh)] : and, when an indet is meant by J* , it is infl., 

as in the saying [of Imra alKais (EM)] 

# • A 9 A# hi/ m/ 

* A #A £ <*9 3 / A / 3h * * 

\Q00d at charging, good at fleeing, advancing and re- 
tiring together, like a mass of rock that the torrent has 
brought down from above (EM)], since what is meant is 
to compare the horse [81] in his swiftness to a mass of 
rock that has come down from some high place or other, 
not from any particular height (ML). It has several 

/ A 9 9h 

dial. vars. (IY) : you say (I) J* ^ &*** , [infl. (R), 

' ' 

, , A / 9h 9 / 

defective (IY), like * (IY, R) and #£ , as ^w OyJaT 

V * * ' 

Jl (above) (IY)] ; (2) JU ^, [like JS (IY, R) and 
jU.as 



t* 



A / A 35// 9 As A • i<«S/ 

J 4 * £* **» *»-»' j* * **• 



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( 728 ) 

Lean below, and plump above (IY)]; (3) JU* m, 
[like f\y» (R), as says Dhu-rRumiua 

/ .# A AS** # //// 

if nd *Ae swaging of the camel-saddle above (IY)] ; (4J 
Ik !• , [abbreviated (IY), like Ua*' (IY, R) and ^\ f 

as £« ^ ^ (507) (IY)]; (5-7) £ ^* (M,R),as 
says A'shi Bahila [lamenting AlMuntashir Ibn Wahb 
alBahill, one of the great runners of the Arabs (Mb),] 

Verily a message has come to me from up-country, 
whereby I shall not be gladdened. There is neither 
wondering at it, nor scoffing, related with Damm, Fatfr, 

and Kasr (IY, R) of its ^ (R); (8; J* ^ ,as 

# / A A/ i • • A/ ^ A/£^ fi • 2 # • A^ • S A S ' A ••* 

[by AlFarazdafc satirizing Jarlr, /4ftrf assuredly I did 
stop against thee every mountain-road, and come down 
upon the Bant* Kulaib from above (them) (FA, Jsh)]: 

* A/ 

and these dial. vars. have one meaning, vid. £f (IY). 
When you make J* wit n^. upon Damm, the J , i. e. 
the ^3 , must be elided, and clean forgotten, since, if you 
***<* ,5** > ^e Damma upon the g would be deemed 



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( 729 ) 

heavy; and, if you elided the Damma, and said ^ , its 
being univfi. upon Damm would not be plain: and, when 

^Ay 

you intend to make £* uninfl., its lJ must be pro- 
nounced with Fath ; whereas with inflection it may be 

2 <* /A 9 

pronounced with Damm or Kasr, as ;!»>M ^U At the top 

/•A # ' xAx 

o/ the house, like ^li- -4* its bottom. As for jk , it may 
be uninjt. upon Fatlj, contrary to the rest of the finals, 
because of the heaviness of the j pronounced with 

A/ A 

Damm: and the Kasr, as jL* ^g*, is either because [it is 

• ' xA* •A/ 

tfi/t, and] the post, is supplied, as in ^ ^wJ with 
Fath [below], in which case this Kasr is found only with 
a prep, before it or with prefixion to the ^g of the pron. 
[129] ; or because it is uninfl. upon Kasr on account of 
the Damma's being deemed heavy : while the Damm, as 

#A/ A 

y* #y * , is according to the analogy of the rest of the 

"finals. The finals are uninfl. upon a vowel in order 
that they may be known to be radically infl. [159] : and 
upon Damm in order that they may be reinvigorated 
with the strongest of the vowels because of the weak* 
ness that overtakes them through the suppression of the 
needed post. ; or in order that all the vowels may be 
completed for them, because in the state of inflection, 
being mostly aplastic, they are governed either in the 

A 

gen. by ^ or in the ace. as advs. [64] ; or in order that 



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( 730 ) 
their uninflectional maybe different from their inflec* 

#A/ / **' s As # A s 

tional vowel (R). And yt* V or >** j^J and x^~* ^ 
are treated in the same way (IH) as the adv. cut off 
from pro thesis (Jm). ja* [90] is a n. inseparable from 
prothesis (ML, A) in sense [115] ; but may be cut off 
from it in letter, if the sense of the post, be understood, 

$As / As 

and )** be preceded by the word s j^} [96], the saying 

#As s . 

,#* V [below] being a solecism, [There are six con- 

*• S S # A // 

•• • •* 

structions with it (DM):] one says (1-2) *>^ \a***> 

*fy6*, ( J***' I have received ten, not another than they is 
{received), or it, i. e. the received, is not another than they, 

As 

with j*i in (a.) the worn., by suppression of the pred., i.e. 
teyxsu ; (b) the ace, by subaudition [i. e. latency (DM)] 

S A/ * /A<s .# 4A/A** /'A/ 

of the *k6. [in j-&> (DM)], i. e. la>^i j*jaJuM ^r (3) 

'/A/ s A* 

ja£ «~aJ [above] it, i. e. Me received, is not another (than 
they), also by subaudition of the sub., and by suppression 
of the post, in letter, but expression of it in intention, 

•A / 

[in which case $* i&infl. (DM),] like the reading [of 
{'Asim(MAd)} atfahdarl and {'Aun (IY)} al'Ukaill (IY, 

A' A s 'As A ssA^ As A 

Sb)] a* ^, JeS f XXX. 3., i. e. wJWf J* ^ 

' ' ' s s S * 

A' A ' 4A s s As 

*^^ ^j [above]: (4) ja£ j~aJ not another (than they) 

J is (received), or i/, i. e. the received, is not another (than 

they), in which case (a) Mb and the modems say that 



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( 73t > 

tke Parama is a Damma of uninflectedness, [because tba 
post, is suppressed, and its sense,, uot its letter, is in- 
tended to be understood (DM J,] not of inflection, and 
that ;&* is assimilated to the finals, like J~o and o*j ; 
and, according to this, it may be [in the place of a nom, 
as (DM)] sub., or [of an ace. as (DM)] pred^ [of j^ 
(DM)]: (b) Akh says that it is a Damma of inflection, 
[the absence of Tanwin being because the letter of the 
post, is intended to be understood (DM),] not of unin- 
flectedness, because ^ is not a w. of time, like J*i' an<J 
**> , nor of place, like Jy and c^aaJ , but is only like 
JS and j**> ; and, according to this, it is [in the nom. 
as (DM)] the sub., the pred. being suppressed: (c) 
IKh says that it admits of both alternatives, [iininfleo 
tedness and inflection (DM)]: (5) S)*£ j~d fy i. e . ^ 

received, is not another and (6) >x£ ^J not another 
is (received), in both of which the vowel is inflectional 
because the Tanwin denotes either complete declension 
[608], in which case it is affixed only to in /L ns.- or 
compensation, in which case the post, is as it were 
mentioned (ML): here nothing at all [belonging ft 
the post.] is intended to be understood ; but with the 

• Ay ^ 

acc. the sub. is understood j^J , and with the nom. the 
pred. is suppressed (DM). As for the saying CJi jjf 
[above], which occurs in the phrases of the learned, it 



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( 732 ) 
was not spoken by the Arabs ; so that the learned say 
V either by analogy to ^j^rf , or by inadvertence (Sh)» 
Apparently, however, there is no difference between the 

<0As * As * 

ja* negatived by j~*l and the one negatived by V , as is 
shown in the M by Z, and in the Kafiya by IH, who is 
followed in that by his commentators, and, among them, 

* A* 

the critical judges, [like R (DM)]; and y^ has been 
heard to occur after V f for IM cites in the CT 

>l AJ SA/ * / A/A t * * A* * •»/• • A s At* $ A* + * + 

JUJ }*£> V i**Al«»f J+e ^jjJ # fy)f «>***t fpJJ 6j bf a 

Rely thou upon an answer whereby thou shalt escape ; 
for, by our Lord, thou wilt be asked about a deed that 
thou hast done be/ore, not another : so that what occurs in 

*A , 

the ML and Sh is not to be regarded (Fk). ^ is assi- 
milated to the final advs. because of the extreme vague- 
ness in it [114], as io the finals, on account of their 
being unconfined relative locations [64] : but the post, is 
not suppressed from it except with the V of exemption 

* Ax 3A * » * \ S*At 

and j»d , as ft* V |»ia> J*M J will do this, nothing eke 

$A * / A/ § A/ •«•• 

and )& **if *H) ^'^ Zaid came to me, no one else, 

* */ • / A* SA A 

from the frequent use of y& after V and j-jJ ; and yKc 
after «^d is i. q. V\ [90], the post, suppressed in j*jJ 

#A / * S • A/ $ A/ ,,*., 

^i being the excepted suppressed in ifl j^J j^ ^il^. 



|1& 



( 733 ) 

Zaid has come to me: he, etc. [96] (R). w***-* is i. q. [the 
pre. n. in] uCxitf , an act. part. [24, 68] whereby the 
present is meant, so that [from regard to its being i. q. 
**-*tf (Sn)] it is used as an indet ep., being an *p. of an 

* S S A • A • #•# A^* 

focfe/., as J4; ^ «-**m^ J** *OJ* [!43] ; and ad.* 



# • A • • A • Ji^ #ft* • I 



to a <fe*., as J*; ** lXj~a*> *H| ^j^ fjJb This is 'Abd 
Allah, sufficing thee as a man. And [from regard to its 
prim, expression (Sn)] it is also used as a prim, sub* 
stantive, [occurring as an inch, or enunc., at present or 

A.** A * 

before the prefixion of the annuller (Sn),] as ((jy*?* 

is// 

JL$*. LVIII. 9. [Their sufficiency is Hell, or Hell is 

* it <* * * A • m * 

their sufficiency (Sn)], &«l uX±~*. Ji VIII. 64. Verily 
thy sufficiency is God, [like the saying of Jarlr 

* * A •/ • • ^3 # **A/A# U/A / * /A^ ^ # A • • » 

(K, B) Verily I have found your sufficiency of noble deeds 
to be this, <Aa£ #o/x should wear the best of clothes, 

$ s A * A • 

awrf te full of meat (N),] and J&>o i_Xa~su [7%^ *t/$- 

• * • • 

ciency is a dirham (Sn)]. And this is an objection to its 
being a verbal n. [68], since the lit. ops. are not prefixed 
to verbal ns. [by common consent ; and similarly the id. 
ops., like inchoation, according to the correctest doctrine 

(Sn)]. It is also cut off from prothesis, in which cast 

97 



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( 734 ) 

it undergoes two innovations, being (1) imbued with a 
sense indicative of negation ; and (2) always used (a) 
as an ep. y d. s. y or inch. y and (h) uninfl. upon Damm : you 

say [in the case of the ep. f or d. s.] w^-**c* VL^y *s~i\y 

\^r \^»**> I j^*3 / *<M a man, or Zhid, sufficing (me or 

* • * * h * 

thee), as though, says Jh, you said ^^^ or u-<$«»a* ; 

and in the case of the inch. u^-aaJ 8^&tf c^*oa> / re- 
ceived ten $ and (my) sufficiency {was that\ i. e. VlnT .j 

t_<JJ> (A). What impost, to u-^-a- may be [thus] sup- 
pressed from frequency of usage ; and it is univjt. upon 
Damm by assimilation to y* , since, like the latter [1 14], 
it does not beeome det. by prothesis. The odvs. pre. to 
props, are of two kinds, (1) necessarily pre. to them by 
application [115], which are three in number, i£*&*. in 

A 

place, and 61 and tef in time : (a) there is a dispute 

s * 

[204] as to whether the [cond.] prop, immediately fol- 

lowing fof governs hit or not j and, if it does, 161 is not 

4>re. to it j but, if it does not, lot is pre. to it : (b) tfi**^ 

and J I are pre. to the verbal and nominal [preps.] ; but 

there is a dispute [204] as to whether tot may be pre. 

# 
to the nominal ; (2) allowably pre. to the jprop., which 

fcr» only ns. of ft" we pre. to a prop, from which one of 



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( 735 ) 
the three times is imported : (a) that is stipulated for 
the sake of the affinity between the pre. and post, in indi* 
eating unrestricted time, even if the two times be different, 
this affinity being needed because prefixion to the prop, id 
not in accordance with the o. /., since the post, in reality 
is the inf. n. implied by the prop., not the prop, itself J 
and, according to this, a. n. of place is ordinarily not pre, 
to a prop, f 124], because one of the places is not specific 
cally imported from the prop*, as one of the times is. 
The general rule is that the n. of time should be pre, to 
the verbal [prop*], because the v. indicates one of the 
times by application [402] ; and therefore the n* of time 
is pre. to the verbal more often than to the nominal 
[prop.] : but time is imported from the nominal post* 
[prop.] by the circumstance that the 2nd of its two terms 

isat>.,as in ^^k >W J^ ^ \yt LI. 13. [(It wilt 
occur on, or is,) the day when they shall be burnt upon 
the fire (K, B)] ; or that, if its two terms be ns., its pur- 
port is notorious for occurring in one of the three times*. 

either the past, as >~! gl~»« rfp* <-^» l w™ t0 thee 
when AlHajjdj was governor, or the JUture, as XL. 16. 
[1] } while the saying of Mb in the Kamil that the al- 
lowably pre. n. of time is not pre. to a nominal [prop.] 
except upon condition of the prop's being past in sense, 
by assimilation to the necessarily pre. 61 , is falsified by 
LI. 18. [above], XL. 16. [1,124], and the like. All of 



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( 736 ) 
tliis is when the n. of time is pre. to a prop, of whose 
inf. n. it is the adv. in sense, as you see : whereas, if the 
n. of time be not an adv. to the inf. n., but be either 
before or after the latter, it has not with the prop, that 
peculiarity which the adv. of the inf. n. of the prop, has ; 
and therefore it is not used except with an infinitival p., 
like ^f , ^1 , and U , before the />rop., as ^1 JaX ^ 

* 3 3 • A • ' ' 

t&y^ «*» ta i IV. 50. Before that We deform faces and 

$ A/ 

IX. 118. [460]. As for A*dj, [which is not a n. of 

• A/ A 35/ • 

tfme,] it is pre. to the verbal prop. [124], as A*£j U*y 

, A/ .#.* A* 

kjOJf — ja*f Wbi7 ?/72^7 / come out to thee, because it is 
an inf. n. meaning delay, made to act as a substitute 
for the pr*. it. of /froe [65], the o. /. being *d**£ % ^Uj 

3 3 * 

^gty^ during the time of the delay of my coming out, 
i. e. during the period that my coming out delays, until 
it enters into existence, meaning until I come out j and 

similarly fy i. q. &* u * may be pre. to the verbal prop. 

* J?' 
because of its resemblance to *»*';, since times are 

signs whereby events are timed and acts specified ; but, 

4 A/ j, m 

since the sense of time is adventitious in *±~t.) and &il , 
they are mostly pre. to the verbal prop, headed by an in- 

* 3 h3 ^m» * iff 3 * im 

finitival j>., as the poet says ^y^H && and ^^aaJ U && 

il*l x/A/ A % 

[124, 571], and you say ^A Laj>; ^Sf Zfofc until I come 



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( 737 ) 
out ; and, since, according to the KK [below], the n. of 
time itself is pre. to the verbal [prop ] with an infinitival 
p., how much more is what resembles it! And y* also, 
when infi. as in JU yj [16], is pre. to the verbal [prop.] 

#s A / A * A • / A • s S A 

in their sayings *iw ^ii> t^ol [124], ^UL-J ^J* uaof , 

• *• A • ^ / A 

and 43)^-^ ,£<■>* I^AiDot: some say that this [prefixion] is 
anomalous, [because ^3 is not a n. of te,] ^J being 

A*A /• • 8 ^ A*A<* • • ' 

ep. of j*&f , i. e. S*1LJ| ^§6 >*Vf £* with the (matter) 
possessed of safety, meaning £a* JJ *JJf J"^£* w*/A 
/Ac matter wherein thou shalt be safe, the *— > being j\ q # 
£* ; but Sf says that the n. qualified by ^o [142] is 

A /A ^y/ 8 ^» A/A^o ' 

uu*5y,Le. &*U—JI ^3 vs^Syj J ira /Ae (Kme) possessed 

* * * * * 

VA/ A/ 

o/ safety, meaning &** *Lw c**Sj ^i in a time wherein 
/Aow shalt be safe, the ^ being i. q. ^ , in which case 
the prefixion is not anomalous, because yb is like a ft, 
of /ime pre. to the tf. ; while some say that it is the Tfi'I 
jO infi., which is improbable, because the Ta'1 o in 
the best known dial, has the y in all cases [176], 
And sometimes ^3 in prefixion to the v. is used in the 
same way as in prefixion to the n., as J** j«3 .V^ /fe 
Ma/ rfirf cawie to /we and U*i J^J and I^Ui .*o and 



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( 738 ) 

&Jm* ^ufo and Ui*i Cf ^o and ^j*** *±>\y3 , being then 
either Ta'l, according to the dial, transmitted by IDn 
[176] ; or i. q. i.^U? anomalously pre. to the v. S says 
that, when one of the two terms of the prop, immedi- 

3 A * * 

ately following v^^ and *of is at?., it is better to put that 
v. first, because these two advs. contain the sense of 
condition^ which is more appropriate to the v. } so that 

$As 3 A/ 3 A/ ' ^ h/ / A/ 

oij «~k»2 ^^^ is better than j-^W *>*3 ^A 3 * : but 

what he says here about f«3f requires consideration, from 

i 
the frequency of such [phrases] as LXXXIV. 1. [28, 204] 

and ^lyfl^l '^> &f*i»\s\~~l\ !o! LXXXII.l. 
2. PPAen <Ae heaven shall be cloven in sunder, and 
trAew <A* a/ars sAei// be scattered. y*i and Ja* are some- 
times assimilated to the advs. necessarily pre. to props., 
i. e. *£***■ , ^ j an( * '^' 9 because they are vague, like 
those arftw. : but, since they are only remotely assimilated 
to those advs., they are not pre. to the pure prop, iu the 
same way as those advs. are, but to a prop, headed by an 
infinitival p., as LI. 23. [518], £« J.^1 f+> j [90], 
and -iJI ±* ^1 ^ [90] ; because the affinity between 
the pre. w. of <iroe and the post. prop, in their indicating 
time, and the fact that the n. of time is an arfc;. to the 
inf. n. of the post, prop., enable the infinitival p. to be 



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( 739 ) 
dispensed with in the case of the n. of time, but are not 

§ A $As 

found in J*+ and ja* , so that the infinitival p. is needed 
in their case. The KK [above], however, transmit from 

z t A* 

the Arabs that the advs. also are pre. to ^1 and ^1 , as 

i A # s £$ /Ax $*/ x .#/ A # x Ay 

,gj~=* «-#! f j* and ±t) r yu ^1 r ji ; and, if this were 

y A 

right, those o^m. might be tn/7. and uninfl., like JjU and 

/*/ A#S* * 9H A *SS A* ,*, 

yti in f til U JZ* LI. 23. [518,159] and &aku ^f ^ 
[90, 159]. The author of the Mughnl says that, the adv. 
/>r*. to pro/?*, being del., it is correct to say ^ ljCaJ^ 

C • A^ $A/ • / • /A#* * 

jlaJI ^e3 r oS or 0;UM : but, besides the strangeness 
of this usage and the fact that it has not been heard, the 
pre. ought not to be det. when the ag. in the verbal ot 

l $ * * , A> 

inch, in the nominal [prop.] is indet., as j>uf **>S> f yi 

and j»*» ^/ ^uf r ji , since the sense is >*•! r ^jS ^ ^ 

[111]. The n. of /ime or t^*£a> , even if it be not an 
adv , is pre. to the prop. [124], as LXXVII. 35. [159], 
V. 119 [1], VI. 124. [64], and 

S 2S /// A • 3 *s 9 h * 3 # s 

O Me lowliness of the place where he that is lowly isf f 
[where J3 is pre. to v^ja. (J)]. As for such as ***««& 
{204], ^* ; £=*, and iit£*U % the arfw. are said to bo 



*' ' 



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( 740 ) 

A 

pre. to 3f pre. in sense to a suppressed prop, that the 
Tanwln is substituted for [128, 608] : but that [explana- 
tion] involves obscurity as respects the sense, since 
fj/ &*) ^g**> and c^Sy f ^ and the like are strange in 

' ' ' A#A* A /A* 

usage, corrupt in sense, contrary to such as *&S ol oa> 
^ jJ **** HI. 74. 4/for #* Aatra tarn Muslims, since its 

' SA /A.O AsA,« Ax • 

sense is after that time, while in fj***" is-^yj pj> ^1 
XV. 38. Until the day of the known promise vs^SJf , 



A /A 



says F, is i. q. «-^yt ; and it seems to me that these advs., 

A 

which are as it were apparently pre. to 3f , are [really] 
pre. not to it, but to the suppressed props., [like the adv. in 
of ,] except that, when these props, are suppressed because 
indicated by the drift of the sentence, it is not good that 
a Tanwln should be substituted for them affixed to these 

advs., as it is substituted in J/, j**J, and iM [128]. 

For, JT and its sisters being inseparable from prothesis 
in sense [115], the suppression of the post, is inferred 
from the sense ; and, that suppressed being specified by 
the circumstantial evidence obtained from the drift of the 
sentence, what is meant becomes complete, as in XXI. 



m» A • * JA// 



79. [128], XLIII. 31. [128], and £l| j* UZtfi [204]: 
whereas, these advs. not being inseparable from prothesis 
in sense, if you said I of Ua»* sa^S ^ j^j ^&*? ^intending 



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( 741 ) 

to suppress the post, and substitute the Tanwin of ti*a. 
for it, i.e. udo ***. at the time (of that), Uxa. would not 
appear to be used in that sense, but the Tan win in it 
would appear to denote [declinability and] indetermi- 
nateness ; [for I see nothing to prevent one Tanwin from 
denoting declinability and indeterminateness together, 
since many a p. imports two meanings, so that the Tanwin 
%m J^j imports indeterminateness also, but, when you 
use the n. as a name, denotes pure declinability (R on 
the Tanwin )]. Since, then, they fear that the Tanwin 
of compensation in U j* , Ua*. 9 and &U# should be con- 
founded with the Tanwin of declinability and indetermi- 
nateness, they effect the indication of the suppressed 
props, orig. post to those advs. by putting as a total 

A 

subst for those advs. an adv. [of ] inseparable from pre- 
fixion to props., light in expression, applicable to all 
sorts of ns. of time, &U , ^. , r ^ , &J f e te, and ac- 
customed to suppression of the prop*, pos/. to it, together 
with substitution of Tanwin for them, as in j}ufl of i*JU 

[204]. Thus of is put after those advs. as a [total] subst. 

for them, together with the Tanwin of compensation, in 

order that the Tanwin may be as it were existent in the 

ant. advs., because the total subst. [150], being not only 

ideally put into the place of the ant. [151], but unre- 

98 



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( 7*2 ) 
strictedly applicable to what the ant. is applicable to, is as 
it were the ant. ; and 31 is pronounced with Easr of the 3 
because of the concurrence of the two quiescents [608], 
this vowel [664] being necessary in order that 31 may be 

like a decl. n. governed in the gen., post, to the 1st adv. % 
so that the suppression of the post, from the 1st adv. 
without uninflectedness upon Damm or the Tanwin of 
compensation may not be disapproved ; and, since the 
object mentioned is effected by means of 31 , and the 

advs. mentioned are future and past, 3( is divested of the 
sense of the past, and becomes denotative of unrestricted 
adverbiality, so that it may be used in the future [204] 

/ u* />A /Ax $A// 

also, as 4#iifcJJ J£*»> Jjji LIL 11, Then woe on 
that day to them that treat the signs of God as false and 

A 

the like. But the truth is that 31 , when the post, is sup- 
pressed, and the Tanwin substituted for it, otherwise 

/A> 

than in such as 3t#^ , may be pronounced with Fath 

also, whence JJ^I^ Wj I3l (%>& XXVI. 19, / 
did it then, when I was one of the erring, i. e. J did it 
when thou hadst brought me up, since requital [594] 
has no meaning here. The adv. pre. to the prop, being 
an adv. to the inf. n. implied by the prop., as we stated 
before, a pron. may not relate to it from the prop. [124], 

so that &a* ±t) fv*S f jd *-£a£>I is not said, because, the 



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( 743 ) 

connection sought to be realised from such apron, is realis- 
ed by prefixing the adv. to the prop., and making it an 
adv. to the purport thereof, so that it is as though you said 

A/ ** 'h' A/A^ 

&aS ojj fy±i fji , i. e. fyrfl ^ , which is not used; and 
the cop. is necessary only when the adv. is not connected 
by reason of its being pronounced with Tanwln, as 

9 hp 9 / * Ax 

4jj &£> r°^ **j4 O* 1 a ^ a J^ '^ a * ^ al ^ arrived on t the 

Kursays *j^j ojw^ 5y^^ j4aa3 r ^ Hi. 102. On Ma 
day wtatt faces shall become white and faces shall be* 

tS s A / x Ax 

corns 6/adfc ; but sometimes &*i oy**3 * jj> and the like 
are said, which is anomalous* The advs. necessarily pre* 
to props, must be uninjt. [159], because they are pre* 
in sense to the inf. n* implied by the prop> so that their 
prefixion to the prop, is like no prefixion, and therefore 
they resemble the finals [202] (R). The [sing, and pl. s 
but not the du., of the (R)] advs. [allowably (R)] pre. 

A 

to the prop* or [to the word (Jm)] of may be uninjt^ 

[(a) by common consent, when the prop, is headed by a 
pret. ; (b) according to the ft ft and some of the BB, when it 
is headed by an aor. or is nominal, whether the head of the 

latter be infl* or uninjt. in letter, as in ja*! o^f * yt u&Aa* 
/ came to thee on the day when thou Wast governor^ 
since it must be infi. in place } and (c) by common con- 
sent in such as **&£a» (R),] upon Fatfr [for the sake of 



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( 744 ) 

4* 4a* #a 

lightness (Jm)] : and similarly J** and yt>* , [i. e. j£* 
(R)] with U , and [ yfi with (R)] J or^t (IH), may 
be uninfl. [90, 111, 159] (R, Jm), by common consent 
(R), upon Fath (Jm), 

* A • £ A • 

§ 202. i^a*> or [in the dial, of Tayyi (ML)] **jf± , 
is [uninfl. (R, DM),] pronounced in both dials, with (1) 
Damm of the &> [according to the best known usage 
(R)L ^ assimilation to the finals [201], because [its 
(R)] prefix ion [to the prop. (ML)] is like no pre fix ion, 
[since its effect, vid. the sign of the gen. \ in the post 
(DM)}, is not apparent (ML)]; (2) Kasr, [according to 
the o. /^injthe concurrence of two quiescents (ML)]; 

S A* 

(3) Fath [for alleviation (ML)]: and &+&» isi/i/f.fR, 
ML) by some of the Arabs (ML), which is a Fak'asI 

* **A * * A s A 

dial. (R, DM) ; while the reading m^W ^ ^**ft^ *+ VII. 
181. [So that they shall not know {what We mean to 
do with them) (B)] ma; be an instance of this [infl. 
(DM) dial. var. or of the dial. var. uninfl. upon Kasr. 
It denotes place, by common consent (ML): and Akh 
says that it sometimes denoted time (T, R, ML), as 

ASssS/s A s 4 A s * * i A * **A 

&«jj> &*L» »J^i s±^*r*- * *f ■ £**£ J** iV^ 

[by Tarafa (Ahl ;,] T%e ^ott/A Aa* understanding where" 
by he lives while his foot guides his shank (T, R, DM), 
because the sense is during the period of his toil and his 



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( 745 ) 
life (T); but here also it may denote place (R, DM). It 
is mostly [in the place of an ace. as (ML)] an adv. 

(R, ML), as f a>;*^> e^ ji?f~H ^ a IX - 5 - 
5/ay ye the unbelievers wherever ye find them (DM); or 

of a #wi. governed by ^ (ML), as v*-s*)a* ^^^ ^j 

J^\ ±=>~J\ ; ta£ u£«a>j J/ II. 144. (DM) And 

\ ' ' ' 

from whatever place thou contest forth (to journey), turn 

thy face in the direction of the sacred mosque (when 

thou prayest) (B): but not always (R), being sometimes 

governed in the [place of a (DM)] gen. by something 

A 

else (ML) than j- (DM), as 

4/ s + ** A A# A// £ / > 

S^tf Gja £}*£ ^ oa» 

/ A • tcP • # A • A /A$ .# A / • / 

j»a£j> r J t$la^ c^SJJ «A^ ^S^ 

[by Zuhair, 'jTAerc Ae attacked (him); and scared not 
(the people of) many tents, at the place where Pate (8) had 
thrown down her camel-saddle, i. e. at her abode (EM)}j 
and [sometimes a direct obj., agreeably with the opinion 
of F, who attributes to it (ML)] VI. 124. [64, 201] (R, 
ML), since the sense is that God knoweih [360] the 
place itself that is meet for the bestowal of the A postdate 
therein, not something in the place (ML), and similarly 

£>l Jafr- &***> gyi Ut [below], where it is the [direct 

(AAz)] obj. of ^3/ ; while jbi &**** j-W| ^-^1 ^ 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 74C ) 

t / 

JMJ She is the most beautiful of mankind in a place 

' *** 

where a looker looks has been transmitted, meaning *$*>} 

in face, where it is a sp. (R). It does not occur as sub. 

of ^ , contrary to the opinion of IM ; nor has he any 

evidence in the saying 

*,$/§* * m • # Af A • 5// A «* * A s 5 

[ Verily the place, where he that thou art the protector of 
resides, is a sanctuary wherein are honor and safety 
(DM)], because &*if* ra *y ^ 8 construed to be a pred., 
and ***> a sub. 9 [i. e. Verily a sanctuary etc. is (in the 
place) where etc. (DM)], cfc^ is always pre. to the prop., 
nominal or verbal ; bat more often to the verbal, for 

.# A • / 

which reason the ace. is preferable in such as o.*— 1^ » 
*!jt ffc>*3 v£*£=* / sat where (I see) Zaid, I see him 
[62] (ML). Its prefixion to the single term is extra- 
ordinary, as 

A A/ /A/ /#A^ / A/ A###A •/ 

r*//h*> m/ * A/ s /A<0 

(Rj ML), said to be by AlFarazdalj:, And we pierce them 
below the kidneys after smiting them with the sharp 
swords at the place of t fie fold of the turbans, where iA^A^ 
is in the position of an ace. as an adv. (SM), and 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 747 ) 

• / A • S * A * ///£ 

UJtto Ja$~ *^r>* £)> U1 

[above] (R) See** *A<ra not the place of Canopus when 
rising? (I mean by Canopus) a star that shines like the 
flame, gleaming (J): but Es holds it to be regular ; and 

A 

thus can be explained the saying of the Lawyers ^ 
fjjr ^ i*^a^ Whereas such and such, [with Fat^i of 

S3* 

the Hamza of ^t (518) (DM)]. And more extraordinary 
than that is its prefixion to a suppressed prop., as 

A * ** 4 * S £* * sf #/ A s ss S # A S A £s As s 

aJ^fji J^- toby* 8Cf * aJ v^cn&U^.^ rf**H)M 
[by Abu Hayya anNumairi, When a breeze from wherever 
(it blows) is wafted to him (the he-ass), a nose that is 
attached to him brings to him its (the meadow's) frag- 

A 55 • S A • A 

ranee (Jsh)], i. e. ia~*fi> v^i^ ^* (ML), the prop, being 
suppressed, and U put as a compensation for it (DM). 

* A • 

t*^. when pre. to the single term, is infi. (R, ML) 
by some (R), according to IJ (MLJ, which is said to 
be the dial, of Hudhail (AAz), because the cause of 
uninflectedness, i. e. prefixion to the prop., is removed 
(R); and I have seen, in the handwriting of ortho- 
graph ers 

* * A • * * A • *fi s% 

UIU* J^g** ^i^ £$ Uf 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 748 ) 

[above], with Fatfc of the s±> (ML): but in the best 
known usage it remains uninfl., because prefixion to the 

S A • 

single term is anomalous (R). *&*a^ , when the res- 
tringent U is attached to it [181, 565], implies the sense 

<w A S A S / J A s 

of condition, and apocopates two w., as iJf jJu-*J Uixa- 
[419] ; and this verse is, according to me, a proof of its 
denoting time (ML), i. e. In whatever time, not In what- 
ever place, thou art straight, as is proved by f\* ^ 
^UjVf (DM)- 



§ 203. i>* and iii« [both pronounced with Easr 
of their f in one dial. (Sn)] are used [by the Arabs 
(IY)] as ns. and/?*. [498] (IY, A), 61m mostly as a p., 
and J* mostly as a n. [510]. They are peculiar to 
time, being prefixed only to a [n. of] time ; and their 

A A 

relation to tfme is the same as that of ** to place, .«* 

A .# ' 

denoting beginning of extent in place [499], and o* and 
vii* in time [510] (IY). When they are ns., they have 
two meanings, (1) the beginning of the period, [with which 
only definite time is allowable (IY),] as * yt tiJU *aj>^> U 

&*+«Jf / Aaue wo< seen A101 since Friday. (2) *Ae wAo/e of 
Me period, [to which the mdeJ. is peculiar (IY),] as 

• A/ .# A* ***** * 

Xtjj iSJU &^l; U / have not seen him for two days (M); 



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( 749 ) 

9 9 J+i A/ 

though you may put a det implying number, as J* 8 ; i ff 

r ysL^M / Aave not seen him all through the Muharram, as 
though you said /or 30 days (IY). They have three 
states (ML), being followed by a n. in the gen., a n. in the 
noin.) or a pro/>. (DM). When they are followed by a n* 
in the gen., they are said by some to be (ML, A) pre. nSi 
(ML), advs. governed in the ace. by the v. before them } 
but are held by most to be preps. [510] (A). They are 
ns. (I) tfben they govern [a single n. in (A)] the nom. j 
(2) when they are followed by [a prop,, vid. (A)] (a) the 
[pret. (Sn)] v. (IM) With its ag., which is the prevalent 
[construction], for which reason IM restrict himself to 
the mention of it $ (b) the inch, with its enunc. (A). 
When they are followed by a ra« in the nom., [as ^y>, J-* 
^jl^JI and jS 9 i ±k+ (ML),] then, (1) [as Mb, IS, 
and F say (ML),] they are inchs. followed by an enund, 
(ML, A), i. q. (a) ±*V\ if the time be present or numbered, 

[as l**yt ** &K*) '* or |*y **& **+ I have not seen 
him alt through our day or for three days, i. e. the terrri 
(of the interruption of the sight) is our day, or three 

days (DM)]; (b) S*JI J ; t if it he past (ML), as*Ju^U 

, A .# A*» #A / A .P 

£**sJf j»^t ti* / Aaira wo* s^e/i him since Friday, i. e. 

the beginning of the period (of not seeing) was Friday 

(DM) : (a) they are permissible as inchs. , because the/ 

9» 



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( 750 ) 

are det. [25] in letter and sense, or in sense only, accord- 
ing to different opinions (Sn) : (b) this analysis (A, DM) 
is preferred by IH (DM) ; [and] is indicated by IM's 
saying " when they govern the nom" (A), because the 
inch, governs the enunc. in the nom. [24] (Sn) : (2) [as 
Akh, Zj, and Zji say (ML, Sn),] they are [adverbial 

(ML)] enuncs. followed by an inch. (ML, A), i. q. ^jft? 

/ A// • A< A S S* * * 

*») both pre., as ^yi ** &i% U / have not met him 

for two days, i. e. Between {me) and meeting (him) [158] 
have been two days (ML, Sn) ; but there is no conceal- 
ing the obscurity involved in this (ML) : (a) ISgh says 
" he that parses them as inchs. or enuncs. ought to reckon 
" them among the necessarily prepos. inchs. or enuncs. 
" [28] ; and that can best be accounted for by the argu- 
" ment that, since they must precede the gen. when they 
"are preps., they must precede [the enunc. or inch.] when 
•• they are ns." (YS) : (3) as most of the KK say, they 
are advs. pre. to a prop, whose v. is suppressed while its 

• A/ • • hf 

ag. remains, the o. /. being ^yt ^J* *+ since two days 
(have been), [where ^tf is att. (DM), or ^yt ^^ uU 
since two days (have passed) (A)] ; and this is preferred 
by Suh and IM (ML, A) in the Tashll (A): (4) as some 
ef the KK say, they [or rather the ns. after them (DM) J 
are enuncs. of a suppressed [pron., vid. y* (DM)], i. e. 

tJ*yl )* ^^ c)W d* *h))l+ I have not seen him 
from that (time which) is two days, upon the ground that 



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( 751 ) 

is compounded of two words, ^ and the Ta'l y$ 

a * *** 

[176] (ML), and that J* is orig. SU (DM). When 

they are followed by the verbal or nominal prop., as in 
£M ^ j^C [112] and 

$ s /€ AS X fht* "A* # A • / 

^iti U| a* JU1 ^l o^Jj U, 

• / Kit * A ' * A •, * s 

[by AlA'sh&, -4nrf / Aaw no/ ceased to seek wealth, since 
I was a stripling, when ( / was) a boy and middle-aged, 
when I was hoary, and when (I was) beardless (Jsh)], 
then, (1) according to the best known opinion, they are 
advs. pre., (a) as some say, to the prop., [in which case 
they are excluded from peculiarity to prefixion to the 
n. of time, and their meaning is from the time when 
(DM)];(b) as others says, to ^) [supplied (Sn)] pre. 
to the prop., [in which case their meaning is from the 
beginning (of the time when) (DM)] : (2) as is said, they 
are inchs., in which case ^U} must be supplied pre. to 
the prop., as the enunc. (ML, A), i. e. the beginning (of 
that was the time when) his two hands tied and / was a 
stripling (DM). tii* and i* are uninfl. because they 
are ns. in the sense of ps. [510, 159]. They ought to 
be quiescent [159]: but [the 3 of] o*U is mobilized 
because of the quiescence of the ^ before it, and is pro- 



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( 752 ) 
nounced with Datum for alliteration [197] to the Damm 

A .P 

of the + ; while 3-# is quiescent, unless it meet a quies- 
cent after it, in which case it is pronounced with Damm, 

as (•*£*' *** ? but by some with Kasr, as fj*" ■>* (!¥)• 

A .P JPA* ' 

The o. /. of o^ is ti»i* , [the ^ being elided from it 
(DM),] as is proved by their [generally (Sn)] reverting 

A * 

to Damm of the «3 in J* upon meeting a quiescent, 

as fjjM cU [663], whereas, if the o. /. were not Damm, 
they would pronounce with Kasr [664]; and by the fact 
that some of them say Ji.yb> *+') ui* , pronouncing with 
Pamm notwithstanding the absence of the quiescent 
(ML, A). 

A 

§ 204. o! is of four kinds, (1) a n. denoting past 
time, and used in four ways, (a) as an adv., which is the 
prevalent usage, as IX. 40. [below] : (b) as a direct obj. 
[of a v. (a) mentioned (DM)], as ltJS ^ktf ol fj/ofj 

*s * 35// ^ 

Jy&> VII. 84. And remember the time when ye were 
few, and He made you many ; [(b) supplied (DM),] the 

A 

oJ mentioned in the beginnings of stories in the Revela- 

* A#A# •• A * 

tion being mostly a direct obj. of /o\ supplied, as Jl5 oU 

/ w/A • £/ # 

ixi 1LU u*0^ II. 28* And (remember) the time when thy 
Lord said unto the angels [belowj : (c) as a subst. for 

A //,h^ */A/ * h^o ti9 h*Os 

the obj. % as «»**U| o! f j r v U£lf ; jr^u XIX. 16. 



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( 753 ) 
And remember Mary in the Scripture, when she with- 
drew, [i. e. the time of her withdrawal (DM),] where 
JJ is a subst. of implication for ^ , [the cop. (154) 
being the pron. relating to her latent in the v. (DM),] 
like the subst. in II. 214. [150] ; while of in the text 
/UJf JCaJ J**> of J^U &*M &**> f ; /of V. 23. Remem- 
for #e Me grace o/ Gorf towards you, when He set among 
you Prophets may be an adv. to, or a [total (DM)] subst. 
for &**> : (d) as port, to a n. of ft'me, (a) capable of 

' /A^ • 

being dispensed with, as in ±l*y>. and <&**■ [201]; (A) 

incapable of it, as in VSi**> of **i Ufjp £? v **i) HI. 6. 
0«r -Lorrf, /earf wo/ our Aearte astray after the time when 
Thou hast guided us : (2) a n. denoting future time 

s/sA$ S m • P /A/ 

[201], as to^tj^f vi^saJ oi*;£ XCIX. 4. , On that day 
shall she tell her tidings ; while the text ^y^i *-*y** 
l^UU! J jijUl/Tof XL. 72. 73. Therefore they shall 
know, when the yokes are on their necks is sometimes 
cited as evidence, because ^y^i , which is future in 

A 

letter and sense [404], governs ot , which must there- 

x £ A /AyA#« .P-P/^A,/ A •• 

fore be i. q. fof : (3) causative, as of r ^JI f*»H Jy 

s $ * h* ***** hSmt h»b* * 

. ffJLm yjfJjJl J f «l ^*li£> XLIII. 38. And it shalt 
not profit you to-day, since ye have done wrong, that ye 



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( 754 ) 
are partners in punishment, i. e. And your partnership 
in punishment shall not profit you to-day, on account of 

A 

your wrong-doing in the world : (a) this of is alterna- 
tively said to be (a) a p., i. q. the causative J [504] ; 
(b) an adv., the causation being imported from the force 
of the sentence, not from the letter, because, when 
A«A of &*>y6 I beat him when he, did evil is. said, and 
time is meant, the appearance of the case necessarily 
implies that the evil-doing is the cause of the beating, 
[because the dependence of the predicament upon a qua- 
lification notifies the causality of the latter (DM)] : (b) 

[of in the text cannot be causative according to the 2nd 
saying, and (DM)] the difficulty is removed only accord- 
ing to the 1st saying, because, if The partnership in 
punishment shall not profit you to day in the time of 
your wrong-doing were said, causation would not be 
imported on account of the difference in the times of the 
two acts, [vid. wrong-doing, the time of which is the 
present life, and profiting, the time of which is the next 
life : nay, in reality the difference of time entirely pre- 
vents the coherence of the sentence (DM)]; and [thus 
(DM)] a [further (DM)] difficulty remains in the text 
[according to the 2nd saying (DM)], vid. that of is not a 
subst for f jiM , because of the difference in the two 

• /A/ 

times ; nor an adv. to (*H, because the latter does not 



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( 755 ) 

govern two advs. [64]; nor to ^ff**** , because the reg. 
of the pred. of the five ps. does not precede them [520, 
593], nor does the reg. of the conj. precede the conjunct 
[75], and because their partnership is in the nest life, 
not in the time of their wrong-doing : (c) other passages 

• I • * S' fi * ******** 

attributed to causation are lii*> ^jIjSa*** *> U*MQl J of j 

i , 4 A " * 

+l<±* t-Xif XL VI. 10. And, since they have not been 
guided by it, [their perversity has become manifest (B),] 
eo that they will say, This is an old lie, XVIII. 15. [88], 

£\ J f j»l*G [107], and £\ U^ J [35] ; and all of 
that is correct only according to the saying that the causa- 
tive of is a p.: (4) denotative of suddenness of occurrence, 
as S declares, which is the one [generally] occurring 

, A/ •# Av m, *h , ,l<* A ,t\ 

after &# and Ui# , as ^l| f>yL aJJf ; d£Ju*t [below]; and 
is variously said to be an atfu. of place or tfime, a /?. 
denoting suddenness of occurrence, and a corrob., i. e. 
rcrf. [563], p., [as explained by B below]. Two other 

A 

meanings are mentioned for 31 , [in both of which it 
appears to be a p. (DM),] (1) corroboration, through its 
being taken to be red., which is said by AU, followed by 
1Kb [and Jb], who attribute to it certain texts, among 
them II. 28. [And thy Lord said (above) (DM) and II 

A • 

48. (below)]; (2) verification, like oS [575], to which is 
attributed the text [XLIII. 38. (above) (DM)]: while 



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( 75(5 ) 
ISh adopts the opinion that it occurs red. after &tf 

• • Ay 

and Uixf [below] exclusively ; and, according- to the 
theory of verification in the text [XLIII. 38. (DM)], 
the prop. [ JUUb «$l , i. e. J^UIa oj ^ Aatte done wrong 

■ * A 

(DM),] is a par. between the v. and ag. [1] (ML). Of 
is always pre. to a prop. [115] (R, ML), (1) nominal, as 

§ * AJA* a S$ fs/O* 

Ja£ Jof of f j/of j VIII. 26. And remember the time 
when ye were few: (2) verbal, its v. being a prek, (a) in 
letter and sense, as II. 28. [above], II. 118 [160], and 

sA$A /- A/ • A • 

uXtef ^s *sjy±i> otj III. 117. A nd remember the time 
when thou wentest early in the morning from thy house* 

A S 

hold ; (b) in sense, not letter, as II. 121. [539] and of j 
]))& ^.oJt lJCj ^*> VIII. 30. And remember the time 
when they that disbelieved Were plotting against thee : 
and all three are combined in of 6U\ 5^fii oai n^y^JJ Vf 

tl*,' *U| "l £aSli s#»l*t IX. 40. // [90, 585] ye 
help him not, God will help him, as He did help him f 
when they that disbelieved drave [above] him forth % he 
being a second of two, when they two were in the [599] 
cave, when he was saying to his companion 4< Cfrieve 
u thou not [419]; verily God is with us " (ML). But 



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( 757 ) 
they disapprove of [its being prefixed to an. followed 

S s $A/ A 

by a pret. v., as (R)] JS jj£ o! (M, R), the chaste con- 

$ A* ' * A £ A 

struction being oj>j ^6 ol (R), because of , being applied 

to denote the past, should rather be prefixed to the pret, 
on account of the conformity (IY, R) and affinity (R) 
of their meanings (IY). Sometimes one of the two terms 
of the prop, is suppressed, so that, [when the inflection 
is not apparent in the other term (DM),] the ignorant 

A ^r~~^*. 



think that ot is pre. to the single term, as /&'?'*-~''^\ 

*' / A * * As ** «S / As A *t*j \a V '••{ j *J 

• • h% s • A $ / A * iA /A^y ^li^-^^ 

[by 'Abd Allah Ibn AlMu'tazz, Shall nights (i.e. times), 
that have passed for us, indeed return, when life is 
changed — since that (is so) — like branches ?, i.e. since 
life is like branches, sometimes fresh, and sometimes dry 

(Jsh)], in full uCf 6f uilJ Si , and 

***h s $!$ s *s as* 

* * h fit* * * * s A > A • A 

U|^.| ~UJt ^ utfo of vsu of 

by AlAkhtal, i.e. They were abides of familiar friends, 
that I knew as brothers above mankind, when we (were 
familiar together), when that neighbourhood (was exist- 

§ ms s * A * Suits* > A • A 

ing), in full Jti c*te 61 ^JKU jsJ 6\ , what is 

100 



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( 758 ) 

demonstrated by u£lo being the neighbourhood under- 
stood ^from the sentence, and 

SSs Si/ A * / /"a .# SS<* • SS* * $ 3* h* ht * 

f;> }* ^ uJfiS ol j^UItiSt * J&t lS ^ \yft j ^ 

by AlKhansd, i.e. As though they were not a sanctuary 
that is respected, when mankind are such that he of theui 
that overcomes robs, when that [overcoming (DM)] (is 

existing), in full Jtf ^fj ol (ML): and sometimes the 

[whole (ML)] prop, is suppressed, because known, and 
Tanwln is put as a compensation for it, [as 

(R), by Abti Dhu'aib alHudhall, / prohibited thee, O 
heart, from thy courting Umm 'Amrin health, while thou 

A 

wast then well (Jsh),] in which case the o [of o! (R)] is 



pronounced with Kasr [608] (R, ML) or FatJh [201]; but 
always with Kasr in such as j>l«y, (R), as >& £**$.) 
' \.JJL J! XXX. 3. And on that day shall the believers 

'' S 5^ * /A/ /A// 

be glad (ML), i. e. n f\ ^Mo, ^ And on the day 
when (the Greeks shall overcome) [502 J (B). M is not 
like til in denoting condition, [because its time is past, 
while condition is future (IY),] unless it be restrained 
[by U from prefixion (IY)], as in the saying of Al'Abbas 
Ibn Mirdas [asSulaml (Jsh)] 



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( 759 ) 

,P A /A** «£• A^o x , A// S • 

(M) Whenever thou enter est before the Apostle, say thou 
to him, with a saying that has become necessarily in- 

cumbent (in full 12^ ja. 1/yJ *J Jii , i. e. Ify^^ ^^^ ) 
upon thee, when the assembly is still (AAz), because, 
being restrained by U from the prefixion [565] explana- 

tory of its sense, it becomes vague (IY^. Lot is an in- 
strument of condition, that [seldom (DM)] apocopates 
two vs. (ML), being mostly wop. (DM). It is, (1) accord- 

A 

ingto 8, a p. [419], i. q. [the cond. (ML)] ^ (Ron the 
opoc, ML); (2) according to Mb, IS, and F, an adv. 
(ML) : (a) perhaps S considers that, when the word U is 
affixed to lof , the latter already contains the sense of 
condition, and is future, even if it be prefixed to the pre/., 
like ^f ; so that it becomes an apocopative with U : 

whereas this cannot be the case with of , which is devoid 
of the sense of condition, and is applied to denote the 

past ; so that U6I , according to him, is not compounded ; 

(b) Sf says " I have not known any of the GG mention 

/ A 

"tol , except S and his school ,- and S cites [only] two 

£ <»/Ass/A ^ •AyA^ A/* • A / 

14 verses, £l|i*J£oU31 [above] and £Hfj*M ^ny UMi 



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( 760 ) 

" [589] : and one of the GG says that its o.f. is U| , which 

" does not occur except with the corrob. ^ after it [613] f 
"as in XIX. 26. [544]; so that, since [the metre of] 

uf 

" the verse would be violated by the ^ , the form of Uf 
"is changed by conversion of the 1st r into o ; but this 

*» • A y * /ft 

" [explanation] is net complete in £Jf *sJL*o UoJ ": (c) 

A y A £ 

Mb says that [ oJ in] Lol retains its nominality ; but 
that L restrains it from seeking preBxion, and adapts it to 
condition and apocopation, as in the case of ii^^ [202] • 
for by means of U it becomes future and apocopative 
(R), Its government of the apoc. [419] is rare [in prose 
and poetry (DM)] ; but is not a poetic license, contrary 
to the opinion of some, lof is used in two ways:— - 
(1) it denotes suddenness of occurrence, in which case [it 
differs from the cond. fo! in four matters, vid. that (DM)] 
it is peculiar to nominal props., does not need a corraL 
por occur at the beginning [of the sentence (DM)], and 
means the present, not the future, (i. e. indicates that 
what follows it is realized during the realization of what 
precedes it % as Shin demonstrates, even if they be both 

past (DM),] as ^Wl> *~V\ loU , A ^. > L 1 went out; and 
[540] lo, or there, or then, the [599] lion was at the door, 
whence £« foU IfclSJG ; XX. 21. Then he cast it down, 



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( 761 ) 

•A /£ • 

and behold, or there, or then, it etc. [31] and USol I3f j 

$ A s A.PS • A/A SS / ***&/ A/A ^ • A • / £ ,jO *. 

yiU ftf lol {*$**** >l)^ i>m> ^ £*a^ ^W1 X. 22. 4wrf, 
wAin wra ft»a&6 /Ac people [of Makka (DM)] to taste of 
mercy after a hardship that has befallen them, lo, or there, 
or then, they have a plot: (a) it is (a) a p. according to 

• • $ A • • 

Akh, which is made preferable by their saying lol* c^*^ 

uWl} fi>i) m' ^ t00rc£ ow/, and lo, verily Zaid was at 

the door, [like the version £J| IwM J** &JI Ii3ti (519)J 

with Kasr of [the Hamza in] ^1 , because, [if it were 
not a p., it would be an adv. of time or place, and would 
therefore need an op., whereas what precedes the w-5 
does not govern what follows it, and (DM;] what follows 
^ does not govern what precedes it; (b) an ado. of place, 
according to Mb ; (c) an adv of time, according to Zj 
[and Rm, which opinion is attributed to S (DM)] : and the 
1st opinion is adopted by IM, the 2nd by IU, and the 
3rd by Z: (b) he [i. e. Z (DM)] asserts that its op. is a 

supplied v. derived from the letter of KUUJJ , saying that 

^ftfat f »\ UM jp\ -+ 8,0 si** toi £ xxx. 24. 

Moreover, when [below] He shall call you once from the 
earth, then ye shall come forth is constructively lot Ji 
u^SJf ^0*3 ^ c ;>»ll f^ f\** Moreover,- when 
£<c, j/e $/ia// /a// suddenly to coming forth in that time : 



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( 7«2 ) 
but others hold that its op. is the enunc, mentioned, as 

$s$Asss*Ass s , tito , , 

in jJIs* oi; foli c^=^, or supplied, as in o-»Vf foti , 

\ * * 

i, e. )^l=^ ; and that, when (of itself is construed to be 

the enunc [in such as J**1M foti (DM)], its o/i. is ;SJL*w# 

6,, A * 

or yu~f [26, 498]: (c) the enunc. with it always occurs 

expressed in the Revelation, as XXI. 97. [160], Jt foti 
• p ' * 

^ 5 4)*t£. XXXVI. 28. And to, or /Aere, or then, they 



Stxt/ h* / • / 



were s/t7/, and /L*a> ^ fo^ VIII. 105. And to, or *Aer*, 
or tftaw, t7 was white: (d) when «>*«Vf foli c^y^ 
/ went forth, and there was the lion 1 is said, lot may 

be an enunc. according to Mb, i. e. d**Vf 8;*aacJ Ui ; but 
not according to Zj, because the {adv. of] rime is not an 
enunc. of a concrete n. [26] ; nor according to Akh, 
because the p. is neither predicable nor predicable of 
[497]: whereas, if you say J&&I f*3li and there, or then, 

was fighting, [like the version £fl l^SIf a** 6j\ \£\ (51 9) 
with Fath,] it may be an enunc. according to others 
than Akh: (e) you say «~% a>j loli *^+f>. or LJb> 
/ went forth, and there, or then, Zaid was sitting, or and 
there was Zaid, sitting^ or and then Zaid {wa* present) 
sitting, with, (a) the nom. as an enunc, fol being gov- 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 763 ) 
erned in the ace. by it: (b) the ace. as a d. s., the ennnc. 
being fof , if it be called an [adv. of] place; and, if not, 

then suppressed, [i. e. y&* (DM)] : (f) you may construe 

131 to be an enunc. of a concrete n. [in appearance, but of 
an abstract n. in reality (DM)], notwithstanding our 
calling it an [adv. of] time [26], when you assume the 
suppression of a pre. »., as tS^V I f 3li cj^j^ / went 
Jbrth, and then was (the presence of) the Hon, construc- 
tively *3-*!f S )y*** to'* : (g) the Arabs say Jbl &JS jS 

to think that the scorpion was sharper in stinging than 

*Ae hornet, and lo$ he is as sharp as Me, and toy y* fo£ 
also : but this [2nd (DM)] construction was disapproved 
by S when he was questioned by Ks ; and ^ j*> fol* 
is the proper construction, like VII. 105. and XX. 21; 






while Ubbf y^ foti , if authentic, is irregular and in- 



elegant, like the government of the apoc. by ^ [549], 
the swfy". by ^ [548], and the £en. by J*f [513] (ML) : 
(h) fol [denoting suddenness of occurrence (IY)] is used 
like the lJ in the correL of the condition, [because of 
the approximation of their meanings, suddenness of occur- 
rence and succession (IY),] as XXX. 35. [1, 419] (M) 



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( 764 ) 
and XXX. 24. [above] (K, B): (2) it denotes something 
else than suddenness of occurrence, in which case (a) it 
is mostly an adv. of the future, implying the sense of 
condition, and peculiar to prefixion to verbal props., 
being [in all of this] contrary to the one that denotes 
suddenness of occurrence, with which it is combined in 
XXX. 24. [above] and toU* ^ A£*i ^ & ^J^>] i^ti 

/ ^ A/Ay A^ / ' ' ' , " £ 

&r*"-t f * »*» XXX. 47. [below] And, when He 
watereth with it those of His servants whom He willeth 
to, or there, or then, they are glad! (ML) : (a) as fof is 
prefixed to the pret., so it is prefixed to the aor. (K, B 
on XLII. 28), as XCII. 1. [498], whence ^*JL' 11 'J*' 

yl^S sl£*> Uf XLII. 28. And He, when He willeth is 
able to gather them together and 

(K) -drctf, whenever I will, I rouse her (the she-camel) for 
the journey a* the end of the night, so that she speeds 
along as though she were a terrified wild bull(N); [but] 
the t?. after it is often a prei., and less often an aor., both 
of which are combined in the saying of Abu Dhu'aib 
[alHudhall(Jsh>] 



iS/# 



•/A£x • §, , S M***t 



[And the soul of man is craving when thou makcst it 
crave ; and, when it is reduced to a Utile, it is content 



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f 765 ) 

(Jsh)] : (ft) the eond. (of is prefixed to the ft. in such as 
LXXXIV. 1. [23, 201] only because the n. is an ag. to 
a v. suppressed upon condition of being expounded, not 
an inch., contrary to the opinion of Akb, [who allows 
ft3f to be prefixed to the inch, provided that the latter 
be followed by a t>. (DM)]; and, as for the saying [of 
AlFarazdafc (Mb, Jsh)] 

*S • *** s s s s A S ,t p, $S/As#sAs£ * * 

£;*Jf U*IJi l*U dJj 6l « JjJJhA* &3BJ JMi (31 

[fVhen a man of the tribe of Bdhila, under whom is a 
woman of the tribe of Hanzala, hoe a child by her, that 
child will be the mail-dad warrior, where the n 9 men- 

tioned after kil is not followed by a v., ^ifet; is not an 

4 i . '/. 

inch., but (DM)] the full phrase is JM> 'Js fSl (ML), 
t * > / " # *„ #, 

so that Jtotf is tu6. of ^ , the prerf. of which is ji« «J 

(DM): (c) fol does not govern the a/wc, [notwithstand- 
ing its signifying condition, and being i. q. | yU (206) 
(R),] except in poetry (B, ML,), as 

J+sa£* &*Ufl£. uCf^J folj ♦ c5 iil Ufy u^Uif U ^»A~f 

[by 'Abd Kais Ibn Khufef {alBurjuml (T)|, admonish- 
ing his son Jamil, Be content with competence, so long a$ 
thy Lord gives thee a competence; and, when poverty 

befals thee, show resignation (Jsh)] : (b) it is said to be 

101 



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.. ( 7.66 . ) 
sometimes excluded from adverbiality, futurity, and the 
sense of condition; and each of these shall have a 
separate paragraph: (a) as for its exclusion from adver- 
btality, Akh asserts on XXXIX. 71. 73/ [539] that 
|3! is [an. of Hme (DM)] governed in the gen. by J&. 
[below], [i. e. Until the time of their coming toil (f)MJ]; 
and IJ asserts oh the reading -JJ'taSiyi ct~**j Jot 

tl, J>| ^ w S^ Lite. *3* <«^ lvi. 1-3. 

TAe tfroe when the resurrection shall come to pass, while 
not a lying (soul) shall be at [the J being i. q. J (DM)] 
its coming to pass, abasing some, exalting others, will be 
the time when the earth shall be shaken with violent 
shaking that the 1st !3i is an inch, and the 2nd an 
enunc, the two ace*, being ds. s. } as likewise is the prop. 
of i3 and its two regs. [ Z>W t^USy (DM)], i. e. The 
tfms 0/ lA« resurrection's coming to pass will be the time 
of the earth's being shaken ; and they say on the verse 
of the Elamffel [ Abu-tTamahan alKainl (T)] 

/ ,• As . Sh* ****** j 

*s # 'A s/ . * hf • / ; v * 

M n rf fa/ore *Ae morrow— the grief of my soul for the 
morrow, for the time when my companions witt return, and 
I shall not be returning t (T)] that f of is in th« PWftiap 



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( 767 ) 

of k gen. as a subst. for [the 2nd] i*£ , - [or, of an ace', as 
a«<fo*. for the position of ** Jt* (498) (T)] ; and IM 
asserts that it occurs as an obj. in the saying of the 
Prophet to 'A'isha to! ; &^l ; ^ va^T fof JUV ^f 

-A«a£ JU isJLT Fert/y /do A?not0 *Aa time when thou art 
phased with me, and the time when thou art in anger 
against me i (6) its exclusion horn futurity is through 
its denoting (a) the past, as 3t denotes the future, as 
IX, 93. [80], LXII. 11. [538] And, when they saw, etc, 
tjiey dispersed etc., and £*f t^Jd \J*^) L 18 ] : (P) the 
present, vjd. after the oath [from God, as will be seen 
(Oil),] as XG1L 1. [498] and Jf> fSl ^T; LIII. 1. 
2?y the Pleiades [11] wAen Mey set [below], because, as 
is said, if it denoted the future, it would not be an adv. to 

the 0. of the oath, [i. e. f**ff (DM),] because this 0. is 
originative, not enunciatory of an oath to come, since the 
oath of God is ancient j nor to a suppressed being serving 

Aw A- 2 . • 

a$ ad. s. to JaUI and *s*ff , because the JU and the 
• » . , ** • 

future &re incompatible : whereas the truth is that 

" ' ' ' ' * in- 

dependence upon the originative *-»SJ is not correct, 

because the ancient has no time, either present or other* 

wise, being anterior to time ; but that dependence upon 

Ibtf, notwithstanding that l«3f remains in the future^ is 



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( 768 ) 

not impossible, [because the JU. incomjmtible with the 
future is the temporal, not the grammatical one (DM), 
i. e. the present time, not the d. *.,] as is proved by the 
fact that the occurrence of the presumptive d. e. [74] is 

correct by common consent : (c) the exclusion of 161 

* 

from conditional^ is exemplified in f» f j^a* U 131 j 
.•%iii XLII. 35. Jnd who, when they are wroth, for* 

gte« and ^jr**** f* ii**" f** 1 ** 1 ^ J* 4 *" J XLI1 * 
37. And who, when wrong befalls them, help themselves, 
in both of which ess. 131 is an adv. to the enunc. of the 
inch, after it ; whereas, if it were cond. } and the nominal 
prop, a correi, this prop, would be conjoined with the lJ 
[but see (f) below]: and hence the lof that follows the 
oath, as in XCII. 1. and LIU. 1. [above] (ML): (c) 
since the introduction of the sense of condition into |of 
and its exclusion from its original sense of specified time 
[206] are frequent, it may, even if it be not i. q. the 
cond. ^ , vid. in the case of decided matters, be used in 

the same way as the (of implying the sense of ^ , vid. 
in being followed by two props, in the guise of the prot* 
and apod,, although they are not such, as CX. 1-3. [540], 
in order that this arrangement may indicate that the pur- 
port of the 2nd prop, is as inseparable from the purport of 



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( 769 ) 
tho 1st prop, as the apod, from the prot,\ and it is for the 
realization of this object that [the non-cond.] fo( is go- 
verned by its [apparent] apod>, notwithstanding that the 
latter follows a p. such that what precedes it is not 
governed by what follower it, like the cJ in CX. 3., ^f 

in ffi+ L-£ti ,.5^*^ '**' JPfon thou comest to me } verily 

* ' ' * 
thou wilt be honored, and the J in XIX. 67. [600] (R): 

(d) what governs 13! [in the ace. (ML)] is (a) its pro/., 
[as some say (R), which is the opinion of critical judges 
(ML),] so that it is like JU [206] (R, ML), and accord- 
ingly should be parsed not as " a n. of time governing 
" its prot. in the gen>, and governed in the ace. by its 
"correl." but only as "a n. of condition governed in the 
" aec. by its prot." (DM) ; and the objection of AB that 
this opinion is refuted by the fact that the pre. is not 
governed by the post, does not apply, because f«3f accord* 
ing to these [critical judges (DM)] is not pre. [201], as 

** r A/A 

all say when it governs the apoc. % as in £ff U >*£-! 
[above] (ML) : (6) [the t>. or the like in (ML)] its apod. $ 
which is the saying of most (R, ML), but is open to 
various objections (ML): it is best, however, to make a 
distinction, and say that, if lot implies the sense of 



cwdition, its predicament is like that of JU ; but that, 
If not, as io uG** j^&Jf **if\b\ When th**unut$ 



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C fid y 

I will come to thee, i. e. / will come to thee at the time of x 
the setting cf the sun, its op. is tlie v. that is in tlie : 
place of an apod, by usage, though it is not an apod, in 
reality, not the v. that is in the place of the prot., since 
this v. particularizes the adv. by being post, to it [111], 
as in the case of the rest of the advs. epithetically parti- 
cularized [140] by the purport of the props, after 

them, as J~y t &1M £*aa£ fj£ V- 108. On the day when 
Qod will assemble the Apostles, and the post, does not 
govern the pre.: for in every two or more words, that are 
equivalent in sense to a single word, because they occur .' 
together as a part of a sentence, the 1st may govern 
the 2nd, as the pre, governs the post. [110]; but the 
converse is not allowable, since no single word is known 
one of whose parts is pr epos, in one. respect and postpos, , 
in another, and similarly therefore what is equivalent 
to a single word in sense,, for which reason a conj. does 
not gpvern a conjunct, nor an appos. an ant., nor a post. 
a pre. : whereas the cond. word, when governed by the 
prot, is not together with the proU like a single word, 
since they do not then occiir in the place of a single 
Word, like the ag., obj., inch., and the like; so that. each 

A / Kt A • A / // 

of them may govern the other, as i^Jbof L^Jb^j ^JU 
and XVII. 110. [116]:. (e) the ui in suck as' CX. 3. 
[540] is [not illative, but] red., because the illative ci- 



•*•• • 



is not devoid of* the sense of wccestipn, whereas ■% to! 



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( 771 ) 

is an cdo. to the extolling, which was not to be in succes- 

sion to, but in the time of, the coming : (f) fot , being 

neither radically nor permanently cond., may, notwith- 
standing its being cond., (a) have for its apod, a nominal 
prep, without a o [419], as in XLII. 35. and XLII. 
37. [above]; (6) be followed by a nominal [prop.] devoid 
of v., though this is anomalous, as 

* • • / A «S *t SS/s 

Sy&& jUUt J^A U^i 

/ // • 

# yA* %>£** * **/ /A* /A ,h^ , 

[by one of the Banu Fak'as, said to be Murra Ibn 'Addd 
alFak'asi, And wherefore have they not prepared me for 
my like {may they lose one another!), tohen the foe is 
sticking out the chest, bending the head, lowering the 
shoulder, i. e. is lurking in ambush ? (T)] : <g) |of , 

S • A*A# • y / • 2»s # 

when it occurs after ^^ , as JU5 ljCU> fot ^y^ XL. 

36. So that, tohen he died, ye even said, continues to 
require two props., and is governed in the ace. by the 

85/ 

last of them ; while Jk*. with it is an inceptive p. [501]: 

/ 35/ 

but some say that fof after ^X^ may be divested of 

£ S/ 

adverbiality, and be governed in the <7*n. by ^^la* 
[above] ; and perhaps they attribute to this the saying 

jbJf Jt>y3L»f (43! Jk, Cfo/tf Me lime wAe» they made 

etc. [below], this verse being the last of the ode : (h) 

* / 

Jot , when followed by U , remains as it was before, not 



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( 772 ) 
becoming by means of U an apocopative word distinctly 
cond.: but some say that Ufjf is [distinctly] eand. 9 and 

therefore apocopates [the v. of] the prot. and apod.; and 
they cite the saying of AlFarazdak 

Then Abh Laild, the son of Zalim, arose to help him; 
and he was. wont, whenever he drew the sword, to smite, 

whereas the [true] version is Cju [206]. if and fif 
occur in the eorrel. of lj£ [497] and ££,' [5*65]; and 
each of them then denotes suddenness of occurrence : but 
of mostly occurs in the eorrel. of &^, [as *JJ ££ 

^1(565),] and fif in that of (J^, as £ J.£ig 
[497]; while of is followed only by the pret. v., and fif 
by the nominal [prop.] (R). But As used to hold that 
the only chaste [idiom] was to omit them in the eorrel. 

ofUA>andU^u (M, R), because the eorrel. frequently 
occurs without them (R), as in 

f»J *<£*-•, $*« # W* ty ^ Uxo 

(M), by a man of the Banu Kiais *Ailan, Then, while 
we were expecting him, he came to us, dangling a wallet 



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( 773 ) 

t* / / JA#o «B/y /A/ 

and a herdsman's fire-stiaks (Jsh), and aJ| SUXH &SJU3 UU} 
[497] (IY). The [idiom] heard from the Arabs is 

§A* ***/ •/ $A/ 'A/ A 

.%+* jl&, *G jjj Ua> without of , because the sense is 
Between the intervale of the time [when Zaid stood] 

** PS*** /A/ //A/ 

'Jmr came, whence ^Jf 6*aju UU> ; whereas LjUj occurs 

c " a" •*/ 

sometimes not combined with ol > like Ux> , and some- 

A • * 

times combined with ol or lot , as 

* S/ASSA.PA #A^ //A/y 8 / / A**/ *A y yiL* AsA^y 

,» ,ftm* #Ay * AS** '* ' % *h9 m* hth* PS/**// Ayy 

y 4 ' ' ' 

[above] (D), by 'Ithyar Ibn Labid al'Udhri, or Huraith 
lbn Jabala, Then pray thou Qod to decree thee good, 
and do thou be satisfied with it ; for, while there was 
hardship, there, or then, or lo, easy times came round / 
And, while man is envied for his prosperity among living 
beings, there, or then, or lo, he is the dust that the 

y Ay 

whirlwind* obliterate! (Jsh). Since ^, which is 
always pre. to the single term, is intended to be pre. to 
the prpp. t -and prefixion to the prop, is like no prefixion 
[201, 202], the restringent U is redundantly affixed to 
it [565] ; or the Fatha is impleted [497], so that an f 

is engendered, in order that the f may indicate that ^ 

does not require a post. [».]» because it is as it were 

102 



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( 774 ) 

paused upon, and the j is sometimes put for pause, as in 
6| [161, 497, 615, 648]. ^J , being orig. an inf. n. 
meaning separation, is used to denote time and place ; 
whereas, when restrained by U or the J , and pre. to 
props., it denotes only time, because no [». of] place is 
pr*. to props., except ^ja [124, 201] : but ♦*> is really 
pre. to a n. of time pre. to the prop., the full phrase 

%r*t § A/ sht / A/ 

being JG j^l *&>£•( vy Between (the times when) Zaid 
was s fan ding, i. e. Between the times of Zaid 1 s standing; 
and the n. of time being suppressed because indicated by 
the circumstance that ns. pre. to props, are mostly ns. 
of tftme, not /?$. of place and others. All that . we have 
said about Uuo , as to the occurrence of the restringcnt 
U in order to restrain it from requiring a single post. n. f 
and as to supplying a n. of time pre. to the props., 

is equally applicable to U1T [117, 181]: but since LIT 
contains the sense of generality and totality, which is 

contained in cond. words, like ** [206], U , and JU f 

S /AX 

it resembles them more than UJuy does ; so that it is 
prefixed only to the verbal [prop.], contrary to Ua> and 

S /Ay 

Uxsj ; and for the same reason the pret. after it may 
occur in the sense of the future [615J lL> ,LjLJ,and 
UT are prefixed to the pret. and future. We may hazard 



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( 775 ) 

the conjecture that [^ and Jf in] Uaj, Uix>, and 
LV are uninfl., because their prefixion [to a prop.] is 

* A • 

like no prefixion) as we said of *&*£*- [202], except that 
they are uninfl. upon the Fath that they were entitled 

■ # A • 

to in the state of inflection, contrary to ^&^ , because 
no state of inflection exists for the latter in which it is 
governed in the ace., so that its inflectional vowel might 

/Ax • /A/ s3.# 

be observed. U# , Uix> and LU* with their two props. 
are arranged in the same way as cond. words with the 
prot. and apod., in order to explain that the purport 
of the 2nd is as inseparable from [the purport of] the 

1st as the apod, from the prot. ; and for this reason fof 

A • A/ • • A/ £ 

and 3J are prefixed to the correl. of li# and Lix; , in 
order that they may indicate the conjunction of the pur- 
port of the 2nd with [the purport of] the 1st suddenly, 
toithout delay, sd that the correl. may be more confirmed 

In the sense of inseparability. But [ Jf in] LIT is said 

to be [pre. to a single term, ahd therefore] infl., U beiiig 

infinitival, and a ft. of rime pre. to U being supplied 

[571] ; and the like may therefore be asserted of UJuu . 

A ' 

When of and |of denoting suddenness of occurrence are 
prefixed to the correl., then, if you say, as Mb holds, 
that lot is an adv. of pla6e 9 as likewise he ought to say 



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( 776 ) 

A 

of 31 , they are governed in the ace. as atfw. of plate 
to what follows them, while Uaj and Ui# are advs.of 

* h f*h § m* % As * Kfi 

iime to it, so that the sense of f jJJfc ^L *M JiJ ^3 Luu 
WAife 2atrf wa* standing, there he saw Hind is Zaid saw 
Hind between {the times of ) his *tmding, [saw her] in 
that place, i. e. in the place of his standing; and, if we 
say, as Zj holds, that they are advs. of time, they are 
pre. to the prop, after th6m, excluded from adaerbiality, 
inchs. whose enunc. is LUf or Uixj , the sense being 
[ While etc., was the time when he satb Hind, i. e.] The 
time of Zend's seeing Hind was between (the times of) 
his standing : but it is best to say, as IBr holds, that 
they are ps., in which case the op. of Uaj and UJtg is 

what follows the two words denoting suddehness of 

A • J 

occurrence j or we may say that 31 and \o\ are r erf., and 

do not denote suddenness of occurrence in the correl. 

/A/ //AX a 

of Ua> and UUj , as AU, 1Kb, and Jh say that 31 is rerf. 

• A • • A y £ 

in such as 1>j*!j 6lj II. 48. <4/itf JFe appointed, and fif 
in such as 

/J tS t« *' S3 S A*« #^A • • • 5 • ^ * »/* h * $, hi , g , 

[by 'Abd ManSf {Ibn Rib' (Bk)J alHudhali (Bk, N), 

Until they made them pass through the mountain-road 

named Kutctida, driving them along, as the owners of 

camels urge on the shying ones (N)]. And the analysis 



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of such as XXX. 47. [above] is exactly like that of 

4 A/ */ A $ n*/ S A/ y /A/ * A • 

)-* «l, ol J«S j^ UJUf [or tjJLfc ]. Or )6\ in the 
corre/. of Ui#, [as £M SyS\ UJLa>j (above),] of 131, 

85/ • ^ • A/-o ^ A// • -P S/s 



[as XXX. 47.,] and of U , as 131 JC£1| ^ .^ US 

A,A % , * ' ' 

t&* &)* ^' ^ % ^ n{ *> when fighting hath been ordained 

vmio them, then a party of them [206], may be an adv. 
of time, a subst. for the advs. mentioned [while, or 

when then]; and we do not hold it to be pre. to the 

prop, after it, but hold that prop, to govern the advs. 
mentioned, i. e. in the time of the watering, in that state, 
they are glad, and similarly in the rest. Thus [in this 
last construction] the prop. post, to 161 is suppressed, 
indicated by the prop, that is in the position of the prot. % 
i. e. when (He watereth them), they are glad and when 
(it hath been ordained), a party of them ; and so we say 

• A 

when 131 occurs as correl. of ^\ in such as XXX. 35. 
[1,419], i. e. when (it befalleth them), they despair, i. e. 
in that state they despair : whereas, if we say that [in 
the last text] it is an adv. of place, we do not supply 
for it a prop. post, to it, because the [n. of] place is not 

* A / 

pre. to the prop., except ^*xa. [124, 201], but the sense 
is in that place they despair ; and so in the correl. of UiJ 
131 , and U : while, if we say that So\ in the correl. 
of the four thing* is a p., there Is no difficulty [about the 



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( 778 ) 
op. and post.], because f of is then a p n exactly like the tJ 

A * 

[540]. Sometimes of denotes-sttddenness of occurrence 
in something else than the correl. of Ux> and Uxx> , as 

$*• s~/ A * • -PA* 

*%** J/t^ofUSl^ is^lT /fra^ standing still: there, ox 
then, or /o, c ^D»r cawie to me. And li** may be pre. to 

• *A* * •• • Ay 

tho in/, n., contrary to Ui# , as &2JUJ Uuu [497], in full 
&i\t3 v&;6y *y between {the times of) his embracing ; 
but the best known [version] is the nom. 9 as an inch. 
whose enunc. is suppressed, L e. J-^>^ &i)bu UU* tpAt/* 
Aw embracing (was being realized) (R). 

A *• sA 

§ 205. ^oJ is i. q. v*i* [115], except that it is 
peculiar in 6 matters (A): — (1) it [always (A)] denotes 
beginning of extent (R, IA, A) in time or place (R, IA, 
Sn), as c ^ ^y^J jFrom daybreak and *xU *a£^ ^oJ ^+ 
XXVII. 6. From a wise, knowing One(EL) } thereby differ- 

A 

ing from ** [499] (R, Sa), as we [i. e. the BB] say (R); 

' A A *f A • A 

and hence ul* and ^ji alternate in such as ** i&S*. 

JA>/ A A 

&*1* or JtfdJ ^* , [vid. when the inceptive ** is pre- 

/A #/A$ss /A A *• A / *sA/#v 

fixed to oJLit (Sn),] e. g. &UJU* Uoi^ -• ***.) atLJf 

,A fi„ A ' ' ' ^ ' 

UU VjS g* XVIII. 64. Unto whom We had vouchsafed 
mercy from Us f and whom We had taught knowledge 



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( 779 ) 

# /A * A / • 

/ram Eft, contrary to 8jJL* e ^Jk / sat by him, where 

*A* / 3 A / • 

*JjJ uu^yi^i is aot allowable, because the sense of begin- 
ning is wanting here (A): but, when pre. to the prop., 

A */ 

^jJ becomes purely denotative of time, because the only 

* A • 

atfo. of place pr 6s to the prop, is <£**£^ [124, 201], as 



***JJ U^ 4^ #>* 

4^*M JfciH 0*«" *_*& ^J^ t^*£ ^cfcJ 



[by AlKutaml, Smitten by blooming maids, that he pleased, 
and that pleased him, from the time that he became a 
youth until the black locks grew white (FA)]; while the 
prop, may be headed by an infinitival p. [201], since 

A S , 

^jJ is not orig. purely denotative of time, as 

*** nl U/ A A^ A// 4 * ,hi sAJA<* S s 

f K J* &* & -fy * t*rf ^Upf ,ttM Ji 

by c Amr Ibn IJassSn, For verily wealth eluded me of 
old; nor was I poor from the time that I was a young 
man (R) : (2) it is mostly used governed in the gen. by 
^ (IA, A); and therefore does not occur in the Eur 
except with ** , as XVIIL 64. and f jjjA Ut> ^>JuJ 

#A*y A ' ' ' ' 

tfjJ ^ XVIII. 2. That it may warn them that dis- 
believe of a grievous chastisement proceeding from Him 
(IA) : (3) it is uninfl. (R, I A, A), according to most of 
the Arabs (IA), either, as IH says, because some of its 



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( 780 ) 
dial. vars. are constituted like the p. [159], and the rest 
assimilated to them, otherwise there would be no reason 
for its uninflectedness, because it is like uJL* , which is 

s 

infl. by common consent ; or, as I think (R), because it 
[exceeds the rest of the aplastic advs. (64), and (R)] 
resembles the p. [159], in aplasticity, being not only 
aplastic, [i. e. not excluded from adverbiality, except by 

A 

being governed in the gen. by *+ (IA),] but also inse- 
parable from the sense of beginning (R, IA) of extent, 
and not predicable [see (6) below] (IA) : but I£ais inflect 

/A 

it (R, IA, A), by assimilation to <3i* (Sn); and hence 
the reading [of Abii Bakr on the authority of 'Asim 
(IA, Sn)] Si J ** XVin. 2. (IA, A) with the o quie- 
scent, but made to smack of Damm (I A, Sn); and 
possibly the saying [of a Ta'l R$jiz (FA)] 

A S <PA#» * Atf<* ,P* A «/i i/MMK0 ^ /A/ 

# I ' / / * > • * 

(IA) The shivering fit of ague comes on in my poor back 
from the time of noon until near the evening (J): (4) it 
may be pre. to props, [below] : (5) it may be aprothette. 
[in letter and sense (Sn)] bftfbr* Xy±Z [below] : (6) it 
occurs only as a eowplemwt [see (3) *bore] : you say 
8w**lf jI* ~# jfaJf The purney is from AiBapr^ but 

/ A;SA«* .#• A. **.• 

not S^ajJJ *aJ ** (A). It has 8 dial, vars., ^J , the 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 781 ) 

A/y A • A/ A/ 



original and best known one, ^ , ^jJ , ^ , *' 
u)<^ , dJ , and jJ ; but elision of its ^ is not allowable 
when it is pre. to a pron. (R). Being always pre. [115] 
(IM), ^jJ governs [what follows it in (R)] the gen. 
(IM, R) by prothesis [110] (R, IA, A), (1) literally, if 
it be a [single (R) infl. (A)] n., [as XXVII. 6. and 
jJI j^Xa? (above) (A)] : (2) constructively, if it be (a) 
a prop. (R, A), as 



hi h 3* 3 * K9 3*h t 



£& cs-Jf ^jJ gl+su f&y 

And thou rememberest his bounty, since thou wast a strip- 

ling and ^f ^Sf £>>* ; (b) uninfl., as XVIII. 64. and 

XVIIL 2. (A). But [the word (R)] Sj*£ after ^oJ may 
be governed in (1) the gen. [by prothesis (A), according 
to rule (IA, A)] : (2) the ace. (R, IA, A), as 

39 h k*K*o // A/ A* • • • • 



** Ay/ 2/ */A* A 3* 



vj)** ^^> .v^ *y** ^ 
(IA, A), by Abii Sufyan [Sakhr (AGh)] Ibn Harb (SR) 
alKurashi alUmawI (AGh), And my colt ceased not to 
be as far from them as the rated dog [64], from morning 

A 3* 

until it (i. e. the sun) was near to setting (J) : (a) ^oJ 
is then cut off from prothesis in letter and sense [above] 
(A); while iy±* is anomalously governed in the ace. 
(IM, R) by it (IM) as a sp. (IA, A), which IM prefers 



103 



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( 782 ) 
(I A), or by assimilation to the [direct (Sn)] obj. (A), 
the reason being that *oJ is frequently used with KysZ , 
contrary to the rest of the advs., like &>& and 6*£*e , 

A S, 

and that, the o of ^oJ being pronounced with Damm, 
Fath, and Kasr, as above shown in its dial, vars., and 
moreover its ^ being sometimes elided, the vowels of 
the o resemble the vowels of inflection in respect of 
their changeability, and the ^ resembles the Tanwln in 

respect of its suppressibility, so that S^j^ .oJ becomes 

5 / § S / * A * $ , 

like Ua. o^S|; [or f jj) v^ 1 in * etter > a &d therefore 
Sjji is governed in the ace. by assimilation to the sp. in 

5/ $ ^ • 'a* $ • 

U£* oyl; [85] or to the obj. in fj*j v; Ui [343] (R): (b) 
some say that &jdȣ is j&red. of ^ suppressed [with its 

£/ A* JJ/ S ^o • ' A .#• 

swft. (A)], i. e. Sjc3i £*Uf J e^itf jtJ ^mce (the hour 

A >y 

u?as) morning ; [and, according to this construction, ^ jJ 
is pre. to the prop. (Sn)]: (c) if you couple to 'iy±e [after 

A */ 

^jjJ (IA)], the coupled may be in the gen. from observ- 
ance of the general rule, or ace. from observance of the 
letter: Akh mentions that (IA, A), but IM deems the 
ace. improbable (A), because another n. than 8jdi would 

A S* 

then be governed in the ace. after ^J [below] (Sn): 

Jf / A* A ** 

(d) $;*>£ after ^i is always pronounced with Tanwln, 
even if it be det [8], either by assimilation to the sp. % 



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( 783 ) 

which is always indet. [83]; or because, if we suppressed 
the Tanwln, we should not know whether it was governed 
in the ace. or gen. (R): (3) the nom. [as the KK relate 
(I A, A), by suppression of one of the two terms of the 

prop. (R), Syji being governed in the nom (a) by j the 

// $/ A J A s s A Js 

att. (A)\ ^JS suppressed (I A, A)], i. e. x^ ^i\S ^J 
since morning (was) (R, IA, A); (b) as enunc. of a 

f* A S / S A/ A S* 

suppressed inch., i. e. jLj** Jfc j-JJ. *jj from (a time 
that teas) morning; (c) by assimilation to the ag., 
[because of the resemblance of .jj to the act part., 

A S* 

as above shown : while .jJ in case (a) is pre. to the 
prop., in case (b) pre. to a single term understood, and 
in case (c) wot pre. at all (Sn)]. S says that no n. but 

f A 3 A *y ,, 

Sjdi is governed in the ace. after .jj [above] (A) ~jj 

A >• 

is an adv. [of place (IY), said to be a dial. var. of *oJ ; 

• A 

but really (BS)] syn. with jJL* (IY, BS), as S says: so 

' *' • / Ml • xsA?s 

that it denotes nearness, (1) sensible, as ^jj tojju* UAJL 
^Ul XII. 25. -4nd they found her lord at the door; (2) 

' f •*• $ A A// 

id. 9 as ^ J • *& sjjJ J/i Atm arc, or He has, knowledge 

' ' ** A p, 

of law and sagacity (BS). *jJ is i. q. ^jJ , except that 
*jJ and its cfta/. vars. mentioned, being used in the 

A 

sense of beginning, are always accompanied by ♦*, 
either expressed, which is mostly the case, or supplied, 



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( 734 ) 
so that it is i. q. jJL* #r t ; whereas ~jJ is 1. q. ji* R). 

/A ' ' ' ' 

*dJ is like ai* unrestrictedly, except that (1) it cannot 
be governed fn the gen. [by the p. (Sn)], contrary to 
^X* * (2) oJ^ is more versatile than it in two ways, vid. 
that (a) jJL* is an aJv. for concrete ns. and abstract 






ones, as ^f^ ^jJL* JjSJI Kifc ?%& jqgrtnjr in my 
opinion is correct ; whereas that is impossible with *jJ : 
so says ISh: (b) you say JU *jjL* [115], even if it 

be absen* from you ; but not JU ^^J , except when it 

is present : so say H, AHA, and ISh (A). It is [said to 
be] uninfl. upon quiescence (IY) : but there is no proof 
of its uninflectedness (R) ; and A's saying that it is " like 

j,U unrestrictedly" implies that it is infl. (Sn). Its f 

is [treated like the 1 of JJ and J* , being preserved 

with the explicit n. y and (R)] converted into a with the 
pron. in the dial, of most [129] (R, BS); but S transmits 
on the authority of Khl from a people of the Arabs 

u*f jJ , <-*W , and uilJU , as 



/ /A # • / • A • A P A^o • * * 9 h / S' / / #y 



U&ljto. tj^to. t5 JuU> o j-il ; * toUU y^ ^tt* | ;; lb 

(R), by Abu-nNajm, They have fled upon them, then flee 
thou upon her : and bind her two flanks tight with m 
double hind-girth (PA). 



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( 785 ) 



/#wA/ 



§ 206. ^\ is a n. denoting time present, (1) in 
whole, as n. 66. [149] ; (2) in part, as Jl\ £*£J Ji 
LXXIL 9. For whoso listeneth now (Sh), i. e. at the 
time of the revelation of the text, and afterwards to the 
end of time (MAd). It is an adv. of time, uninfl. npon 

A s 

Fath [201] (IY,IA). Some hold that the J! prefixed to 
it denotes determination of presence [599], because ^l\ 
means At this time ; but some, among whom is IM, hold 
that it is red,, and that ^Vf is uninfl, because \t implies the 
sense of the p. [159], vid. the J of presence (L j. What 

I think is that ^t] is made det. by the J expressed in 
it, which is inseparable from it, because the det. is always 
meant by it : and that it is uninfl. because of its vague- 
ness [171] and applicability to every time when it is 
present, but not when it is past; and because the p. of 
determination is inseparable from it, so that it follows 
the course of ^6i\ [176] (IY). It is sometimes infl^ as 
in the saying [of Abu Sakhr alHudhall (SM)] 

*&f y° cj** 1 ' ""i** 15*^ 

Sh / /* /** As htO * f his 

sg'/s h* »A **m$fi 

' S ' 

* A / / A/ A A/ £ «/ A// 



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( 786 ) 

Salmd had an abode at DhSt AlBain that I knew, and 
another at Dhctl AlJaish, whose marks are erased like a 
line; as though they [the two places, masc. because 

A/ 

each is a g&y* ] had not been different from now, when 
an age has passed for the two abodes after our time, 
°r*g- J 1 ? J* [660] (Sh). In II. 66. J»7 is read (B); 

A* 

and sometimes ^ is said (R). As for j**1 , [when it 
means a specified (Sh, Fk) day (MAd), vid. the day before 
your day (Sh, YS), and is not pre., nor synarthrous, nor 
&{du. or (MAd)} broken pi., nor a dim. (Fk, MAd),] 
(1) according to the Hijazis, it is uninfl. (M, R, Sh, Fk) 
upon Kasr [201] (M, Sh, Fk), unrestrictedly (Sh, Fk), 
i. e. in the nom., ace, and gen., with and without Tanwln 
(YS), as 

A# .PA/A • P *9 / hZ M3 S*// ,tmt*h*i ••• 



j»)Jtf s\f* *#;;*; * ty 1 * dps* l&jU*) 

s * 

A33^o A/A**S • Ay / s *»/ 23 <* / •/ A/ 

•> / / •/ * * fi * 

hi m* st A/ /// #A / / .P/A$ Ax A/ 

«**! &3u; j*aA> <y**,> * ** J j^i u r^' r j&h 

(Sh) by Raufc Ibn Zimba' [alJudhami (ID, Is)], 7%* 
changing of the sun has forbidden remaining (in the 
world), and its rising from where it enters not upon the 
evening, and its rising red, clear, and its setting yellow 
like saffron. It runs its course upon the middle of the 
sky, as the doom of death runs Us course in the living 



j 



( 787 ) 
being. To-day 1 know what it (i. e. to-day) brings, and 
yesterday has passed by the grace of His (i. e. the Lord's) 
decree (Jsh) : (a) according to the GG (Fk), it is uninfi. 
because of its implying [the sense of (Fk)] the deter- 
minative J [159] (IT, B, Fk), and becoming det. 
thereby [IY): for, every day anterior to a day being its 
yesterday, j~\ is orig. indet.; and afterwards, when the 
yesterday of the speaker's day is meant, the determina- 
tive J denoting knowledge is prefixed to it ; but is then 
suppressed and supplied, because the mind of every one 
that bears «-*•' free from prothesis immediately flies to 
the yesterday of the speaker's day, so that it becomes 

det., as UliT j-*! ***■* I™* 1 him on the most recent 

yesterday (R) : (b) it is uninfi. upon a vowel in order 

that it may be known to be orig. infl. [159] (Fk); and 

[the *» (IY)] is pronounced with Kasr, [according to 

rule (Fk),] because of the concurrence of 2 quiescents 

[664] (IY, Fk): (c) j-*l **il; I*™ him yesterday has 

been heard, but is anomalous (KF): (2) according to 

[most of (Sh, Fk)] Banu Tamim, [as S transmits 

from them (R),] it is (a) infl. as a diptote in the nom. 

[exclusively (Sh, Fk), as 

j-t cT^ ^ Jl ^ > * J7 •** % r**; r ' * 

(YS) HoW /art to A«*w »/ dwpafr oifrtwfc toef^J <*«<* 
/eign to forget what yesterday contained (FA)] ; (b) 
uninfl. upon Kasr in the ace. and gen. (R, Sh, Fk), as 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 788 ) 

in the dial, of the Hijazis (R), as j-Mif sJjXU) I stayed 

%n the mosque yesterday and j-*f ^ oo» / wjm- 
dered at yesterday (Sh): (a) the reason of the diptote 
declension is regard to the constructive quality of proper 
name [below] ; and they prefer diptote declension in the 
nom. and uninflectedness in the ace. and gen., as they 
prefer uninflectedness in such a s ;t^ and diptote de- 



• / 



clension in such as r IJ^ and r lta5 [194], although all 
are of one cat. [193] (R): (3) according to [some of (R, 
Sh, Fk)] the Banii Tamlm, [says S, it is pronounced 

A * 

with Fath after ±* , because, says Sf (R),] it is declined 
as a diptote (M, R, Sh, Fk) unrestrictedly (Sh, Fk), 
i. e. in the nom., ace, and gen. (YS) : for, [continues Sf,] 
what follows i# is put into the nom. or gen. [203] ; 
and' therefore, since those who put the nom. after <i* 

A* * hi A S 

decline j»*S as a diptote, as j^\ J*# , those who put 
the gen. do the same, so that it is assimilated to itself 
(R),as 

, h , / g pa , a 4 m / s s A* A <* * / • ,P A*# A •# 

(M, R, Sh) Assuredly I have seen a wonder since yester- 
rfay, old hags like witches, Jive (AAz); but this, says he, 

A* 

is rare, because the gen. [of the past] after J* is rare 
[510] (R): (a) the cause of the diptote declension is 



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< 789 ) 

*a£a/ 

[the combination of (IY)] deviation (IY, Fk) from *»*V\ 
(Fk) with determination (IY), [i. e.] with the quality of 
proper name [18] (Fk): (b) the difference between de- 
viation [from the p. (IY)] and implication [of it (IY)] 
is that with deviation the p. may be expressed, but not 
with implication (I Y, YS), for which reason what de- 
viates is ifl/!., and what implies is uninfl.; and thereby 

' ' ' 

is known the secret of the inflectedness of p- T [18] and 

A* 

the uninflectedness of j-*J according the Hijazis : but 
some say that deviation is alteration of the lit. form of the 
word while its sense remains, and that implication is the 
use of it in its origiual sense with another sense super- 
added (YS): (c) Z and many of the GG say that ««*f 
is infl. according to the Banu Tamlm unrestrictedly, 
i. e. in all states, being perhaps misled by the verse 
^J| y£ ^\ ) cvSJ [above] ; whereas S restricts this saying 
by the words " some of the Banu Tamlm" and " after 

AS 

J*" (R): (d) Zji is mistaken in. asserting upon the 
authority of this verse, that, according to some of the 

• A* 

Arabs, j~*i is uninfl. upon Fat£ (R, Sh): (4) according 
to some of the Arabs, as some relate, it [is held to be 
indet., and (IY)] is infl. as a triptote (IY, R, YS), un- 

*' ' § A* ,, 

restrictedly (YS), like oi (R), as &£* U> ~++\ ^o# 

Yesterday has passed with what was in it (IY) ; but this 

104 



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( 790 ) 

is strange (IY, R). S says that, if you name a man j*+1 
according to the dial, of AlEHjaz, you make it triptote, 
like JJl* [200] when used as a name, because every 
uninfl. single term used as a name for a person must be 
infi. as a triptote [191]: and, according to the dial, of 
[most of] the Banu Tamlm also, you make it triptote in 
the [3] cases, because it must be made triptote in the 
ace. and gen., since it is uninfl. upon Kasr according to 
them ; and, when you make it triptote in the two cases, 
you must do so in the nom. also, since there is no n. in 
the language triptote in the ace. and gen. and diptote in 
the nom. (R). But, when one of the preceding conditions- 

A* 

is wanting (Fk), [i. e.] when j»+\ (1) is indet. (R), 
[which occurs] when it means some day or other of the 

* A* * , / £ p 

past days (Sh), as l***#l )*<at ji Jf Every to-morrow will 

* * 9 A* , , 

become a yesterday (R), or (2) is pre., [as U-**l ^i^ 
Our yesterday has passed (R, MAd),] or (3) is synar- 
throus, [as X. 25. (532) (Sh),] or (4) is a [du. or (R, 
MAd) broken (Sh)] pi (R, Sh), as [^tllf JL Two 
yesterdays have passed and (MAd)] 

f * * f * f f 

(Sh) She passed by us before days gone by, swaying in 
her walk with the swaying walk of the bride (MAd), it 
is infl. [as a triptote (Fk)] by common consent (R, Sh, 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 791 ) 

Fk), because of the removal of the cause of uninflected- 
ness, vid. the supply of tl^e J (R) : (a) the synarthrous 

j^S is sometimes uninfl. (R, YS), perhaps because the 
J is construed to be red. (R) ; and, in the verse [of 
Nusaib (MAd)] 

p PA / p A $ tO f s Q s / ^ 

s->)*i ««»» J 1 %***!$ J^uX{lo 

[^wrf verily I have stood to-day and yesterday before it 
at thy door until the sun was near to setting (MAd)], 

**«S is related with [Fat£ as being an infl. adv., and (Sh)] 
Kasr as being uninfl. (Sh, YS): (b) the cause of its inflec- 
tion in the du. and pi. is that the J is supplied only 
because the mind immediately flies to one of the genus on 
account of its notoriety among its likes ; whereas, when 

A* 

«**•! is dualized or pluralized, that specified one no 

A* 

longer remains (R): (c) according to AH (YS), j»+) 
is declared by S [and others (YS)] to have no dim. [292] 

(R, Sb, YS), like u* (R, YS); but it is said by Mb, [F, 
H, and IM (Sh), as likewise by IB (YS),] to have a 
dim. (Sh, YS), in which case it is infl., according to all, 
as when it is a broken pi. (Sh). If, however, [the anar- 

A* 

throus (Fk)] j*+S [that means a specified (Fk) day] be 
used as an adv., it is uninfl. by common consent (Fk, 
MAd): so in the Andafc (Fk), which here follows IB 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 792 ) 

(YS). kS [is an adv., which (ML)] denotes totality of 
past time ; [and is always used in the sense of f J>>f ever, 
because it is derived from laSJf , which means cutting 
(187), as you say &aM &1*S| V / shall decidedly not do it, 
except that la> is uninfl., contrary to &*Jf (R)]. It is (1) 
peculiar to negation (M, R, ML), as IaS &£UJ U / Aat?e 
wo/ etjer tforae it (IY, ML) : (2) sometimes used without 
negation (R, DM), (a) in letter and sense, as IaS s| ^ ^^JS 
1 used to see him continually or always, i. e. Ufo (R), 

whence the saying of one of the Companions SH.aJ| U^> 

shortened prayer in journeying with the Apostle (God 
bless him, and give him peace I) in most of our ever 

being, i. e. l y^9 Ux5 loy^j fi>\ in most of our exist- 
ence in the past (DM) ; (b) in letter but not sense, as 
US JsliS^j] Ji> [144] (R). It is uninfl. (R, ML), 

because, as is said, some of its dial. vars. are constituted 
like ps. [159], as will be seen; but rather because it al- 
ways implies [the sense of the p,, vid.] the J of totality 
[599], since it includes the whole of the past (R); [or] 

A $ * 

because it implies the sense of J* [510] and ^J\ [500], 
since the sense is [I have not done it] since I was created 
until now (ML). It is uninfl. [upon a vowel, in order 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 793 ) 
that two quiescents may not meet together: and (ML)] 
upon Damm (IY, R, ML), by assimilation to the finals 

*A/ * h* 

(ML), like J±5 and &*> [201] (IY); and sometimes 
upon Easr, according to rule [664] (ML), 1*5 is the best 
known of its dial. vars. (R, ML); and Iai>, IaS, [laS 
(IY, R), and 1*5 (R, ML)] occur (M, R, ML)l Jf 
[or ^f (M), orig. a n. denoting [time and (R)} period 
(IY, R), is an adv., which (ML)] denotes totality of 

future time (M, R, ML), t. q. fo^f (R, ML); but is some- 

*,* 
times used to denote bare time, not %. q. f J^f , in which 

case it is infl., as 

• hi / Z, * S A / 3 A/ s Ass 

• • • , 

JlfU L j**y U*k J^aaJf ^5"^*^ va.«**tM 

[by AlFind azZimmanl, And, but for a shooting of time 
in the thick parts of my forearms and my joints, I 
should have speared the breasts of the horsemen with a 
spearing not the one falling short (T)] and lJJJ«3 J*>f 

As A ' 

\f)* S^ d* » *• e# I W *U d° ^ at * n future (R). It is (1) 
peculiar to negation (M, R, ML), and mostly used with 
the oath (IY, R), as J\ JJ 'J^o] [600] (M, R): (2) 
sometimes used with affirmation, and in the sense of the 
past, as 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 794 ) 



As 



> A* Sf/K* P Ay * h /* 

t^ja* /Gutf ^^ jj 1 *** ^y** 

And, but for my defending 'Ifdk and mine awe-inspiring 
aspect, a calamity would have destroyed 6 Jf3k before ; 
though here it is negatived in sense, because it is in the 
correl. of »y [574] (R). If pre., it is infl., as Al*»J V 






^yx^UJ | j3^p / will not do it ever [below] (I Y, ML), 

• ui ** • A • 

i. e. ^i^Mf jflu (IY); and, if not jor^., it is uninJL 
(ML). It is uninfl., [because it implies the sense of the 
| and J (T)]: (I) upon Damm, [transmitted by the 

KK (T), because it is cut off from prothesis (IY, R), 
like JJ (IY, R, ML) and 1% (201) (IY, R), as is 

• «*sA«<0 / As 

proved by its being infl. with the post., as *A*tfUdf ♦*•* 
(above), i. e, so long as a period of time remains (B)]; 
(2) upon Fath (T, IY, R, ML), for the sake of lightness 
(IY), like ^J [below] (ML); (3) upon Kasr (R, ML), 

A* 3s 

like ^j*- •! [above]. U is peculiar to the pret.; and re- 
quires two props., [the purport of (DM)] the 2nd of which 
exists upon the existence [of the purport (DM)] of the 
1st. It is said to be a p. denoting existence [of its correl. 
(DM)] because of existence [of its prot. (DM)] ; or, says 
one of them, [vid. S (DM),] a p. denoting necessity [of 
the 2nd (DM)] because of necessity (ML) of the 1st 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 795 ) 
(DM). According to [IS, however, who is followed by 
(ML)] F (R, ML), IJ, and many (ML), it is [a n. used, 
like U1T f in the same way as a cond. word (204) (Rj,] 
an adv. (IY, R, ML) of time (IY), i. q. '**> (IY, ML), 
the meaning of which is vague time (I Y) ; or, says IM 
(ML), i. q. of (R, ML), which is good, because it is 
peculiar to the pret. and to prefixion to the prop. (ML), 

A 

like 6f (DM): and it is uninjL, because of its vagueness 

and need of a prop, after it, like of and fof [159, 201] 
(IY). IKh refutes the assertors of its nominality by the ' 
allowability of *jxJf ijCx-t^f #^#f ^yjujf J U Since thou 

honoredsl me yesterday, I honored thee to-day, [upon the 
ground that it is a p. of dependence, not adverbial (DM),] 
because, when it is construed to be an adv., its op. is 
the correl., [so that the sense resolves itself into / 
honored thee to-day at the time when thou honoredst me 
yesterday (DM),] whereas the honoring occurring to-day 
was not in yesterday; but the reply is that this is like 
V. 116 [419], L e. If [it prove that) I have said it, and 
similarly here, i. e. When (it proved) to-day (that) thou 
honoredst me yesterday, I honored thee (ML). It is 
followed by a [v. (R)] pret. (IY, R) in letter and sense 

A / As As m 

or by J*k> jjl (R). And its correL is (1) a pret. v., [by 

AJA/A£ wsA#<0 • A* m * m" 

common consent, as j"*f\ y$\ ^J\ J\spi IJii XVII. 
69. And, when He hath brought you safe to land, ye 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 796 ) 

turn aside (ML): (2) a hominal prop, conjoined with (a) 

y 
the 13! denoting suddenness of occurrence , [also by com- 

£ y 9 A 9 A 9 y tu/A*0 y A 9 Si s 5// 

mon consent (DM), as ^fyM f& f*M >*M Jl f^xki Lii 
XXIX. 65. Andy when He hath brought them safe to 
land, lo, they worship other gods! (ML), whence IV. 79. 

A 9 w y w" 

(204) (R)] ; (b) the »-i , [according to IM, as j^bai U» 

§ / A9 A 9S y w/A^ • 

o^xLt *$JL#i jaJ| Jf XXXI. 81. -4nrf, when He hath 
brought them safe to land, then of them is a hesitater 
(ML)] : (3) an aor. (R, ML) i. q. the pret. (DM), accord- 

ing to IU, as ^jAJl «3^ £j)M f**yf ^ ^^ W5 

tlfjtsu XL 77- -4nrf, wAera Me dread had departed 

from Abraham, and the glad tidings had come unto 
him, he disputed with the messengers of Us, which is 

•y y y 

renderable by UbU (ML): (4) seldom a pre/, conjoined 
with the u5 (R). A difficult ex. of this U is the saying 
of the poet 

/9m»* £* Si tO A/ S 9$ 



y ^ / / 

• • Ay Ay / I A// 



[I say, i. e. said, to 'Abd Allah, when our bucket felt, 
while we were in the valley of 'Abd Shams, Look, and 
watch it (Jsh)]; for, it is said, " where are its two w.?": 
but the reply is that li£tiU is ag. of a suppressed v. 
expounded by tfcj , [which is a v. (DM)] i. q. Ia£~ , [not 



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< T97 > 
part of a personal proper name, and ought to be written 
with the ^ , but is written with the f for the sake of the 
puzzle (DM)]; and that the correl. is suppressed, con- 
structivaly u*4S> , as is proved by Jy>f ; while Ji* is an 

imp. from J)>*M c^**£ / looked at [and watched (Jsh)] 
the lightning; and the meaning is When our bucket fell 
[into the well (DM) J, / said to c Abd Allah, Look at it 

' *' x *£ s A/ * fit It 

(ML). ^ in their saying «-J^f ^ , Le. c**f &U , 
is akin to the uninfl. advs., because it is orig. a prep. 
and gen. , the predicament of which is the same as that 
of advs. [498]. The prep. J is suppressed from fre- 
quency of usage, and the determinative J supplied, so 

s fit s 0* stu / S hgO s 

that LJrf *U remains, as J\ lS+* vf »V [508]; and 
therefore it is uninfl.) because it implies [the sense of] the 
p. [159]: and afterwards the £ and J [of &V ortg\ &J ] 
ate transposed, the 8 being made quiescent because of 
its occurrence in the place of the quiescent f , and the f 
being restored to its o.f. as a ^ because of the quiescence 
of the f , according to one of S's two opinions upon 

&Uf , vid. that it is from »tf He was hidden or veiled, 

SjXi ; while the g is then pronounced with Fath, because 

of the lightness of Fath upon the 3 ; and sometimes the 



fit A/ 



^ is elided, so that \*$y>S ** is. said. £* [115], as S 

appears to say, is uninfl. : and is held to be so because it 

105 



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( T98 ) 
is constituted like ps . [159] ; or because it resembles the p f 
in the smallness of its plasticity, since it is always in the 
ace. : but it should rather be decided to be infl n because 
of the affixion of the Tanwjn in sucb as U* UT We were 
together j and of the sign of the gen. in such a$ e^ja* 

/A * A 

£** *+ I went forth from beside him, i. e. &ji* ** , 
" ' A " ' ' 

although the prefixion of *• to it is anomalous. The f 

in U* 9 according to Khl, is a substitute for tfye Tanwm 
[640], since, according to him, £# has no J in the q. f.\ 
but, according to Y and Akh, which is the truth, it i§ 
like the f of J& , a substitute fpr the ^ [719]; so that 
£* , according- to them, is the reyerse of [the pre. n. in] 
^j<M [16], its J being restored in the aprothetic state, 
and elided in prothesis, because its place is supplied by 

* At 

the post (R). ^jif is [an atfr. of place (IY),] (1) interrog. 

, h S * ht 

[581], as ***# ^J Where wast thout\ (2) cond. [419] 
(M, R), a$ 

s w / /A/ S A#-0 St, s A * * * *h** • A A ' • A$ 

Wherever thou turnest with her in the early morning 
thou wilt find us turn the pale yellow camels toward? 
fierfor meeting (IY). It is uninfl. [159] upon a vowe} 
because of the [combination of (IY)] two quiescents, an4 
jipon Fatfc because of the heaviness of [Damm or (R)^ 



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( 79'Sf > 



Kasr [664] after the 3 (IY, R). JU is [a n. (ML),] (i) 
interrog., [as *1M y*> J*+ II. 210. JFAen wi// Me help 
bf God bet (ML)]; (2) cond. (M, R, ML)< as jS Uf 

f * * 

*M Ua* [1*9] (IY, ML): and in both cases denoted iimt 
(R). ^U is also a p. [513], or a n. syn. with Ia~j , as in 
^S ^** &x**£« I put it inj or in the middle of, mt/ 
sleeve, [transmitted by AZ (R),] where it is i. q. ^ f 

* h* * 

[says ISd (ML),] or *a-j [say others (ML)]; and simi- 
latly in ifi jsbjM *•* ^j?) 6 t 5 ^ 3 . 513 ], where it is i. q. 
-• , [say some (ML),] or I*-, (R, ML), says ISd (ML). 
It is uninfl. [159] upon quiescence (1Y>. The red. U 
[565] is attached to [the cond. (IY)] ^f and JZ« , [as 
IV. 80. (419, 565, 181) and 

3 § , * s* § * ************ *a** * * > 

a.OU, UU t^y* ^» * 8 ; U, ^1 j-UJl ^ U JU 
Whenever men see the rich, while his neighbour is poor, 
they say " Helpless and powerful (IY)] ; and augments 
them in vagueness. The distinction between Ji+ and 
\b\ [204] is that J* denotes vague timet and 131 
specified (M), vid. coming, time, for which reason ^ is 
. cond., and fit is not; for, if J // were put in the 
place of S& in LXXX1V. 1. [23], it would not be good, 



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( 800 ) 
because what is certain to come to pass would be tnadcr 
doubtful [588] (IY). J>J is [a vague adv. of time 
(IY),] (1) i. q. the interrog. JL* (M, R), except that (a) 
JZ+ is more frequently used ; (b) ^lj is peculiar to 
great [and solemn (IY)] matters, as &*LJf •* uCiJU** 

^J* u)^' VIL 18& y/ ^V ash thee ab( ^ 1 Me resur- 
rection, when its coming to pass will be (IY, R) and LL 

IS. [4451, whereas e**> ^1*1 is opt saidj (e) ^Of ia- 

peculiar to the^/wre, contrary to ^^U, which is used 
in the past and future: (2)cond. [419], allowed By some 
of the moderns (R). It is uninjl. because of its imply- 
ing [the sense of] the interrog. Hamza : and its final ii* 
Vocalized because of the concurrence of two quiescents ? 
and pronounced with Fath by alliteration to the f or 
Fatha before it, as in 'Jxi [196] (IY). According to 
IJ (K on TIL 186., R), 'J>} fe derived from ^f [184] 
(K, B, K), being Jbi from it (K), because its sense h 
saJ> 3 S At what timet (K, B); not from If , because 
[it denotes time, while (K)] ^f denotes place (SL, R);:aud 
because JUi is rare, and Ju» frequent, among m.t so 
that, if used as a name, it would be diptote [18]. Kasr 
of its Hamza is the dial, of Sulaim (R), and AsSuIami 
teads ^t (K); and Ah says that Easr of its ^ is a dial. 



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( 801 J 
Qb,r. (R). As for the parsing of cond. and interrog. rti. 
and the hke [218], (1) if a prep; or pre. n. be prefixed to 
themj they are in the place of the gen., as LXXVIlt 
1 ["1811 t-$>*- fjL lS' ^ aa ^ c O n Me morning of what 

day will thy journey bet [111], and «-*iU ^ r Vi 
Whose young man came to theet: [and therefore the 
saying that cond. and interrog. ns< are not governed by 
what precedes them holds good only if what precedes 
them be not a prep, or pre. n.; whereas, if it be so, they 
are governed by it (DM)]: (2) if not, then, ta) if they 

be applied to Hme, as ^y**. Jd j)j**i u ; XVt 21. 

22. Kor know they When they shall be raised, or place, as 

' 4&JJ 'iti LXXXI. 26. 7%en where are ye going f,ix 

accident, as XXVI. 228. [445], they are governed in the 

ace. as adverbial or unrestricted objs.x (b) if fcot, then, 

*' if** 
(a) if they be followed by an indet. n., as «-tf V J ^ 

JFAo t* a father to thee f , they are t'nefo. } and, if by a 

§A/ A / 

det. n., as a*] ^* W^<> & Zaidt, they are enuncs. or 
incA*. according to different opinions [24J : but these 
two sorts do not occur among cond. ns. } [because they 
ate followed only by vs. (DM)]: (b) if not, then, if 
tbey be followed by an intrans. v. 9 they are inchs., as 

'& ** Who stood f and **<• fjf fS* ^ Whoever stands, 
I will stand with him ; and, if they be followed by a 
trans, v. that befalls [44] them, they are direct objs., as 



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( 302' ) 

e)))^ * 1J J «>y gii XL. 81. Then which of die sign* 
of God will ye deny? [below], XVII. 110. [116], an<* 
VII. 185 [1]; and, if it befall their prow., as *2if ; u 
Who is such that thou sawest him? or Whom (sawest 
thou\ sawest thou him ?, or their belonging, [vid. the 
ft. connected with their pron. (DM),} as 5t£Lj «^(, #t ^ 
Who is such that tf/iott sawest his brother f or Whont 
(wast thou concerned with), sawest thou AtV brother ?, 
they are tncA*. or aces, governed by a suppressed [trans. 
v. (DM)] supplied after them, [because they take the 
1st place (DM),] expounded by the one mentioned [62 J. 
When the cond. n. occurs as an inch., opinions differ as* 
to whether its enune. is (1) the ti. [i, e. prop. (DM)] of 
the prot. alone, because the cond. n. is complete [44] ancF 

Ai/ A • 

the v. contains its pron. [27], so j that Jb ** Whoever 
[i.e. If every one of mankind} stands, but for the sense 



S S* 3 to i #0 



of condition in it, Would be i. <j. *j3£ L f^] ^* jf 
Evety one of mankind stands [204]; (2) the v. [i.e. 
prop. (&M)] of the correl., because the sense is' completed 
by it [24]y and bec&use the pron. always relates from it to 
the cond. n. according to thfe corirefctest opinion [below], 

and because its counterpart is thfc enunc. iff^USb g&\ 

jby* 6& [$&] ; or (3) the aggregate of the two, because 

*"* f S f 5 * c* 4 ** '* * *"* f 5 * f 5 * u> ! J" W ^ d* ^ 



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< 603 ) 
ffoery one of mankind is such that, if he stands, I will 
.stand with him [27] : but the correct opinion is the 1st ; 
while the sense depends upon the carrel, only as respects 
^contingency, not as respects enunciativity. The correl. 
x>f the cond. n. governed in the nom. by inchoation needs 
a cop., which is only a pron., (1) mentioned, as ^ 

f ,, **m si W AiA IA/ A*A/ 

UftS* &i±*S t yti ffr* **i f^i V. 115. Then whosoever 
pfyou disbeheveth afterward*, verily I will chastise him 
with a chastisement ; (2) supplied, or replaced by a sub- 

,/ y^J / s s 'S ** ft * K** £ ****** 

8titute,as » ; J,^ V ; ^ ; U# ^a|j ^ j>£ ^J 
gxJ\ ^ JJja. II. 193. Then, whoso bindeth himself 
to undertake the pilgrimage in them, there shall be no 
lewd conversation and no transgression and no wrangling 
proceeding {from him) in the pilgrimage, or no wrang- 

ling in his pilgrimage, i. e. &U or orig. to*. J [599] ; 

s * s * 

/X ^ C / /*^s A s sa£ Ax ss 

and, as for the texts 6«! ^ ^SJJj &*>$*> J.J ^» JU 

vuujf l^-»4 III. 70. Yea, whoso fulfilleth his covenant, 

find is pious, (Qod will love him): for verily Qod loveth 

* s * 't* * S3#*s S* i// sJi«« £*** A ss 

#e piotw and J* 1/-I ,^1^ **;-;; *«! jy* ^3 

.jJUff Jfe &U| 1^^ V. 61. And whoso taketh Qod 
and His Apostle and them that have believed as friends, 
(shall overcome): for verily the host of Qod, they are the 
ppercQmer* »nd the verse [of AlKufana (DM) J 



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( 804 ) 

/ // • / * Sfr /A//A^ 1/ / • A,* J* Ass 

Wfy Me J 1 *; ^ * &**»*» 8 ; La»M *C >*> 
[Then whoso is such that townsfolk do please him, (we are 
not of his quality): then what men of a desert dost thou 
deem us to bet (DM)], the eorrel. in them is suppressed, 

sit <e >5 s A *• * A •• 

i. e. &U| &A3»i [in the a/wc. (DM)], v-^lie, and ti«Ji 



*Xi^ JU . The interrog. or ccW. r£g\ of the t>. or its 
like must precede [the op. (DM)], as XL. 81. [above], 
XXVI. 228. [445], and XXVIII. 28. [184]; and for 

A • 3 

this reason the ;>rott. of the case is supplied in ** J 
^T jC^d [51T, 167] (ML), The op. of ^ [204] and 
every adv. containing the sense of condition is its 
prot. y as most say ; and may not be its apod,, as some 
say, just as the op. may not be the apod, in the case of 

non-adverbial [cond.] ns. y since you do not say *%£ 

A A**/ • /*»• *S$i 

y-jy^ti lJjI** with *&t in the ace. (R), 



/ A • 



§ 207. <JuT is a n. (IY, ML), not a p. or v. (IY), 
because (1) the prep, is prefixed to it without paraphrase, 
[20, 468] in their saying ^jd;*^ f £*y <-*4f ^ [^» 
what state dost thou sell the two red things, i. e. wine 
and meat? (DM)] : (2) the genuine n, is made a subst. for 

A# i *t * * * A*, 

it [without paraphrase (DM)], as fl £&***f vs^f vJuf 
J&m [below] : (3) iu such as c^JLf vJJaT ifrto wadf 



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( 805 ) 
thou t it is made a pred., which excludes the p. [497] ; 
and is contiguous to the v., which excludes the v. [593] 
(ML). It is treated as an adv. (M, R) by many, who render 

/ tut /• 

it by the prep. (IY); because it is i. q. JU *| 1* In 
what state ?, and the prep, and adv. are akin. That uaaT 
is an adv. is the opinion of Akh (R): but [according to 
S (R)] it is [correctly (IY)] a [plain (IY)] rc., [not an 

adv. y though it conveys the sense of Jk. g\ JU (IY),] 

' • a* *h* 

because the n. occurs as a subst. for it, as c^Jf «Juf 
§ , ht § <t 
*kkm jif ^xao^t [above] How art thou, well or ill f, [and 

as a reply to it, as ftp** Well or +{£** /// in reply to 

* A J • A / 

J| Uuf How art thou? (IY)]; whereas, if it were an 



adv. , the adv. would occur as a subst. for it (IY, R), and 
as a reply to it (IY); though Akh may say that the 

$As • A • 

prep, and gen. may be made a subst. for it, as *H) <-**** 

A «5 #* y • • A# S M ^ • ••£ 

JuJ| Jta- JU -.? &si<*if Jta- ^jUf How is Zaid, in the 
state of health, or in the state of sickness ?, [and similarly 

• A* 

with the reply]. Thus cJuf , according to S, is render- 

able by J^l^ Jk. ^g! ^^ iw wAa* state [ar/ <Aow] artrf- 

' ' ' . , «,* „ 

ing ? ; but, according to Akh, by JU- ^gl ^ In what 

i , ' ' 

state ?, J^k* , according to him, being supplied [26, 498] 

(R). It is used in two ways, (1) as a cond. } in which case 

it requires two vs. agreeing in letter and sense, and not 

106 



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( 106 ) 

apocopated, [whether U be prefixed to them or not, 
according to the BB (DM),] as &*S fi<*S tJuf H010- 

* * ht # A S /A/ 

ever thoy. dost, I will do; while vr**$ JT^ u ***' ** ^ fc 
allowable by common consent [of the BB and KK 

A Af A A s • A/ 

(DM)] ; nor jpM jH^ ^^^ according to the BB, 
except Ktb, [who agrees with the KK (D^f ),] because 

/A/ 

i«a.a/ differs from the cond. instruments [419] in that its 
dorrel. must agree with its proh, as above stated: but 
some say that this [apocopation of the two vs. by it 
(DM)} is allowable unrestrictedly, [i e. whether it be 
conjoined wit^i U or not (DM),] which is the opinion of 
Ktb and the KK; or upon condition of its being con- 
joined with U , [which opinion is followed by the author 



•A • s hS 



of the Aj, since he says " { The apocopfttives are f ,. 
(Aj),} and CZJ " (DM)] : (a) they, say that wJaT ^ 
jU>j> V. 69. He dispqnseth, His bounty howsoever* Ek 

willeth and AAj *-*/ f U ; V * l5* /)y*t< &M IH. 4. Bk 
that fashionetji you in the wombs, hotqsoepep He> wilheihf 
are instances of its occurrence as cqnd., its cqrret. tjeipg 
suppressed because indicated by what precedes it, [i. e. 

jiJLj iUj UuS and ff)y*t s^i UUf (DM)] j^ buf this \» 

dubious according to their unrestricted declaration that 
its correl. must resemble its prot*, [whether the cornel* 
be mentioned or. suppressed (DM)}: (2) a& minterrog., 



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( 807 ) 

9 A' /Ay 

trHich is naosftfy the case, either real, asd^UUT 

[above]; 6r . 6ther#ise, ii If.- 20. [80], where it is used 
inf the sense of wonder: (a!) it [i. e. the interrog. (DM)] 
occurs (a) as an enunc. or pred. before what is not in- 
dependent [of an enunc. real or annulled (DM)), as 

/ hi * A * > A J \ *Jk* fih/ s A , , /A/ 

c^J| ui*T and ct-iT uixT ; and hence fi>ij \a***& Uuf 

How thoughtest thou Zaid to bet and lX»^ &*JU| tJUT 
How madest thou him to know thy horse to bet, because 
the 2nd obj. of ^ and the 3rd of f*\ are orig. enunc s. 
[€40, 434] : (b)' as a </. *. before what is independent [of 
an enunc. (DM)], as' &*) /la. <JUf /Zow [74], i. el In 
what state, carrtf Zaidt ; and, in thy Opinion; as an un- 

• /• • Ay •• A/0 

restricted 0/S7. also in this soi^t, whence J*i *-*& y J\ 

oUf\Jf> ; LXXXIX. 5; Hast thou notf seen how\ i. e. twrffc 

what dealing, thy Lord dealt with l Ad f, since the sense fs 

J*' J* 5 .5' 1 and similarly M J* ^ tiAa. fof 
** * ' ' ' t 

• 
o>{&4; IV. 45; Then how (will they do) when We bring 

from every, people a witnesft, itfr op. ^f^^t being sup- 
plied betwfefefa vii/ arii ; f&f : (b)iJUr With what follows 

it in eJi± UulT Jj»I Jl ^jfei* «M LXXXVIII. 17. 

What! then will they not look at the camels, how they 



A 



have been created? is a stffoJ. ofimplic&tton for JfVf , the 

"S 



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( 808 ) 

* A t m A/ A,* * 

sense being l^ala* SU*/ J.jVf J\ at the camels, the mode 

of their creation; and similar are XXV. 47. [581] and 

- ">* t"° ' ' r: f '?'- .... 

ij\ S&\ m J\ [l], i. e. U^UXJf ;jju Me impossibility 

of their meeting together (ML), *-*/ being expounded by 
jii' as an indication that the interrogation here denotes 
teeming improbable (DM): (c) preps, are not prefixed to 

,A* '** A 

it, as they are to jit when you say jil j» From 
where f and vj Jt To where?, because jif is a ques- 
tion as to places, to which prep*, are prefixed, as j« 
?~Jf jFVoot Me wwrfce* and Jj-H^f 7b <&e marfce* ; 
whereas *-*{/ is a question as to states, to which preps. 

f * l A * 

are not prefixed, for you do not say gp** j»t or j«! 

* ' ' ' 

**jU (IY): but Ktb transmits from some of the Arabs 

» , A/ * A/ X A#A* 

C i ^i t -*&*' i,^' y 2 ^' Look how he does (M), and they 
gay ^w^Vj ££f> l^aT ^ [above], which are ano- 
malous: (d) its reply is only mete*., as ^U> , not £^1 , 

$*• • A/ ' h ' 

in reply to i>ij ^i*" (IY). Many assert that U»f occurs 
as a copulative [p. (DM)] ; and among them is II M, who 
pites as an instance of it 

tZ[£ &JV s ) J\ JU JS K3I 
p^Ul/f Uu£ ^oVl J*^, 



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( 809 ) 

(ML) When the wealth of the man becomes small, his 
spear-shaft becomes soft, and he is lowered before the 
nearest kinsman, and the farthest ones, the l^ being 
apparently red. (DM). It is uninfl. because it occurs in 
the place, and implies the sense, of the interrog. f 
[159]; and the o is mobilized to avoid the concurrence 
of quiescents, and pronounced with Fath because Kasra 
[664] is deemed heavy after the £ (IY). And ^ is said 



A • 



for Uuf (IY, R, ML), like y, for O^ [578] (IY, 
ML), as 

As*,, A • sSsAsAs 

* * As m * A *ht* •/• SP/hf 

(ML) How incline ye to peace, when your slain have not 
been avenged, and the flame of war is blazing? (FA, Jsh) : 
and, [according to An (R),] this is a dial, var.; but some 
say that the cJ is elided [for alleviation (IY) by poetic 

license (R)]. ^ is [an adv. of place (I Y),] (1) interrog., 
[as te& UCl Jf III. 32. Whence hast thou this? (IY)]; 
(2) cond., as 

• A • A • *b* 22$ y A/ ht* 

* y /A/A /A/ /A//A/ / 

[by Labld (IY), TAen <Aow Aa*f become such that, 
whencesoever thou comest to it (meaning calamity, which 



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( 810 ) 
he compares to a restive beo*§ t thou art efitbarfatied With 
it: each of its two seats (be/ore attd behind) between thy 
two legs is unsteady ( AAz)} : and had [three sefises, 
whether it be interrog. or cond., vfd. (ft)} the sense' ef 
0) ^ji' > [except that it is used with ** , (a) expressed, as 

Ci A SV / S A yA# A 

{From tc/iere Aaoe we twenty {camels or sheep), from 
where? (Jsb)J; (b) supplied (R)J as lit. 32., [i. e. 

S* A ,A* A / A / 

^ ^ ( R )>] meaning ^f ^ : (2) UuT (IY, R), 

according to some (IY), aa ^fiyt J\ J*>S £ V. 79. 
Then behold how they are perverted (R), whence II. 223 
[below}, and 

H^; v ; *>*<*» **-*" jj* * V^» «-*tf jftl- ^y ^f 
(IY), by AlKumait; .How;- cMd wJienee,. has mirth re- 
turned to thee, since there are'. noy&uthfal folly and my 

scandals? (AAz): (3) ^ ; while the text. ^T ^y*> IJ& 

A* A 

j£*£ LL 223; Then? come to< your husbandry \}l].ufKehee- 
soever, or howsoever [above], or whensoever y ye will i8 
interpreted in ail 3* ways*. But it does not occur in the 
sense of i_aa/ or 4 yU unlessit be followed by a v. (R). 
It is uninfl. befttttusa4feimplies [jthee>senn^of (AAz)] the 
intefTogs Hamza, [or cond. p* (AA*)] ; and it* final i» 
qxiieweiitiaecordiiifttorAileflSO] (IY). 



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THE COMPOUNDS. ^ 

§ 208, The comp. is every [single (R)] «. [result- 
ing (R, Jm)] from [the composition of (K, Jm)] two 
words, [real or predicamental (Jm), both ns. % vs., or p*., 
or n. and v., n. and p., or v. and p. (R, Jm),] between 
which there is no relation (IH) at all, either at present 
or before the composition. We say "real or predica- 

mental" in order to include such as *dj*6-» [4], because 

its last member, being a sound not applied to denote a 
meaning, is not a word [1], but is in the predicament of 
a word, since it is treated as an uninfi. n. ; and IH says 
44 between which there is no relation" in order to exclude 

such ag ftVI J** and f;S I*fG [4], because between the 

two members of each of them there is a relation [explained 

below] before the whole becomes a proper name (Jm). But 

this definition exclude* part of tike defined, [vid. the camp. 

* * * * * h * 
in whkh a con. ie supplied (R),} as >A* &•«+£. [210], 

[or * prep., as cHg «^# (211) (R)]; because between 
itetwo members there is [some relation, vid. (R)] the 
relation of coupling (R, Jm) or something else (R): and 
it is best tQ aay that by <c relation'' is meant relation 
compreheiigible from; the, external form, of the composi* 

tip^.litatM rototioi* of prothesig[llD] in* &fcf *+e r and 
of dependence- [44] in fjfc lojCf ; whereas in* >&* 



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( 812 ) 
[210] the form of the composition does not indicate any 
relation at all ( Jm). The comps. are of two kinds, (1) a 
kind whose composition requires the two ns. to be uninfl. 
together, as 5>A* together with its unit [210], jaxj j^ft^ , 

/ /A 

etc. [211], and $ j 1 ^' [212]; (2) a kind whose compo- 
sition requires only the 1st of them to be uninfl., as 
>** 3^i [213], 4- 3 *t\ [214], and LfyJ^ [215] 

• • /' ' '• A* 

(M). Z'puts £*> ^oO or to* ^ob and U« ^J [215] 

• • ' ' 

> y A/- 

in the cat. of ^j&j** ; but S puts them in the cat. of 

^iU &«»+£. , which is more probable, though it be only 
by way of assimilation, not because the 2nd implies [the 
sense of] a p. [209] : for, if the matter were as Z says, 
g*> and ]*> would necessarily be declined as triptotes 
by affixion of Tanwln to them, because they contain 
composition only, without the quality of proper name 
[18], whereas they have not been heard pronounced with 
Tanwln; and similarly U~ would necessarily be pro- 
nounced with Tanwln, because it is here the name of a 
many not of a tribe, as it is interpreted in XXVII. 22. 
[18] (R). 

§ 209. The distinction between the two kinds is that 
(M), if the 2nd [member (Jm)] imply [the sense of 
(IY)] a [con. of other (Jm)] p., both [members (M, Jm)] 
are uninfl., [as y&*e jA.f (210) and jvj ji**. (211) 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 813 ) 

(VY), because the cause of uninflectedness exists in each 
of them, since the 1st \n. (IY)} becomes {through the 
composition like part of a »., being (IY)} in the samq 
position as the beginning of a word towards its end, while 
the 2qd implies the sense of the p. (M)] ; but, if not, the 
2nd is iojl, and the 1st uninfl. (M, IH), in the corrected 

(IH) dial. (Jm), as ^fyJH [215] (IY). 

* • 

§ 210. The <j./. of the num. exceeding 10 is that 

the 2nd should be coupled to the 1st, as V**J ^ > 
then the two ns, [the unit and the decimal (IY)] are 
amalgamated into o^e, and are uninfl. [211, 318] because 
of the existence of the two causes [209], Some of the 

Arabs make the £ quiescent, saying >&* u^l [and 

/ • A • /I' 

^A* &£U (IY)] to guard against the succession of [6 or 
5 (IY)] mobiles in one word, [not more than 4 mobiles 
being combined in one word ; but this is not done in 
yju* Uuf (318), because two quiescents would then be com- 
bined ; and because, the \ and £ being quiescent, there is 
not the same succession of mobiles in these two words as 

there is in J»s ja.| and the like ; and because they are 

not compounded, m that they are not one word (IY)]. 

The determinative p. and prothesis do not spoil the 

* *ih* 
uninflectedness [of this num. (IY)] : you say (1) **$\ 
t * * ******** 

+&* The eleven and yi*e ^^i\ The eleventh [324] to 

* / * * *hm * * * * * Z * 

y&i &u*#| The nineteen and y2*e £-W\ The nineteenth ; 

107 



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< 8" ) 

(2) uJyi-fi oa»f Thy eleven and c^>A* &*-*» Thy nmeteen 
fand ^Jy^ j— U. 7%y fifteenth (IY)]: but Akh 
used to approve the nom. when he prefixed it, [as 
sJyLe £«»*£. 7% //teen (IY),] which S deemed cor. 

nipt. And, if yJU i~*L [or the like comp. (IY)] be 
used as a name for a man, it may (1) be [infl., pro? 
nounced with Damm of the ^ (IY)] in the nom., [and 
Fath in the ace. and gen., being declined as a diptote, 

uf • / A* 

like l-<aLu (215), because of the removal of the sense of 
poupling; and, according to this, when you prefix, you 
Recline it as a triptote (17), as ^J>£*e &***£. (IY)] : (2) 
remain [uninfl. (IY),] pronounced with Fath (M), because 
you imitate its state before it was used as a name (IY). 

§ 211. The ' following synthetic comps. are uninfl. 
ypon Fath, (I) nums. [210J: (2) advs., (a) temporal, 

as (a) iU*« -U-s ILoO ^Ui Such q o/?e come* to us, 
fnorning (and) evening, orig. iU*j tswU** , i. e. (^P^ry) 
ptorning and evening, the cow. being suppressed, and 
\he two advs. compounded together for the sake of 

* s s s s A • 

abbreviation in the same way as yL* &**»£» , whence 

' ' ' * **' "• ' * • • / JTA/y /A^C A • * A / # 

j/ua. s^ /u* c u* * &ju ^iy f O^a* V^; 

[^wrf eflAoso forn$ no* the slanderers away from himself 
^nqrning arid evening, they will seek insanity for Tiim 



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( 815 ) 

(MAd)] ;tmt, if you prefixed, saying iU* C U* , it would 
be allowable, i. e. oft d morning possessed of, [i. e. sue- 

hi *5J • S3 9/h* A/ 

teededby (MAd),] an evening, like jl &^* Vl f^xL ^ 
Ubfc=*5 LXXIX. 46. £atf no/ tarried id the graves save 
an afternotin or its forenoon : (J) ^yi f jd &^. ^ 

*a«// * h* 

Such a one comes to us day by day, orig. Uy*i Ly> , i. e. 
every day, Whence 

, , , , A A,»/ *• / A tiff *h* * A/ Shui ** «* 

[Subsistence will come day by day : then moderate desire j 
and seek provision for the day of resurrection (MAd)} : 

/A/ • A/ ^/A^A/« S hm * 

(b) local, as j# j**.3j*eM uiJfr* / so/tened ihe Hamza 

/••/ A/ • A •• //</ 

fotoz** <m<* ietoeew [658], ort* l$tf> ti^. j*, m** 
between it and [158] Me consonant of its vowel, what 
is />o«*. to the 1st and 2nd ^ being suppressed, the 
con. also suppressed, and the two ados* compounded 
together, whence 

[by 'Abid Ibn AlAbras, addressing Imra alKais, We 
defend our right, when some of the people fall betwixt 

and between (A Ass)], orig. sty &*) 'ty J* Between- 
these and those, [i. e. between the high and the low (D),] 
these two advs., which have become one, being in the 
position of an ace. as [an adv. depending upon (MAd)] 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( sis J 
a [suppressed (MAd)] d. s. [below], since ifo meaning fo 
Ua- 5 [lytf~* (MAd)]: (?) dt. s., as (a) is^j 3 }*> ^ 
«^4» <SucA a one i» r/iy neighbour, tent {to) tent, ortg* 

** 5,»* **' ■ i if 

ta^J [UflU (MAd)] U# tent joined to tent, i. e. U^tt. 
adjoining, the j»r«p. J being suppressed,- and the twe 
«*, compounded together ; though the supplied prep. 
*aay b* ^ > P- e - *^# ^ ^^ % (MAd)] j or hot 
prep, at all may be supplied, but the cdn. i*i , [i. e# 

* A*/ /A/ // A^ ** Xt * * * ' 

Uaa» U« fen< (and} tent (MAd)J: (b) J^aJ J^M jyaSUJ 
Tfay /£// oii6 o/lfer another, scattered about, i. e. j4?yu* , 
whence the verse of the poet, describing a bull goring 
dogs, 

//mI / * ht A/A,* •/ y y /// • A> -JA/* • ••• 

JtyU JyM **«lf y^ fel*. * tgfcjLd » >; &U fa»UJ 

{ Their bitches trained to hunting dropped off him , off 
his horn, one after another, as the sparks of the blacksmith 
are dropped, scattered about (MAd)]: (a) the difference 
between tbis sort and the verse cited in tbe preceding: 
sort is that there the comp. depends uporr * suppressed 

• A A 

4fM , which is the d. s. [above J whereas here tbe 
comp. itself is the d. s.: (b) if you exclude any of these 
adw. or ds. s. from the quality of adv. or d. $., prothesia 
is necessary, and composition is disallowed, as if}+& &**> 



Digitized 



by GOOgU 



S»s > 



( 817 ) 



[And, but for a day succeeded by a day, tie should not 
have wished thy repayment; though for debts there is 
repayment (MAd)]: (c) comp. advg. and ds. s. do not 
occur in the Revelation, but only comp. «wffl»., as XIL 

4. [442], li-' *r* l**?t **<• cw^i»l> It 57. ?%«* 
<ic«to« spring* £«*/*<?<* out from it, and LXXIV. 30. 
[87]: (d) comp. ds. s. occur rarely in comparison With 
comp. advs. (Sh). They say (1) >i> ,i* f/^J [or >iA 
U> (KF)], i. e. They separated in etiery direction, without 
collecting together-, (2) similarly ;«*<• yi& [or ;** jiU 
(H &F)] or ;«*> )£* i all meaning separation without 



* S f 



collecting together ; (3) in the same s€tfse £*U £i*£ J (4) 

, A/ • A • / ' A#^ ^ •/ 

**^# ^5^a. oUaM fyy? 7%ey /*/* */ie countries^ dispemng 

oftrood [or 14' X^ (KF)] or v^l> A^ or *,,> a,^ 
or UU> tf**. [or tiy> G,*. (KF;], with Tanwin hy assi- 
milation to the indet. ejs. [198], when they separate and 
disperse (IY) : the two ns. are in the place of an ace. aa 
&d.s. (H); and the o.f. is l/w ; f>*~ and f;*i*j f;J& 
and l*i«j Uj^ and % ; t*>> (M). The [synthetic 
(MAd)] composition mentioned occurs also in *hat is 
not an twto. or rf. *., as j«x? j*o. ^ !>»»; , i. e. They 
fell into a difficulty hard to escape from; but this ia 



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( 818 ) 

Ax • A • *, / 



anomalous (Sh). The o./. is ja^ ^a^ ^ (^ (Mt) f . 
the j being then suppressed for abbreviation, while the 
sense is copulative ; so that j**i j*£*> implies the sense* 
of the am., and is therefore uninfl., like >£>* &M»r* an<f 
its cat. [210} (IY). They say (1) J4> J^, [which 
is the frequent and welUknown dial, var., as in the verse 
of Uniayya Ibn Abi 'A'idh alHudhali cited by As 

GjfA^ la.y^ ta»fj£» %c>JS oi 

• ./ /A/ /Ax A sh, hj 

(IY) / /itftfc fi^n wont to go out, and come in, vetsatih: 
adversity has not stuck to me inextricably, •**> jd«* 
being here in the position of an ace. as a d. s., i. e. t» 

S A/ s A S ^ ^ 

/Aw 4ate o/ JW j*&» (DH)]; (2) ^ J***. (DH, IY, 
KF); (?) J»i J^ (KF)> (4) ^ ^^ (IY); (5) 
U»*> U>4*. ; (6) jitf j**** (IY, KF). 



* 

/ Ax 



§ 212. ; l * J 150 *' is <*> m P ou nded of the act. parts, of 
(%£. overcame and ty exalted himself, as though J& 

/A,*/ x A#« 

•}Ui1j £)U°H were said (R). It has (1) 7 <fta&. c<ir#. (a) 
^a., like /U*G [391]; (g) ;V}*., like jMo^ [396] : 



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( 819 ) 

(2) 5 meanings [transmitted by Sf (IY)], (a) a kind of 
herbage, [as in the saying {of the Eajiz (AAz) cited 
VylAr(IY)} 

, A/A«*S • A m <** 8n / * * * **ht ***** 

****** ' + > 

s * A s $ ' * h * * h * * S *h** * ft t° ' * *<** \ 



• • 



(M) / have pastured them upon a most noble branch as a 

m A 

branch, the plants named J^ and J*a£-* arcrf //10 herb 

aimed 1^6^*4 <wmJ '** tall flowering herbage named $> }^ 
• * * 

watered with rain, so that 'Amir calls Mas'ud (these being 
two pastors) to rejoice at the abundance of herbage 
(IY)]; (b) a [blue (V£)]fly that is in herbage, [as says 
the poet {'Amr (AAz) Ibn Ahmar (IY, AAz)} 

s s p * * *<* S3 * * * & <* ***** s/h* t$,, 

* ** * * * 

(M) The masses of cloud coming by night burst with 

water above it {I e, the tow ground or the herbage (IY)}, 
* * 

anfl the fly named jt> j£* buzzed loudly in it (1 Y, AAz)] ; 
(c) [an imitation of (IY)] the sound of the fly, [says As 
(IY)]j (d)a disease in the [necks and (IY)] jawbones 
projecting under the ears 9 [as in the saying {of the R%ji% 
(IY, AAz), vid. ATAdawl (IY),} 

• * * s* a t s *f m * *Z <* hi , ,j 

> '£ ' ' * * * 

* * 

(M) O disease named fy ^ , release the jawbones pro* 
jectfog winter the ears: verily 1 fear that thou mayst 



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( aso ) 

heeome chronic (A A?)] ; (e) the oat. (M, R), which is the 
strangest of them (IY). 

• • /■ f A /A 

§ 213. The o.f. of ^jj gel IJ.a> J*>l /)o this first 

/• • s\ * w P *$f 

of every thing or 1o* Jfc >V, [»• e. /^ J* J ; ! (IY),] 
* 8 ' l S ,J ' , iS jl * [upon the measure of J#*» (IY)] or t\^\ 
[upon the measure of JU> (IY)], which is then lightened 

* • #*»•• 

by rejecting the Hamza [of /j** or *S±i (IY)] and 
[converting the Hamza of ^ jt* into a pure ^ , and (IY)] 
making [it (IY)] quiescent. It [consists of two n$. com- 
pounded together and uninfl. (210) ; and (IY)] is [indet. 
(IY),] governed in the ace. as a d. *., i. e. j£ *f ^^ 
sJb Jf beginning with it before every thing. [They 
say also J»j j^lf with prothesis, without uninflectedness 
(IY) ;] and it is sometimes used pronounced with Hamza 
[in the 2nd, not the 1st, as s±> g&\ or Sg±> ; or in 

A/ * ' . 

botb^ as s*> gCk. (IY)], whence the tradition of Zaid lbn 

'Ji#« #/A* iu / A* / / S* 

Thabit «HI t>^^l ,y^ '*>* &*k W 4* / or '^ .#?< °/ 
every thing, verily I praise God. 

/ • aI # / * 

§ 214. They s&y U-* ^d^l Ij+fc^ TAey w^n* ayoay 
(like) the children of Sabd or U- ^jbl [549], i. e. 
(like) the children of Saba lbn Yashjub [lbn Ya'rub Iba 
£afc$n (IY)] Ifi their separation and dispersion in the 



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( 821 ) 
countries when the Flood of the Dams was sent against 
them, dJ>| being a met. for children and kindred. [It has 
2 dial, vars.i (1) the 2 w«. are compounded into one, 
and uninfl. (210); (2) the 1st is pre. to the 2nd, as in 
sU** r U«* (211). It is in the position of an ace. as a 

* • IUS •* • til •/* 

rf. s., i. e. ^jxSyu* and *j> jj>aa* and the like. And the 






Hamza of U*» is omitted for abbreviation, because of the 
length of the n. and the frequency of usage, together 
with the heaviness of the Hamza (1Y)]. 



* * A • 



§ 215. y/iJA« has 2 rfia/. oar*: — (1) composition 
and diptote declension [of the 2nd, the 1st being uninfl. 
(209), because it occupies the position of part of a word 
(IY)], as v>***** '*** Thu ** Ma'dtkarib [18]: (2) 
pretixion, the jpos£ being declined as (a) a triptote, as 

, A/ *\ '***'! 

^f £**" ^* 5 0*) a diptote, as *->/ ^t*** f***> 

// y £ A SS A s 

[below]. And similar are US ^15 [below], c^y4^av 
[4] , cX*l*>, and their likes (M). When ^^ is pre., 
its ^ is not pronounced with Fatfc in the ace. [16], so 

• • A • ^ A*/ 

that you do not say v/ iS**** "Ht^ » as y° u sa y 
Ll~U -*lS The judge of Waste, because, being made 
quiescent in the state of composition, as t^jkd** fJA , 

which is a position where the sound [letter] is pronounced 

108 



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( 822 ) 

3 A/s A s 

with Fath, as <rjyye*. , it is made quiescent in the 

• A* * 

state of inflection also. In 4^/* L g* 3JM you hold *^f 
to be a maze, [proper] name, and therefore decline it as 
a triptote [18]. But in w/ ^jju [above], With Fatfr 
in every case, there are 2 alternatives : — (1) ^oju may 

be />re, to v-i/ , the latter being held to be a /em. proper 
name, and therefore diptote [18] ; and, according to this, 
both n*. are infl.% (2) they may be compounded and 

uninfl., like y£* £«»*£. , as though the 2 n*., before 
being used as a [proper] name, had been compounded 
and uninfl., upon the ground that the j was meant to be 
understood, and then they were used as a name after the 
composition (IY). S reckons IB JXi among the sisters of 
Um ^ j*f [208] ; but Z reckons it among the sisters of 

3 * 'a ' 

VJ**** 4 J an ^ * fc contains no evidence to support the 
opinion of S, because the aggregate of the two words is 
the proper name of a city [in Armenia (Ml)], so that it 
may be diptote because of the composition and quality 
of proper name [18], but is not uninfl. (R). 



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THE UNINFLEOTED METONYMS- 



§ 216. Metonymy in classical and conventional 
language is denoting a particular thing, whether it be 
an expression or a meaning, by an expression not plainly 
indicative of it, (1) for the sake of perplexing some of 
the hearers, as in your saying ^Ui ^A* Such a one 
came to me, when you mean Zaid ; (2) because of the 
unseemliness of the thing expressed, like ^ for the 
vulva or foul act [14] ; (3) for the sake of abridgment, 
like the prons. relating to a preceding expression [160]; 
(4) for a sort of elegance, like oLjff ^S Plentiful in 
ashes for *)SM )& Plentiful in hospitality ; (5) for 
some other object. If the thing denoted by the met. be 
an expression, what is intended is (1) the meaning of 
that expression, as in 

• • A// A/ A • A// A/ • • • * t , bfih* A/ */A/» 2$s 

[by AlMutanabbl, lamenting the eldest sister of Saif 
adDaula, It is as though the cavalcades of Khaula (her 
Qame) had not filled the countries of Bakr, and she had 
not bestowed, and had not given (W)], i. e. &•£. , and 
in J»Sf Je»>e u^jj* ^ passed by a foolish man, i. e. 
j*a.J : (2) merely that expression, as in (a) puzzles and 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 824 ) 

riddles, as U&f f \^jiS\ for &+£* ; (b) the measures used 
in the conventional language of the GG to denote the 
words measured by them, as tJ/^u V &«* J*iJ [9], i. e. 

3, hi 

J*if , wAen an epithet, is not declined as a triptote, where 
J*if denotes a word whose initial is an aug. Hamza 
followed by a quiescent l3 , followed by an s pro- 
nounced with Fath, followed by a J , and similarly with 
the other measures. According to this, then, the interrog. 

f [217] is a met., because it denotes a question about a 

* * * / h, 

particular number; and so are 4* [182], U [180], UuT 

t 207 ]> ^S [206], and other interrog. ns., because each 
of them is a question about a particular thing not plainly 
expressed by its name ; and so are all the cond. ns., 

because the cond. and interrog. words are in the sense of 

it 

g\ , which, whether cond. or interrog. [184], is applied 

to denote a particular thing. These ns., whether cond. 

or interrog., are used as mets. for unlimited particular 

things, for the sake of abridgment, since, if, instead of 
' A * ht & + ht a^ $ 

jj? Where?, you said J f f ^yj\ J f » ; fjjf u 

£*l ^laJf In the house, or in the market, or in the shop, 
etc t to the end of the other particular places, it would be 
too long : so that the cond. or interrog. p. is supplied 
before these ns., as S holds ; and they are mets. for many 
particular things, as we have explained. AH mets. are 



Digitized by VjOQQiC 



f 825 ) 

not uninfl. ; for ^Ui and &HS , which belong to fhem by 
common consent [14], ar.e infl. (R). The [uninfl. (IY, 
R)] »»efe. are f , \& , [and ^tf (R, A)] for [vague 

* A / ' A • 

(M)] number, and is^xf and e^o for the narrative [226] 
(M, 1H, A) and announcement (M). The interrog. and 
cowrf. fl*. [184] are not reckoned here, because they have 
another cat. y [that of the conjunct or adv.,] to which 
they are more appropriate. Thus the mets. are like the 
adts. [201] in being of two kinds, infl. and uninfl. (R). 

A/ 

§ 217. ff is a n. denoting number vague (I A, A) in 
genus and quantity [226] (A). It is [of two kinds (M, 
ML, A),] (1) interrog., [meaning How many? (ML, A)]; 
(2) enunciatory (M, IA, ML, A), meaning How many! 

A ^ 

(ML, A). The interrog. and enunciatory J both denote 
number and numbered, the interrog. denoting number 
vague to the speaker, but known to the person addressed 
in the opinion of the speaker; and the enunciatory 
denoting number vague to the hearer [223], and seldom 
known to the speaker : while the numbered is unknown 
to the speaker in the interrog. and enunciatory (R); and 
[for this reason (R)] each of them needs a sp. [below] 
(R, IA, A) explanatory of the numbered (R). The sp. of 

the 1st is like that of ^r** and its sisters [85, 315], 

being an ace. [224] sing. [220] : and the sp. of the 2nd is 

is * * 
sometimes like that of *;£* , being a gen. pi, [as 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 626 ) 

IjOli Sy* pASUj * tffU k>t> C^^U JT 
4 4' fi 

Of how many kings has the kingdom perished, and bow 
many prosperous subjects have perished / (A)] ; and some- 

times like that of &U , being a gen. sing. [220] (IA, A), 



#w 53 • A • 



as £M &** *** [224] (A). The interrog. and enunciatory 

A/ ' 

J agree in [11] matters (ML, A): (1) they are ns. [2] (IY, 

IA, ML, A), because (a) the prep, is prefixed to *f (IY, 
IA); (b) it is pre., post. } and predicated of; (c) the n. is 
made a subst. for it ; (d) the pron. relates to it ; and (e) it 
is an obj. [218, 222] (IY) : (2) they are uninfi. (IY, ML, A), 
because (a) the interrog. implies the sense, and occurs in 
the place, of the p. [159] ; and (b) the enunciatory is of the 
same letter as the interrog., and occurs in the place of ^ 
[605], which it resembles in that ^ denotes paucity of 

the genus, and J multitude of it, while every genus con- 
tains much and little, the much being compounded of the 
little, and the little being part of the much, so that much 
and /tW/e are partners (I Y) : (S) their uninflectedness is 
upon quiescence [159] (IY, A): (4) they are vague (ML): 
(5; they need a sp. [above] (ML, A) because of their vague- 
ness: (6) [219] (A): (7) [225] (IH)i (8) they [must (ML, 
A)] take the head of the sentence (IH, ML, IA, A), (a) 
the interrog. because of the interrogation [584] ; and (b) 
the enunciatory because of the originative sense implied 
by it in denoting multitude, as ^ must take the head 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



( 827 ) 

of the sentence because of the originative sense implied by 
it in denoting paucity [505] (R): and therefore they are 
not governed by what precedes them [445], except the 
pre. n. and prep. [218] : (9) they are parsed alike [218] 
(A): (10) [223] t (11) [222] (R). They differ in [8 (A)] 
matters:— (1) the sentence with the ennnciatory admits 
of being pronounced true or false, contrary to the 
sentence with the interrog. [1]: (2) the enunciatory 
does not require a reply, contrary to the interrog.: (3) 
the subst. for the enunciatory is not conjoined with the 
Bam2a, as ^f*~ J* ^ y^ ^J j*a* J> Boto many slaves 

' ' * ' 

I have! Fifty: nay, sixty/, contrary to the subst for 
the interrog. [154], as ^fti ^ ^jy^l U3U J How 
many dirhams [219] is, or art [218], thy property f 
Twenty or thirty f : (4^ the sp. of the interrog. is [prig. 
(A)] in the ace. [224]; whereas the sp. of the enuncia- 
tory is [orig. (A)] in the gen. [224] : (5) [220] (ML, A): 
(6) [221] : (7) the interrog. does not indicate multitude ; 
whereas the enunciatory does, contrary to the opinion 
of ITr and his pnpil 1Kb : (8) the enunciatory is peculiar 

to the pret., like y^y [605]. 

A/ 

§ 218. The 2 kinds of ff , (1) if preceded by a 

* h*r * ■*• *A •* •*+ A# PpS 

prep, or pre. n. } [as ta*£;£&f fby* & or J^j af *U£ 

> /A ' ' * 

u£jjU (Sn),] are governed in the gen.: (2) if not, then, 

A> • **A * A • 

(a) if mets. for an tn/ n. or adv., [as e^^3 Sty* £ or 



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( 828 ) 

S A 9 * As As 

c^xwa Ujj> *f (Sn),] are governed in the ace. as in/I 
ns. or adw. : (b) if not, then, (a) if not immediately 

S3 «^ P * s s 

followed by a v. [as ;fdJf ^ J^> J (Sn),] or, if follow- 

/ ' v *S A, 

ed by a v. that is intrans.,] as ^S J^j *f (Sn),] or that 
[is trans., but (Sn)] governs their pron. or their con- 

*AS s ss *s As 9 3*,/, 

nected in the worn., [as f j+* v^ J^; ^ or 8 j^f v*)"* 

*As ' 

!;** (Sn),] are z'/icAs. [below] ; (6) if followed by a trans, 
v. that has not got its oft;., [whether it govern one or 

/Ass S/As lAs A# A / 

more ofy>., as ia*i^ J=?) S or fo^j Ja*3 J (Sn),] 

* * * P* A S 

are ofi/s.; whereas, if it has got its oft;., [as ^/^ J^) J** 

3*h #As $As ' 

SjJU fj+* j^3 (Sn),] they are inchs., unless the oft;, be 

' *sAs >- *s As 

a prow, relating to them, [as &Jy* Jb^ ^f (Sn),] in 
which case they are inchs. or aces, by distraction [62] 

As 

(A), the former, says Dm, being preferable (Sn). J in 

s 9 s As 

uXJU fT [217, 219] may be the enunc. or inch, [above] 
(IY). 

§ 219. The sp. [of both kinds (Jm, A)] is sometimes 
suppressed [87] (M, IH, IA, ML, A), when indicated 

/** As 

(R, IA, Jm, A,) as udU ff How many (dirhams or dinars) 

* s A A/ 

t*, or are [218], /Ay property? (M, IH), i. e. Ufco *T 
or l^lie^ (M, Jm), or How many {etc) thy property is f 

s 

S A AS S 

or are thy property ! , i. e. Jty> J or ^Jbd (Jm), and 



* * 



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( 829 ) 

A/ K * 



\a~>yo ff How many (times or strokes) hast thou struck f, 

or thou hast struck! (IH), i. e. Ky J or h m yb ( Jm) ; 

but suppression is not good with the enunciatory, because 
suppression of the post with retention of the pre. is bad 
[128] (IY). 

§ 220. The sp. of the interrog. is always sing. (M f 
ML, A), unrestrictedly (A), i. e. whether sorts be meant 
by it or not (Sn), contrary to the opinion of the KK 
(ML, A), who allow it to be pi. (A, DM), unrestrictedly 

4 /A • • A • 

(A); and in UUli lXJ J How many (persons) hast thou, 
being servants? the sp. is [held by the BB to be (Sn)] 
suppressed, UUli being [governed in the ace. as (i£)] a 
d. *. (M, Sn) by the verbal sense contained in the adv. 

[75], i. e. ULU UJ U-ii ,? (M), i. e. Ufli [77] (Sn): 
but some make a distinction, saying that, if the question 

S S * sA A/ 

be about multitudes, as utf UUU ^T meaning How many 
sorts of servants hose thou?, it is allowable, but other- 
wise not ; and this is the opinion of Akh (A), According 
to the BB, you do not say /UJj Ifc^j J ; but some GG 
allow it, because what is not allowable in the ant is 
allowable in the appos. [538], as Jj #UM ^Uf [112] 
(R). The «p. of the enunciatory is sing., [as £J| &*# ff 
(224) (ML)] ; or pi. (ML, A), as £M «-*/♦' f [217] 

109 



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( 830 ) 

(ML): but the sing, is more frequent and chaste than 
the pi. ; though the pi. is not anomalous, as some assert 
(A). 

A, 

§ 221. The interrog. (R, A) J may be separated 
from its sp. (IY, R, A) by the adv. and prep. (IY) in a 

case of choice (R, A), as UUi u<i J How many servants 
hast thout (IY, R); but the enunciatory is not separated 
from its sp., except in a case of necessity [below] (A), 
if its sp. be governed in the gen. by prothesis, so that 
XLIV. 24. [below] is not an instance to the contrary 

As 

(Sn). The sp. of the interrog* J is always in the ace. 
[224] (IY). When the enunciatory is separated from its 
sp., the latter is governed in (1) the ace. (M, A) by assimi - 
Iation to [the sp. of] the interrog., (a) necessarily, if the 
separation be by a prop., or by an adv. and prep, and 
gen. together (A), because separation of the pre. and 
post [225] is bad [125], especially by something else 
than the prep, and gen. [498] (IY), as 

S / hi /AM/ S ,i / A // // * A/ SSh // a + 

J****' ^ tf ' ^# otf I » o! • r o* JU lUi f€ JU JJU S 

[by AlKutaml, How many a bounty has reached me from 
them in destitution, when I was not near to journeying 
from poverty (IY, AAz) for want of a riding-beast 
(AAz)] and 

• .# / * A/A* htfuo / *, s A / • #/ £*, 

(M, A), by Zuhair [or his son Ka'b, though not found in 
their Dlwans (FA), or by Ibn Mukbil (AAz), describing 
his she-camel (IY)], She seeks SinSn [Ibn Abl H&ritha 



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( 831 ) 
alMurrl (FA)], and how many a tract of ground whose 
hollow is rugged is before him! (IY, AAz, FA); (b) 
preferably, if the separation be by an adv. alone, or by a 
prep, andgwi. alone, as in the next exs. (Sn): (2) the 

gen., in poetry (M, A) exclusively, with separation by (a) 
an adv., as 

* 4 At* P P m A«* ***** * ** P *P ******* 3 h* 

[flow many a desert that the skilful, hardy guide is 
appalled at, when he directs his course to it, is be/ore 
Mayyal (Sn)]; (b) a prep, and gen. (A), as 

£• / ^f m** A * m * A* A A * * A* 

* fi ' * ' * + ', + *T * ^^ *% ■ 

(M, A), by AlFarazdak (IY, FA), How many a chief, 
large in bounty, glorious, very beneficent, is among the 
Band Sa'd Ibn Bakrt (IY, AAz, FA), and 

A* ** A* PSAS *' *»AtO , , Afi PA* 

&m*i) J> &iaa> *j>/j * ^1 JU iJ ; Ju 6f& S 

+ * * * * * * 

(IY, A) How many a mongrel has by munificence attained 
eminence, and how many a noble has his own niggardli- 
ness abased/ (Sn): so says IM, and this is the opinion 
of S (A). When the separation between the enunciatory 

A * A 

J and its sp. is by a trans, v., •+ must be put, in order that 
the sp. may not be confounded with the obj. of that [trans. 

£ * A P** A * 

(R)] v. 9 as ^Ua. >* SSy J XLIV. 24. How many gar* 
dens did they leave! [above] (R, Sn). And, with separation, 

A * 

the state of the interrog. J whose sp. is governed in 

A * 

the gen. [224] is like that of the enunciatory f (R). 



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( 832 ) 



A /• 



§ 222. ff [in both its states (R)] is sing. masc. in 
letter (IY, R); but applies in sense to the fern., du. 
[below], and/>/. (IY). The pron. relates to it according to 

the letter or sense (M, R), as u£rta> 1L. ; J [notwith- 
standing that the number asked about is du. or pi. (R)] 

or uftri* [says An (R)] or ^Sy^ , and i-*/U St;-! f 
or t-CA* [or iJGaL (IY)] or JclL (IY, E), whence 
UA ^xSkS. Jm V ^A^J\J oO. ^ J y LIII. 26. 
And the intercession of how many Angels in the heavens 
shall avail not aught I (M) and VII. 3. [126] (IY). But 

some say that £ is sing, in letter, pi. in sense, like J^ 
[117] : and, according to this, the pron. of the du. [above] 
ought not to relate to it, which is the truth, because, if 

A/ 

you might interrogate with f about the number of the 
multitude who came to the person addressed distributed 
into two and two, you would be obliged to say ^*h-)/, 
since, when you intend to distribute a multitude into 
sets of two or more, the du. or pi. must be distinctly 
expressed, as in ^aI^, J^,f r Jfcj. ; [118] and Jk» *f 
or JUj JFA«?A, or What, two men, or men t ; whereas 

h/ *' A • 

^^ ^ has not been heard, either in interrogation or 
enunciation. 

Ay 

§ 223. ^ is peculiar to indets., the interrog. because 
the sp. must be indet. [83] ; and the enunciatory because 



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( 833 ) 

it is a met. for number vague to the hearer [217], so that 
the numbered also are made vague, in order to be more 
indicative of the vagueness of their number (R). You 

say l-0 &;£* J or ti£+ or *i* f >*£■ How many other 
than, or /ite, or better than, it hast tkout [114, 355] ; 

• /• #sA */A/ A* 

and u*J *&• X^xi *f Sou; many other than it, like it, 
hast thout, making *&• an ep. of 5^ (M). But, 

• / A • * • A/ 

as for your saying IgXlsfj Sli *f i?ow ma^ a sAtrp 






«f/c/ [538] and m**^ S& -f [114], it is because the 
coupled also is indet. [262] (R). 

§ 224. As to the case of the sp. of the interrog. 
there are three opinions, (1) that the ace. [221] is 
necessary unrestrictedly, [i. e. whether a prep, be pre- 

A/ 

fixed to (f or not (Sn)] : (2) that it is not necessary ; 
but that the gen. [221] is allowable, unrestrictedly, by 

A/ 

assimilation to [the sp. of] the enunciatory J [225]: 
this is the opinion of Fr, Zj, and Sf; and the saying 

00 i/ A/ 

£l! i+* J [below] is thus explained by most, [upon the 
ground that J is an ironical' interrog. (Sn)] : (3) that 

A s 

9 it is necessary if a prep, be not prefixed to J , and 
preferable to the gen. if a prep, be prefixed to it : this is 
the well known opinion ; and S does not mention the 

A/ 

gen. except when a prep, is prefixed to f (A). The 



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( 834 ) 
gen. is allowable only when f is governed in the gen. 

* A>/ A 0O * h A * 

by a prey. (R, ML), as s&»iy&\ *&)J A [515] (ML, A), 
in which case the sp. may be in (1) the ace, [which is 
frequent (ML)] ; (2) the gen. (R, ML, A), contrary to 

A s 

the opinion of some (ML), in order that f and its sp. 
may agree in case (R). As some assert (ML), some of 
the Arabs (IY, R), the Banu Tamim (IY, ML, A), make 

A* 

the enunciatory f govern its [sing. (R, ML, A) or pi. 
(R, Sn)] sp. in the ace. (IY, R, ML, A), even without 
separation [221] (R), as though they supplied Tanwln in 
it [84] ; which is good Arabic, though the gen. is more 
frequent (IY). And the verse [of AlFarazdak (M, ML, 
Sn), who was a Tamlml (IY, Sn),] 

* Sf •• A/// A/ *m»*h* ****** * * * *£, A* 

A* 

is related with (1) the ace., (a) by supposing f to be [an 
ironical (ML, A)] interrog., How many paternal aunts of 
thine, Jarir, and maternal aunts, bow4egged have 
milked in spite of me my lately delivered she-camels ?; [(b) 
according to the dial, of Tamim, How many a paternal 

aunt of thine, Jarzr, and maternal aunt, have milked 

h* 

etc/ (IY, ML, A)] : (2) the gen., by supposing f to be 
[an ironical interrog. (above) or] enunciatory [217]: 
(3) the nom. [as an inch. (2$) (IY, ML, A)], by sup- 
posing the sense to bq How many (times) (M, ML, A) or 



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( 835 ) 

A' 



(milfcings), J being an adv. or inf. n. (IY, ML, A), and 

Ax A/ /Ax 

the sp. suppressed, i. e. e^j *> or &jl^ [upon the sup- 



*Ax #/A / 



position that J is enunciatory, or tf?j or &a!^ upon the 

supposition that it is an ironical interrog. (DM)], has a 
paternal aunt of thine, O Jarlr, and (has) a maternal 
aunt, or ( has) a paternal etc, and has a maternal aunt, 



A /• X AX 



a 2nd c&~a1^> o$ being necessarily supplied [as enunc. of 

&ILL or &** (Sn, DM)], because the wm?&. in this case is 
multiple in letter and sense (ML, A)* 

Ax 

§ 225. When the sp. of the interrog. J is in the 
gen. [224], it is governed, [according to the GG (R),] 

A 

by j* [necessarily (ML)] understood [515], [which is 

X 

the opinion of Khl, S, Fr, and many (A)] ; but, accord- 
ing to Zj, by prothesis (R, ML, A), as in the case of 
the enunciatory (R). The enunciatory is pre. to its sp. 
T221], governing it as every pre. governs the post. [110] 

A 

(M). £* is [frequently (M)] prefixed [to the sp. (IY, 

' A' 

R, Jm)] after the [interrog. and (IH)] enunciatory J 
(M, IH) : that construction is frequent in the cfcse of 
the enunciatory (R, Jm), as VII. 3. [126] and LIIL 26* 
[222] (M, R, Jm), because the prothesis here is render- 
able by ^m [111], fts in t U ^b[85] (IY), [and]be- 

' ' Ax 

cause the sp. then agrees in case with the sp. post, to £ ; 



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( 836 ) 
but, as for the interrog. £ , I have not met with its ap. 

A 

governed in the gen. by ^ in poetry or prose, nor is its 

s 

allowability indicated by any book on grammar (R, Jm), 
nor do I know what is the truth of it (R) : so says R ; 

but Z [followed by B] allows f in II. 207. [62] to be 
interrog. and enunciatory (Jm). And, when the «p. is 
governed in the gen. by ^*, then J is [necessarily (R)] 
construed to be pronounced with Tanwin [110] (M, R), 
as though you said ^jiff j* $$S and &3UJf ^* ; while, 



A / 



according to some, [vid. the KK (IY),] S is always 
[construed to be (IY)] pronounced with Tanwin, the 

A 

gen. after it being governed by ^ [expressed or (IY)] 
understood (M). 

** A**/ As 

§ 226. iJi" and ^S are like the enunciatory S iQ 

s • 

denoting multitude (IA, A) of number vague in genus 

As 

and quantity [217]. Each of them agrees with J in 
some matters, and differs from it in others, f J/ agrees 

A/ 

with J in 4 matters, uninflectedness, vagueness, need- 
ing the $p. } and importing multitude. And it differs 

As 

from J in 4 matters : — (1) it is compounded of the uS 

of comparison [509] and the dem. !o [171] (A): (2) 
it does not [necessarily (A)] take the head of the sen- 



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( 837 ) 

* / A * 00 S h 00 

tence, as U£>^> S^S ^ (J/ uuw*aa» J took so want/ dirhams : 
(3) it is mostly used coupled to, as 

* • s s A* / As • A* •A 2?«« 



/ • 



* h h<* # * A .# • • • • • 

[Promise the soul happiness after thy distress, remember* 
ing so many pleasures wherewith hardship has been for- 
gotten (Jsh)] ; and IKh asserts that they do not say 

, A * A 00/0 

UfcjO fiiT nor U&>c> IJ/ fJ^ ; but IM mentions that 

this has been heard, though rarely : (4) its sp. must be 
governed in the ace. ; and may not be governed in the 

A 

gen. by m* , by common consent ; nor by prothesis, con- 



trary to the opinion of the KK, who, when there is 

Ay 00 

neither repetition or coupling, allow v_>j> fvif and 

0*$ 00 * *' ** 

sJlf\ \*S by analogy to the genuine num., [like ^£ 6$U 

,ht 9,00 '' 

and v'yl '&& (I> M )]- The compounded \s±$ [single 

or coupled (A)] occurs also a& a met. for something else 
than number, [vi<L the narrate, det. or w»(fel» ( A),L e. the 
expression occurring in the narration of a thing, whether 



0*0 h 0* * 0* 



deed or saying (Sn),] whence the tradition r jj> j**U JGL> 

000 000*' ***** „''*** ' 

S^S \ |J/ r £ /£>) &*l£SJ) -ft w^W be said to the servant 

* ' * 0- 

on the day of resurrection, Dost thou remember the dap 

110 



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( 838 ) 

of such and such? : and fj/ also consists of two words in 
their original sense, vid the i*S of comparison and dem. 

13, whence 

[4wrf ft'me A<w abandoned me grieved /iAra this ; so that 
there is neither mirth nor sociability (DM)] ; and the 

premonitory to [551] is prefixed to it, as lJC&^ fJXfcf 

Aw*/ 

XXVII. 42. Is thy throne like this ? ^S agrees with 
*f in 5 matters, uninflectedness, vagueness, needing the 
sp.j always taking the head of the sentence, and import- 
ing sometimes multitude, which is mostly the case, [as 
III. 140. (24) (ML),] and sometimes interrogation 
[below], which is extraordinary, and is authorized only 
by 1Kb, IU, and IM, the last of whom cites as evidence 

the saying of Ubayy Ibn Ka'b to Ibn Mas'ud J*tf 

*J0» s fits** /, 3 i/h/ fi 

&dt s->Yf>$S *)*» \fj How many verses readest [i. e. 

reckonest (Sn)] thou the Chapter of The Confederates 
[Kur. XXXIII] to be ?, upon which he said " Seventy- 

A / 

three." And it differs from J in 5 [or rather 6] mat- 
ters :— (1) it is compounded of the <JS of comparison 

and ^f , for which reason it may be paused upon with 
ths ^j > because the Tanwin, when affixed in composition, 
resembles the tad. ^ , for which reason it is written in 



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( 839 ) 

the Codex asa^; while he that pauses [upon ^ (ML)] 
with elision of the • has regard to its predicament in 

Ax 

the o.f. } namely elision in pause [609] : whereas f is 

A 

simple : (2) its sp. is governed (a) in the gen. by ^ , 

which is so often the case that IU asserts it to be always 
so, whence III. 140. [above]; (b) in the ace, as 

[ Driite a#ay despair with hope : for how many a pain- 
stricken wretch has had his ease decreed after distress! 
(Jsh)] and 

3 hS 8/ x * S A/ // * /• *«5 • ASA// * S, s s A «v/s 

r**^ u>* u utf^ v ; ***** * ***> r** 1 * lu * w u> 5tr ; 

[^/irf Aot0 many favors and obligations have we conferred 
upon you aforetime I And ye know not what obligations 
a benefactor has conferred ! (Jsh)] : (8) it does not oc- 
cur as an interrog., according to the majority, as shown 
above : (4) it does not occur governed in the gen., con- 



trary to the opinion of 1Kb andlU, who allow £i*J ^^i 

c^j^M fiifc For how much wilt thou sell this garment f 
(ML, A), where it is interrog. (DM) : (5) its enunc. 
does not occur as a single term (ML) ; but as a prop., 

h* § *»* * * A/ 

as in the texts, contrary to f, as jpS J^,^ f How many 

a man is standing I (DM) : (6) its sp. occurs only sing. 
(A). It has 5 dial. vars. [transmitted by Th (I Y)], (1) 



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( 840 ) 
JjS [the original and chastest one (IY, A), which is 

y A *wy 

read by the Seven except Ibn Kathlr (A)] } (2) ^ , 

As ' 

upon the measure of jd$, [the next best, which {is read 

y 

by Ibn Kathlr, and (A)} is most frequent in poetry (IY, A), 
as in the 2 preceding verses and g\ £l*t{Vl> J*S) (166) 

A £y A A x 

(A)] ; (3) ^Sj upon the measure of ^jA***, [which is 
y • 

A Ax 

read by AlA'mash and Ibn Mu^aisin (A)] ; (4) ^*f f 

A A • Ay ' 

upon the measure of juf ; (5) ^tf, upon the measure 
of ^f (M, A). 

y 

y A y y A s y » • 

§ 227. «>»>/ and i*»£i3 are contracted from &£$* and 

6jo [689]. They are pronounced with Fatfc, Kasr (M, 
R, A), and Damm (M, R, Sq) of the <*>, Fatfc being the 
best known (A). Pause upon them is [with the %*> (R),] 

§ A $ A* 

as in c^i> (M, R) and et^J (M). They are used [by 
many of the Arabs (M)] according to the o.f. (M, R, A), 
as &fS) 6+f yM\ j> ij$ and &>0} &>3 (IY, A) : and 

* y 

then are pronounced only with Fath (R, A), because of 
the heaviness of the reduplication ; and are paused upon 

y Ay 

with the * [646]. And AU transmits &{/ with the » 

y 

pronounced with Fatfe and Kasr in place of the ou of 



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( 841 ) 

/ k* 

%*~*f [690]. They are uninjt., because each of them is 
a Word occurring in the place of the sentence, while the 
prop. f as such, is not entitled to either inflection or uu- 
inflectedness (R). They are always repeated (M, R, A) 

• A ** * A * I /^ * * 

with the can. j , as u^xfj &^f ^jtti Jl5 Such a one 

* A** * A* Ath*o* * * 

said so and so and c**i3j o^J y^<£* ^ Such and 

* * 

such circumstances of the matter took place (R), in 
order that they may not be imagined to be mets. for 

single wor4s (IY). It is a mistake to say <&**? ^Iti Jff 

* a ,* ******* hth<+ * * s 

&if) because the Arabs say ****?) iM^S y+VS ^+ ^S 

* A / / • A / § * * * • * A ** * A * 

and uh^j **•** e>*» J 6 » making «*«j/, va^T a met. 

* A * * * A / 

for cfeftfr, and o-i^; ^ for speech (D). 



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CHAPTER VI. 
THE DUAL NOUN. 

§ 228. Dualization is the addition of one n. to an- 
other like it (IY). The du. is that \n. (IY)] to whose 
final 2 augments, (I) an f [in the nom. (IY)], or a j 
[in the ace. and gen. (IY)] preceded by a letter pro- 
nounced with Fatfc, and (2) a ^ pronounced with Kasr, 
are affixed, in order that the 1st [aug. (IY)] may be a 
sign of the addition of sing, to sing., [and a compensa- 
tion for the suppressed n. (IY),] and the other may be a 
compensation for what is prevented [by the addition of 
another n. (IY)], vid. the vowel and Tanwin existing in 
the sing. (M). The o. f. of the du. [andp/. (R)] is 
[said to be (R)] coupling (IY, R) with the j [539] (R). 
The du. is that [n. (YS)] which indicates two [things 
(YS)] and serves instead of 2 \ns.~\ coupled together, like 

^Wyi The two Zaids, its o.f. being *i)) ±t) Zaid and 

Zaidj from which they deviate out of dislike to the pro- 
lixity and tautology (Fk). This is shown by the fact 
that the poet, when constrained, reverts to coupling 
(IY, R), which is frequent in poetry (IY) ; and that cou- 
pling sometimes occurs anomalously in prose (R) : and 
it is confirmed by the fact that you do not put the du. 



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( 843 ) 

in the case of different ns., as y}+*) *t) ^'^ , because 

one of the 2 expressions does not indicate the other 
(IY). But, when multiplication is intended, as 

3 M* A/ A A* • xA* s #As A* ••A* ^ A# $Ass $A/ SiA/ 

[by 'Isam Ibn 4 Ubaid azZimmSnl, If grave and grave 
were reckoned, 1 should be the noblest of them when dead, 
Qnd the farthest of them from the abode of blame (T)], or 
the 2 ns. are separated by a separative either expressed, 

as yx^i J^.j j J-iy^ J^> %^ s ^ A tall man and a short 
man came to me, or supplied, as J^Hc^jf G Ja.^ ^j /U, 
6jL>y£> ^JJf J**>Mj A man came to me, and I honored 
the {coming) man and the man that thou didst beat, i. e. 

4 m» • A*^ • #3 

JlaJf Ja.yf , coupling is allowable, as you see, without 

anomaly or exigency. And, in order to denote multipli- 
cation, the n. is sometimes repeated without coupling, as 

LXXXIX. 22. [132] ; or dualized, as^/ >*«He*jf f> 



• A«3/- 



LXVII. 4. 7%en rqiea< the gaze twice and cJOul [115] 
(R). For every n. that is dualized 8 conditions are pre- 
scribed [234] :— (1) sing, number ; (2) inflection ; (3) 
absence of composition ; (4) indeterminateness ; (5) 
agreement in .letter ; (6} agreement in sense ; (7) objec- 
tive existence of a second to it ; (8) that the place of its 
du. should not be supplied by the du. of another word 
(Fk), or rather by another word. The following ns. 



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( M* ) 

therefore are not dualized:— (1) the du. and perfect/)/. 
[232]: (2) the uninfl., contrary to the opinion of Mb : 
(3) the att. comp., by common consent [234] ; and the syn- 
thetic, contrary to the opinion of tbe KK and their fol- 

lowers ; and the n. ending in 6j^ , contrary to the opi» 

nion of some, which is adopted by Syt : (4) the proper 
name, while it retains its quality of proper name [171]: 
(5) ns. applied to denote what has no second in eris- 

i A • $/• 

tence, like j~+^ sun and y* moon, when the proper [not 

tropical] signification is intended : (6) the trope and 

homonym with respect to their different significations : 

i A * §*, 

(7) such as ij***' and j*S [above] ; but this condition 

can be dispensed with, its place being supplied by the 

i AS im»* ' 

condition of agreement in letter: (8) jb*i % /f^,and 
.Ua^ the name of the male hyena, because the place of 

' $A* t i*, 

their du. is supplied by the du. of Sf* , ^ , and £*** 

the name of the female, though ^H^ and ^W*** are 

£' * A * 

transmitted ; and the nums. other than &L and UW , 

contrary to the opinion of Akh, because the place of the 

is *s- i* i/aI 

du. of &SU5 Three is supplied by &lm Sis; and £*^f and 



/Wk 9 according to the opinion of the BB, because tbe 
place of their du. is supplied by UT and U1T (YS). But 

„#A, ' ' 

they say ^'j***! meaning Abu Bakr and l Vmar > and 



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( 845 ) 

JiySlS meaning The sun and moon, because here the 

matter is plain and free from dubiety. The du. is of 2 
kinds, (1) that in which the letter of dualization is affixed 
to the n., while the latter is constructively separate, as 

^h>) [229], ^y** > an( * a 'l ^at precede ; (2) that 

which is formed as a du. } but in which the sing, is not 

'• A A/ x 3 9K* * 

constructively separate, as ^Ij^J* [229] and vu>U£> &xl£* 
1 knee-haltered him with two ends of a rope [230], 

••A • • 

neither ^;^ nor ^^ having a sing. (IY). When 

the rfw. is not that of an abbreviated n. [229], the form of 
the sing, remains in it preserved (M), as XX. 66. [525] 

• /A/ Ay S * * * s ** 

and ^UXxib *jda»^ 1^5 aa.y XXVIII. 14. And he 
found in it two men fighting together ( A Az). The X of 
femininization is elided (1) in [only 2 words (M),] M^<- 

and ^Ut (M, IH), by analogy .Ua^l and JJuJf 

(IY, R), which also are allowable, by common consent as 

//A /</y • 3 •* >//A >i * s^q fsf „ 

Yes, the penis of the he-ass and his 2 testicles are dearer 
to FazZra than Fazara or a Fasarl and Jf JLStf t^ou 

• A S ,Af 

[74] ; while Ja**L and ^Wf are said by some to be poetic 

licenses, because they do not occur except in poetry, as 

111 



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( 846 ) 

• a / s A ,* • I* / $ A / SS^9 • A s A * 5^' 

[by Khitam alMujashi'l, quoting from a woman who 

said it of her husband ( A Az), As though his two testicles 

from dangling were an old woman's pot wherein were 2 

/ • / A • 

colocynths, properly ^Xliaia. (IY, AAz),] and 

(M, R) He is a like a woman's cameUlitter standing still 
among the camel-riders ; his two buttocks quiver with the 
quivering of the milk-skin [85] : (2) sometimes in other 

words, as J! f^i', [532] (AAz). The ^ of the du. is 
elided an account of (I) prothesis [110] (M, IH), as in the 

hi *, /ui / * A / S h<*/ *' ' *' 

saying of the Prophet J£| ^JjJL IlSam, ^ja**»M j ^j^aaH 
&La»l| AlHasan and AlHusain are the two chiefs of (he 
youth of the people of Paradite (AAz) ; (2) poetic license 
[233], as in JfuiLi. 6&[44]; (3) abridgment of the conj., 
as in u£ U ; tiifwith the ace [344] (R) : and its f [also 
is elided (IY)] because of meeting a quiescent, as in 
j" yj^A\ uiLs ;itL CTA<? /wo menserrants of thy son came 
to me and (IY)] jLtfVsL LwS [610, 663] (M). 

§ 229. If the decl. n. be sound in the final or de- 
fective [16], the sign of the du. is affixed to it without 



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( M7 ) 

alteration* as (J ^) [228], ^Zt)**- , and ^U^i* from 
J*) j fsy* , and jit? (IA)» The word is altered in the 

du. in 3 sorts [of n.], the abbreviated [16], the prolong- 
ed [230], and the [n.] arbitrarily curtailed of its final 
[231] (ft). The I of the abbreviated is either 3rd or 
upwards. If it be 3rd, then* (1) if an o. f. of it in the 
) or & be known, it is restored to its»o. f. in the du.) 

as Jiy*£ and JL»Si (M) from Ua« and Jj* (IY) : the 

poet says 

• sss x £• + * A S#A lA/»J Axy 

OJJ^. f JLt tg*wf^ J LOtf * &*** J1S*U tttsOJ^f 03. 

-4nc? J Aaw wiacfe rairfy, /br Me upbraiders beside me> 
a staff on whose head are two mand-weights of iron (A) ; 

*/• # A ******* • *. * * 

and the Kur has ^Ua* ^jmuJ! &** J&O; XIL 36. -4nc? 
tfwo young men entered the prison with him (IY, A) * 
while ^'j**- from ^^^ is anomalous (A), because its f 
is a substitute for a ^ (Sn) : (2) if its o. / be unknown, 

then, (a) if it be pronounced with Imala, it is converted 

/ • • *" * ' 

into *, as J£* and ^Ub from JU and J* [639] 

• ' i i 

when used as names ; (b) if not, it is converted into 

*** *s " ' 

) , as uJjdJ and JJS [686] from ^ and J\ when 

used as names (M). As to the 2 Is that are not substi- 
tuted [for a known 0./, being either not substituted at 



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( M8 > 

all, or substituted for an o. f. whose identity is unfcflotftl 
(Sn)], vid. the rod. I, Le. that which is in &p. y [as 

^i (Sn),] or its like, [as JL, (Sn),] and fhe f whose 
o.f. is unknown, [which IUK exemplifies by such as 
\4*i\ play, because, says he, one does not know whe- 
ther its \ be from aj or j (Sn),] there are 3 [or ra^ 
ther 4 (Sn)] opinions:— (1) the well known one, that 
their state wkh respect to Imala is regarded, so that, if 
pronounced with Imala, they are dualized with the ^ j 
and, if not, with the j > this is the opinion of S, and is 
decisively asserted by IM here : (2) that, if pronounced 
with Imala or converted into ^ in any position, they 
are dualized with the ^ ; and, if not, with the • t thfe 
opinion is preferred by IU, and is decisively asserted by 
IM in the Kafiya : and, according to this, JU , Jf i 
and £*£ are dualized with the ^ , because their f fe 
converted into \ with the pron. [129, 205] ; while, ac* 
cording to the 1st, they are dualized with the y ; both 
of which sayings are transmitted from Akh : (3) that the 
tad. and unknown I are converted into ^ unrestrictedly, 
[i. e. whether they be pronounced with Imala or not, 
and whether they be converted into ^ in any position or 
mot : (4) that they are converted into j , whether they 
be pronounced with Imala or not, as in the Ham* (Sn)], 
The 1 sometimes has 2 o. fs. with respect to 2 dioU., in 



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( «» ) 
Which case 2 modes are allowable, as ^^ which be- 
longs to the ^5 in the dial, th^t says «**4^) , and to the 

S A • • 

j in the dial that says ^7*; ; so that the du. may be 
^U=*; and ,Jy*; , though the ^ is more frequent (A). 
If, however, the I be above the 3rd, it is converted into 

^ only, [because, When the abbreviated exceeds 3 let- 
ters, its I is either converted from a £ or assimilated to 

What is converted from it (IY),] as f^) 1 **/* from ^y, 

where the f is orig. converted from the ^ (IY) ;] ^U^U 

#a, 
[from ^L#, where the I is converted from a jj, and 

the £ is a substitute for the ; (685, 727) (IY)] ; and 

••A # •••* • • A* s//A/s f h $ 

J&* , u)^; 1 ^' [u)^;'' and i^** 5 * from J** 

(263), ,5;^ (378), J*>\ (18, 497), and S) UJ (401), 
Where the I is not converted from any thing, but is in 
the predicament of what is converted from the ^ (727), 
since the ; does not occur as a final when 4th (or up- 

• ^A 

wards) (IYj]* As for J>)£+ [721], it is because the 

dualization in it is inseparable, like the femininization in 

* ; tf£ [266] (M), so that it has no sing. [228], as S^ISA 
has no masc. (IY): 'Antara says 

(Mb, IY), satirizing 'UmSra Ibn Ziyad al'Absi, JFAa*/ 



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( 850 ) ' 

round me does thy rump shake its two buttocks, that thoU 
tnayst slay me f Then, mark, 1 am this hero [552], 
'ZJmcLra! (AAz) ; whereas, if it had a sirtg., you would 

//A 

say ^k)** in the du. (Mb). This U the opinion of the 

BB about the abbreviated that exceeds 3 letters, whe- 
ther its letters be few or many : but the KK relate that, 

when the abbreviated transcends 4 letters, and its letters 

••a** 
are many, the Arabs elide its f in the du. (1Y). ^fi& 

* /A • ' 

and ^)^ , with elision [of the ^ (Sn)}, in the du. 

' //Ay //Ay 

of the quin. £)*& and ^3^ are anoma ^ ou s (A). In 
short, the f of the abbreviated is converted into (1) ^ 
in 3 positions, (a) when it is 4th or upwards y (b) when 
it is 3rd, a substitute for a ^ ; (c) when it is 3rd, un* 
known in o.f. and pronounced with Iuiala : (2) % in 2 
positions, (a) when it is 3rd, a substitute for a y ; (b) 
when it is 3rd, unknown in o. /, and not pronounced 
with Imala (I A). The whole of the anomalies in the ab- 

/ / A s /A / ssAv 

breviated one 3, (1) c) ';;^ : (2) J*)f» and u)'; 5 ^* 

y / 

which the KK hold to be regular : (3) ^k^ , which K» 

holds to be regular ; so that he allows ^c^ and ^ f 

which belong to the cat. of the j , but are pronounced 
with Kasr or Damm of the 1st, to be dualized with the 

a ( A >- 

§ 230. The ns. whose final is a Hamza are of 2 



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( 851 ) 
kinds, prolonged and unprolonged. The prolonged [229] 
is every n. whose final is a Hamza preceded by an aug. 

I, as /Uf and ik> ; [683,723] (IY). The Hamza of 
the prolonged is [of 4 kinds (R)], (1) substituted for the f 
of femininization, as i!>** [263] ; (2) denotative of co- 
ordination, as s UU [273] ; (3) converted from a rad. [ • 

or ^(R)], as/U [and iU^(lA)] ; (4) ratf., as /I/ 
(R, IA). The Hamza [substituted for the f (IA, A)] of 
femininization is usually converted into j (R, I A, A), as 
^jiy^^ (IA, A): and is rarely sounded true, as ^s\^s^ ; 
or, [as Mb transmits from Mz (R),] converted into « , 

. / /A • 

as u >'d';* a » (R, A) : but Sf asserts that, when its I is 

' Si*, A • 

preceded by a y as if^, the Hamza must be sound- 

edtrue, as ^sSy***, not \^^^, in order that 2 ,s 

having only an ! between them may not be combined • 
aud the KK in that case allow both methods (A). The 
rad. Hamza is [usually (R)] preserved [in the tfw. (R, A), 

as ^Af and u)^; ( IA » A) } but F transmits from 

s Si J 

some of the Arabs that it is converted into * , as ^f Jy> 

(R)]. The Hamza denotative of coordination, or con- 
verted from a rad. [ y or £ (R, A)], may be converted 

/ 'A • y • • y 

into j, [as ^$4*, J^ and ^Cu* (IA, A)] j o* 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 852 ) 



s**/A 



preserved, [as JAA* , JA~* , and ^f/Ua- (IA, A)] ; 

but conversion is better in the Hamza denotative of co- 
ordination, and preservation in the one converted from 
a rad. (R, IA, A) : so IM mentions, agreeably with the 
opinion of some ; but S and Akh, followed by Jz, declare 
that preservation is better unrestrictedly, though S men- 
tions that conversion is more frequent in the Hamza 
denotative of coordination than in the one converted 
from a rad. } while it is rare in both (A), The Hamza 
[substituted for a rad. (R)] is sometimes converted into 

& > I* 8 u)^ 1 ^ (A)]; though this is anomalous (R, A), 

contrary to the opinion of Ks : and they treat ^y** 

as sound [721], because they convert only the final j 

or ^e into Hamza after the I , as s^S and ilo * ; 

, whereas here the ^ * s no ' final, since the sing, is not 
used [228]. The 2 augs. of femininization [273] (R), 
the f and Hamza (A), when they follow 4 or more let* 

ters (R), are sometimes elided [together (A)], as ^U^GJ 

* » * * * * * * * * 

[and Jtyr** > h 7 analo gy i^; 1 *^ and dfor*** ( A), 

because of the length (R)]; though this is anomalous (R, 
A), contrary to the opinion of the KK (R). The anomalies 

in the prolonged are 5, (1) ^Mj**, , which, as Ns re- 

• * A • 

lates, is allowed by the KK ; (2) ^j**, which, as 
some relate, is the dial of FazSra ; (3) ^U-rt? , which 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



( 853 ) 

is held by the KK to be regular ; (4) ^Ly/ , which is 

held by Ks to be regular, and is transmitted by AZ from 

the dial, of Fazara ; (5) ^l/ , though the language 

of some GG implies that it has not been heard (A). The 
Unprolonged is every n. whose final is a Hamza not pre- 

ceded by an I , as t£; , f j^ , and gfi ; and it ad- 

mits of only one method, vid. retention of the Hamza, 

t „ 
M e)' *"*) ' because *^ e Hamza in it is rad. (I Y). 

§ 231. As for the n. [arbitrarily (R)] curtailed of 
its final, [it is of 2 kinds (IY) :— ] (1) if the elided [J 

(IY)] be restored in prothesis, as in J [16], • I , 
[ a , and ^fc (R),] it must be restored in the du. [also 
(»)J as Jf\ , ^ijll (IY, R), ^£1, and ^f^i: 

(a) sometimes ^bf and ^UM are said (R) : (b) he that 
says lJj& in prothesis says ^J^> in the du., and he 

that says u£yA says ^'^ (IY) : (c) as for lSj* , 
the J is not restored in the du., as it is not restored 
in prothesis ; and the word is dualized only by conver- 

sion of its J into f , as when it is not pre*, as A*i : 

' '.' 
but ^ j*i occurs in poetry, as 

f U.» OA| »,UJ| £»Ul J* • Ufc,** ^ J JMi u» 

112 



gitized by VjOOQlC 



( 854 ) 

[by AlFarazdak, They two have spat into my mouth 

from their two mouths (233) a most severe reviling a- 

* # * 
gainst the barker, the howler (Dw)] ; and ^U*} , which 

is stranger : (d) the J of uulo is restored in the rfii., 
not the J of jO, as JU GJjiS ; bnt JU Cfo also oc- 
curs, though it is rare (B) : (2 J if the [elided (IT)] J 
be not restored in prothesis, as in [ji (B),] Oj, and 
f ** , it is not restored in the At [also (B)J as ^ta 
and jU>: (a) as for [^k**e in (R)] the saying of the 
poet 

[7W noMe Aancfo belonging to MuhdLlim (a king of Al 
Yaman) rfo hinder thee from being wronged and oppressed 
(AAz), it is explained by our school as rare and anoma- 
lous, and is held by them to be a poetic license ; but, in 
my opinion (1 Y)J it is according to the <fia/. of those 

Who say ,30^, [treating it as abbreviated (IY),] like 
^ ; : (b> [similarly fO is used abbreviated, so that 
(IY)] u)Vi*o [or ^^o (R)} is said, as in the saying of 

the poet [MirdSs Ibn 'Amr, or, as is said AlAkbtal (IY), 
or Suhaim Ibn Wathll arRiyahf (N),} 



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( »M ) 
(IT, B) So that, if we were slaughtered on a single stone, 
the 2 bloods would flow apart u*7A the certain tidings of en- 

mity and hate (IY): Jh says that its J is a y so that ^tfr** 

is anomalous according to him j but Mb says that its J 

* * * 

is a ^ , so that ^y+* is anomalous according to him. 

* 

But, as for the n. whose J is elided for a necessitating 
cause, it ia either abbreviated or defective [229] (B). 

§ 232. The [quasi-pi, or the broken, not being 
an ultimate (B) J pi. [228] is [allowed to be (RJ] dua- 
lized according ta the interpretation of [two collection* 
or (M)] two parties : the poet says 

***** *SK * *mt A ** fiSh * * * * ** 

\We have two herds of camels, wherein is what ye have 
known for the entertainment of guests. Then, from 
whichever of them ye will, shoulder what ye will, carry- 
ing it to your tents (N), cited by AZ ; and in tradition 

is {the saying of the Prophet (IY)} 81&W jiUUf JJU 

uji JLiJi ^ 8/U/l i%e similitude of the hypocrite is like 

* * * 

the sheep going to and fro between the two flocks (M)] ; 
and the poet [ c Amr Ibn Al'AddA (AAz)] says 

t\* * ¥ ***** §*S**** * **** ***$& ********* 

^jJL* ^L*J^J §fW ^ » 'j*« f) Mfc* JXJ1 ^*c)i 

(M, R) By God (N), the tribe would have become des- 
titute, and would not have found upon dispersing in war 
2 herds oj he-camels (AAz, N), so that it might sup- 



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( 856 ) 
port the burden of warlike expeditions (N), cited by 

AUd ; and they say ^)tey" J**® ^ vo ° herds °J 

black milch-camels, [quoted by S (IY)] ; and Abu-nNajra 
[al'Ijll (Jsh)] says, [describing a mare trained to war 
(N;J 

(M) She grazed in the beginning of the grazing between 
the two clumps of spears of McLlik Ibn Dubai'a and 
Jjahshal Ibn Darira, 2 Chiefs of the Arabs (N). This 

is easier in ^jlty , because J^f , being a generic n., is 

sz/?#. [254], not a broken pi., like JUa. (IY). But 

Ju**U*4 LU is not allowed. 

§ 233. When 2 parts are pre. in letter or sense to 
their 2 wholes, then, if the % wholes be uniform in 
letter, the sing, number in the pre. is better than the 
du., as 

,4* though it were the face of 2 7wrfo, who had become 

a /a2 * a s JiL* 8S /■ 

artery and ^J*^ ^; **M ^ Gorf save a face of the 

2 Zaids /, in the latter of which the prothesis is in sense ; 

and the pi is better than the sing., as *UI ^f If^S ^f 

U^yS c**i** j& LXVI. 4. # ye /urn a£rafft unto 
God, your hearts have swerved, [an address to Ilaftm 



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( W7 ) 
and 'A'isha (K, B)]. That is because in lit. prothesis, 
which is frequently used, they dislike the combination 
of 2 dus. united in letter by the prothesis, and in 
sense, since the intention is that the pre. should be 
part of the post., while no ambiguity is produced 
by the omission of dualization ; and id. [prothesis] 
is made to accord with the lit. : but, if the omis- 
sion lead to ambiguity, only the du. is allowable accord- 
ing to the KK, which is the truth [below], as you say 



A f*f S AsS 



U g » a k p ts^ab / plucked out their two eyes, when you 
have plucked out au eye from each one ; while \fA*> ti 
U^o^l V. 42. Cut off their hands means U$>Uj>I their 

right hands by tradition and common consent, and is so 
read by Ibo Mas'ud, [for which reason the pi. may be 
put in place of the du., as in LXVI. 4., because the 
dualization of the post, is deemed sufficient (B)]. And 
the pi. is preferred to the sing, because of its affinity to 
the du. in being an addition of a sing, to another thing 
[234]. S makes no distinction between the first's being 

single in each of the two [seconds], as in l+Hj& , and its 

y*x A# 

not being so, as in Lg>jpl, relying upon the evidence of 

V. 42. ; but the truth is what the KK hold [above], 
vid. that the pi. in the like of it is not allowable except 
with a plain indication, as in the text. The 2 idioms 
are combined in the saying [of Khitam alMujSshi'l, 
cays S, or HimySn Ibn $uk5&, says F (FA),] 



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< 868 ) 

AAsa4<« ## #A • # sA/ AA/A/ A//* A'/As/ 

[<4wd many too deserts distant, bare of vegetation, whose 
2 iacfo were ftfce the backs of 2 bucklers, have I come to 
by the single description, not by the two descriptions I, i. e. 
have I traversed by hearing that road described a single 



*• 4 *' . * S 



time I (AAz, N); and the o. f. is used in £»l C& Lfe (231) 
(AAz)]. If, however, the 2 wholes be separated by a 

A/ S A, 

con., the sing, is preferred to the du. and pi., as ojtj J"*** 

A/* * 

jj#* j TAe perjon of Zaid and *Amr % in order that the ap- 

parent pre. may agree [in number] with the apparent 
post. : and, if the pre. be not part of the post., but they 
be separate, then, if there be danger of ambiguity, as in 

•£*iyi^U* o^aaI / met the 2 menservants of the 2 Zaufc, 

the jpre. must be in the dur, whereas, if there be no 
danger, it may be regularly in the pi., agreeably with the 
opinion of Fr and T, contrary to the opinion of others, 

• #/• • Ax 

who allow it as matter of hearsay, as in LgKa»j £** 

jFut doom their saddles, where there is no danger of 
ambiguity, because 2 camels have only 2 saddles. In 
the pron. relating to every n. that we have mentioned, 
whose letter differs from its sense, the letter or sense 

a//aI /## j# •••a* 

may be observed, as ^ yhvrt U&*f> or J&yp*\ Tko 



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( 859 ) 

persons of yon two pleased me ; and similarly in the qual, 
dem., and the like (R). The sing, sometimes occurs in the 
place of (1) the du. (R,BS), in the case of those 2 things 
which accompany one another and do not separate, like 

the two legs and too eyes, as ^tG V ^Ja* Mine eye 
deeps not (R), whence 

# * ** As / • A/y / /*/ A.#/A/#A*Sf #• 

0rqp J ^o -y^j u*aU « i**f j f *j d» J Ua* ^f Iff 

(BS), by AMI 'At* asSindl, lamenting Ibn Hubaira, 
Now, verily an eye that lavished not Us flowing tears over 
thee, O lbn Hubaira, on the day of thy death at Wasit, 
teas indeed niggardly (FD) ; and approximate to it is 

#SA* A #A#0 * Ay * /A// 

4nd my two eyes revel in gardens of beauty, [for ^l*y ] : 
(2)thej>/., [when there is no danger of ambiguity (K 
on II. 6),] as Id-* *«*** &?&) XIX. 85. 4nd they 
shall be adversaries to them, whence 

j , § ** h*t*+ S3 ' & * *S h* As S3 

[316] (R) -Eb' H* in P art of your bellies : [if ye eat little 
(AAz),] ye will be abstinent. For verily your time is a 

hungry time (AA», N>, L e. •#£». (SL), and ^jOjfyi 

£|| jjj. £1S] "i* ***► "* ^ e '^ W C° n7er sely the 
d«. acta»saBatratituteforithe«*n^., as 



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( 860 ) 

• • A /• / y/A^ '/A/// */* A* • "A>sAs/S 

TA^n /Aey |>m/ /Ae watercourse of 'Akil on the rights, 
and put the hard ground of RamatcLn on the left, 1. e. 

-' ^ • A^ • 

J*l* , which is a mountain ; and Fr allows oli j^L 



• IM • t»l^ • • • 



^Uia. «> ; J.O, LV. 46. -4w<* A* Ma* feareth the bar of 

Aw Lord shall have a garden to be an instance of this • 
and IKhz states in the Nihaya [fi-nNahw (HKh)] that 

they say &&*»f L-iXa. ^U He died [a natural death, li- 

terally] /A* death of his nose, [prig. He died upon his bed, 
and his soul came forth from his nose (&frd)J and that 

• /A^y • Ay » • A • • 2 • • 

O most lovely are the two eyes of Sulaimd and the mouth 

/» 1 • • ' 'A,*/ 

is an instance of this construction, the o.f being ^UiJf • 

• ^A 

and the ^ elided by poetic license [228] (BS) : and U*if 

A /A 

sometimes acts as a substitute for Jm\ , as L. 23. [193], 
either because dualization of the ag. is made a substitute 
for repetition of the v., as XXIII. 101. [598, 607] is 
explained ; or because most travelling-companions are 
8 in number, and each of them usually addresses his % 
companions, so that a single person also is addressed as 
two, because their tongues are accustomed to it (R). The 
pi. sometimes occurs in the place of the [sing, or (R)] 



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( 861 ) 
du. (R, BS), a synecdoche being meant to be understood, 
as &j£ff J* i_^ ^ <w' o/f his penis and &Ua&. &W| gteS 
God cut off his testicles ! (R) ; and the substitution of the 
sin %. and pi. for the du. are combined in the saying of 
the Hudhall [Abi Dhu'aib (N)] 

*y *• $ S /A/ As A y S *f * mi/ S» * A/ # A/A<<«* 

7A*» /Ac eye a/ter the death of them is as though its 
blacks were put out with thorns, so that they are blind, 
shedding tears (BS). 



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( 871 ) 
J». 456, 1 8. R«ad"<p." 
P. 461, 1 7. This Ehftlid was the oousin of AbJi Dho'aib (Is, Jsh). 

P. 464, /. 3. The majority, however, hold that Z+&+) is curtailed, 

being constructively ^J : and that afterwards the a is interpolated, 
without being reckoned [as the g of fern Ionization (Sn)] ; and is pro- 
nounced with Fatfc, because it occurs in the place of what requires Fatfc, 
vid. what precedes the $ of femininisation elided, but understood (A)— 
t.l. By Alflutai'a (1Y). 

P. 465, L 20. It is named subst iu the conventional language of the 
BB : and, as for the KK, Akh says that they name it interpretation [of 
what is meant by the ant (Sn)], and explanation [of it (Sn)]; while IK 
says that they name it repetition (A) of what is meant by the ant. ; but 
the propriety of these 3 names is not evident in the case of the subst. 
distinct [from the ant] (Sn). 

P. 468, 1. 17. Because the enunoiative prop, would remain without 
areJ.(IY). /T^ 

P. 469, 11 6*7. By AlAkhtal (Akh). 

P. 470, JL 11. Cited by Mz (MAd). 

P. 471, 1. 18. After " Zaid » insert " [160]". 

P. 472, L 7. sbt relates to i^J^.), being the cop. [27], according 
to R's theory as to the op. of the subst. [131]. 

P. 478, 1. «. He satirized AUJajjaj (T)— I 10. A heathen poet 
(FA). 

P. 474, /. 1. Bead " furnish". 

P. 476, 1. 11. Be^d M 5a*P. 

P. 478, 1. 17. <_AfeiJl in lexicology is Reversion to the thing after 
departure from it (Sn)— I. 18. This appos. is named .l^Jj UUo* be- 
cause the speaker reverts to, and manifest*, the cwtt by means of it (Sn), 




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( SSjl ) 

P. 479, /. 2. The Khalifa Abu IJafe 'Umar Ibn AlKhaftib alKa- 
ralsht al'Adawl alMadanl, a. 13, L 23 (Nw). 

P. 480, /. /. Bat here the $yruL expL is not aprw». 

P. 481, 7. 13. BUhr Ibn 'Amr, of the Band Bakr Ibn Wa'il (A Az). 

P. 486, /. 7. ij&u is governed in the ace by an understood ». indi- 
eated by j^; > ** though he said ^joju |yo (T). 

P. 489, I 2. For "his" read "His n — J. 3. Read "because 
(MAIH)] W . 

P. 492, /, 14. Maalama Ibn Dhuhl, Zayyftba being his mother (Jsh), 
one of the Banu Taim Allah Ibn Thalaba (lAth), a heathen poet— J. 1&. 
AJQ&rith Ibn Hammlm ashShaib&nl (T, Jsh). 

P. 494, /. 17. Read "Umax". 

P. 499, 7. 18. R adds" being a verbat n." to the preventives of 
inflection in order to account for the uniuflectedness of those verbal **. 
which resemble the aor. (see p. 653, h 7-r-p* 654, I. 1). 

P. 501, U. 18-20. That the verbal ns. are nninfl. is not disputed, 
though three different reasons are given at pp. 653-654 for their being- 
so. The validity of the reason here given, vid. that they resemble the 
p. in not being impressible by the op., is based upon the theory that 
they have no place in inflection, i.e. do not occupy the place of a a. in 
any case, which is disputed (see p> 658). 

P. 503, 1 7. Some of the BB, according to R (see p. 743, 1. 19) — 
I lft. Abfc Sakhr 'Abd Allah Ibn Sllim asSahmi alHudhah, an I stem I 
poet of the Umawl dynasty (AKB). The Banu Sahm were his tribe 
(T)— I. 19, By Mkbal Ibn Jahm alMadhfciil (MN, FA, Jsh) or 
Mubashshir Ibn AlHudhail alFazarl (MN). 

P. 606, 1 2. On the name " met." see p> 823, 11. 910. 

as a 
P. 508, h 4. iJ&L [with reduplication (Jsh) of the final ^] is the 

\p*rf. mate J pi. [of J^ (EC)] pre. to the ^ of the 1st jper. wn^L 
(liC, Jab). 



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( 89a ) 
P. BIO, 1, 1. The 2nd hemistich is given in IY. 10 and 84 as 

And Hind, far nets and distance have come in front of her, i.e., between 
nu and her— I 15. Or, as is said, his son Saw&da Ibn 'AdI (AKB). 

P. 517, I. 20. &$\ is abbreviated (MN, FA, N), by poetic license 
(FA, N), because its <\ /. is UJall with the Hamza (MN). 

P. 518, 1 8. For « XXVIII n and " 611 " read " XXVII" and "612* 

P. 521, I. 8. I^l£ gumaid or \±t>JL praisetoortfy. The verse is 

attributed to Bumaid Ibn £uraith Ibn Bafcdal [alKalbl (IAth)] , of the 

Banu Kalb Ibn Wabra, whose pedigree reaches to l£u4a'a. IJumaid 

was an Isfcml poet ; and Maisttn Bint Bafcdal, the mother of Yazld Ibu 

9 * 
Mu'ftwiya, was his paternal aunt (AKB). ,>*•& (IY. 414). 

P. 523, /. 3. Le. £ U&' . The verse is by AlMukhallab alHilall, of 
whose pedigree and history I know nothing } and has been plagiarised 
by ATUjair asSalnli alHilall, a freedman of the Banu Hilil, whose 
name was 'Umair Ibn 'Abd Allah, a minor IslamI poet of the Umawi 
dynasty. Sgh says "The piece is Lamlya; but ^^i occurs in the 
Book of S in place of jjl tractable, and the QG have followed him in 
the mistranscription" (AKB)-J. 7. Hamdin is a tribe of AlYaman 
(AKB). 

P. 531, 11. 17-18. An elegant, excellent poet of the Umawi dynasty 
(AKB). 'Abd AlMalik Ibn Marwan asked him for his daughter in 
marriage for one of his sons (Mb). The Khalifa 'Abd AlMalik Ibn 
Marwau [alKurasht alUmawt, b. 26 (ITB), a. 65 (MDh)], d. 86 (MDh, 
ITB). He was proclaimed Khalifa in succession to his father Marwau 
Ibn AUJakam after 'Abd Allah Ibn AsZubair had laid claim to the 
Khilafajand his undisputed KhUafa, i.e. after the slaughter of 'Abd 
Allah Ibn AaZubair, was from the middle of 73 (ITB). The Khallf. 
Marwau Ibn AIBakam al^^I alUmawl, tuepbew and (Nw,ITB) 



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( 90a ) 

private (TKh)] secretary of 'Uthman [Ibn 'Afffcn (Nw, ITB), b. 2, 
(Nw), a 64 (ITB, TKH)], d. 65 (Nw, ITB, TKh). Ibn AsZubair was 
proclaimed Khalifa (AGh, la, TKh) at Makka (TKh) in 64 (Is, TKh) 
in the days of Yazid Ibn Mu'iwiya (TKh), [or] after the death of Yazld 

(AGh, Is) Ibn Mu'ftwiya (Is) ; or in 64 or 65 after the death of Mu'awiya 

Ibn Yaaid (TKh). 

P. 534, 1 4 j&J| 5 tJbl as an e*. of detachment oaused by sup- 

presskm of the op. is appropriate only when the op. is supplied before 
the pron.; for, when the op. is supplied after the pron., it is an ex. of 
detachment caused by precedence of the pron. before its op. (see I. 19 
and the Note on p. 196, 1 18). 

P. 535, 1. 3. Abu Bakr a§§iddlV said to the Apostle of God (God 
bless him and give him peace !) u Teach me a supplication wherewith 

S As • w * # ni 

I may supplicate [God] in my prayer." He said, Say \~*Ab ^\ «p\ 

S A A ** A • A K^t * hit* * *$<* 9 h* ** + * 4K* *' 

^*.J| .jiiJ| ciJ| Lj£il ^^lj flW, twi/y 7 Aa«^ done much 

wrong against mine own soul ; and not (any) forgiveth sin$ but Thou, 
Wherefore forgive Thou me of Thy grace, and have mercy upon me. 
Verily Thou, Thou art the very forgiving, the Merciful (SB. I. 214)— I 9. 

Properly uliij [446] (AKB)~ I. 10. He was named Dhu-Hgba* 
because a serpent bit his finger (ID, AKB), so that it withered away. 
He is said to have lived 270 years ; and AHm says that he lived 30O 
years. And he was one of the judges of the Arabs in heathenism 
(AKB). The question of <Abd AlMalik Ibn Marwin " Who is he 1" in 
Tr. II. 815 and IAth. IV. 270 (see the Note on p. 44, 1 11), to which 
Ma<bad Ibn Kh&lid alJadall answered "He is Dhu-llgba'", did not refer 
to the man put forward by 'Ad win as their spokesman with the Khalifa, 
but to the author of the verses quoted by 'Abd AlMalik, as is clear from 
the w. " Who says this ? " in Tr. II. 815, note *, and AKB. IL 409. <?/. 



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( 9U ) 

KA. III. 3— J. 11. Bk says (AKB), £urr& is a place in the countries of 
the Banu-lB&rith (Bk, AKB) Ibn Ka'b (AKB). 

P. 542, /. 19. A heathen [poet (FA, AKB)], lamenting his brother 
Utaifc and complaining of two companions of his, who were harassing 
him, said to be his two nephews Mudrik and Murra (MN, FA, AKB) : 
so says Al'Ainl (AKB). 

P. 543, 11. 19—20. Attributed by the commentators of the Book of 
S to 'Umar Ibn Abl Rabl'a; but by [AFI,] the author of the KA, who 
is followed by [Jh,] the author of the §ifc&b, to Al'ArjI (AKB)— 11. 23-24. 

The author of ±% ^*f cyj «** is [not Ibn Duraid, but] Ru'ba (MN, 

FA, EC, AKB) Ibn Al'Ajjaj (MN). 

P. 544, /. 4. He said that of a man who was mentioned to him as 
intending to do him harm (IY). 

P. 545, 1 10. The Persian ed. of the ML (p. 253, 7. 16) has ^'ffi; 
but the 2 Egyptian eds. } the DM (vol. II., p. 279) and Amr (vol II., p. 
223), have the form given in the text. 

P. 546, 11. 20-22. These are the anuullers of inchoation [24] 
The w. of app. are omitted, because their prtd. is an aor. v. [459] ; and 
the generic neg. ' > because its tub. and pred. are vndtt. [100 J 

P. 549, 11. 1344. Muhammad Ibn Marwftn [Ibn AlQakam, brother 
of the Khalifa 'Abd AlMalik (IAth, ITB)], one of the Readers of 
AlMadlna, \d. 101 (IAth) or 102 (ITB)]. IA1 flays "Ibn MarwSn wraps 
himself up in his solecism", Le. by making the distinctive occur between 
the d. $. and a. *. (R)— I. 15. Zaid Ibn 'All [Zain al'Abidln (ITB)] Ibn 
al^usain Ibn 'All Ibn AM Jalib alHishiml [alMadanl, b. 80 (IHjr)], 
h [121 (1Kb, MDh, MAB, TKh), 122 (1Kb, MDh, IAth, MAB, IHjr, 
1TB), or ] 123 at the age of [42 (MAB) or] 44 (FW). 

P. 555, 1. 10. Ibn Abi-l'A? athThakaft alBa^rl, the celebrated 
poet, reproving his cousin 'Abd ArRafcm&n Ibn 'Uthrnin Ibn Abi-l'A^ 
(AKB). 

P. 556, 1 2. D.U (Is, IHjr, AKB) : i. 89 (ITB). . 



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( »2a ) 

P. 557, 1. 9. By Sakhr Ibn Al Ja'd alMufcaribl alKhutfri, an elegant 
poet contemporary with the Umawl aud 'AbbasI dynasties (KA). The 
forms oyj) or»j^iJ| and ^^aaaJJ in the MN. IL 227, FA. 95, SM. 197, 
and Jsh, seem to be erroneous — 7. 10. Sakhr Ibn AUa'd was enamoured 
of Ka's, daughter of Bujair Ibn Jundab (KA) ; not, as Lane supposes 
(p. 2019, col. 1), "of EI-Keltuibeh Ei-'Oranee". 

P. 559, L 5. Shadan is a place in AlYaman (Bk). 

P. 561, I. 7. Zaid Ibn Muhalhil aflVl anNabhanl, known as Zaid 
AlKhail, who came to the Prophet with the embassy from T*yyi in the 
year 9, and was named by the Prophet Zaid AlKhair. He was a good 
poet. On his departure from the Prophet, he was seized with fever j 
and, when he reached his family, he died ; but some say that he died at 
the end of the Khilafa of 'Umar (AGh)— /. 16. £ais is the father of a 
tribe of Mu<Jar(AKB, J) oalled J£ais 'Ailari, a prothetio comp. f [mean- 
ing The Kais of f AUdn\ (AKB)— J. 19. 5umaid Ibn Malik Ibn 

Zaid Manat Ibn Tamlm, an IslamI poet of the Umawl dynasty, contem- 
porary with Alljajjaj. He was named AlArfc at [The spoiled or speckled] 
because of some marks that were on his face (AKB). Jh says the verse 
is by 5umaid (MN, FA) ; but IY says (MN, FA, AKB) it is by AM 
Bafcdala (IY, MN, FA, AKB), whom I do not know (AKB). 

P. 562, U. See an ex. of the 2nd prevailing over the 3rd in p. 
125, K. 14-16. 

P. 575, I. 3. Ka'b Ibn Sa'd alGhanawI, an IslamI poet, and appa- 
rently a Follower (AKB)—/. 19. Lane's assertion that U is not prefixed 

to the du. of lJ\1 (p- 9 * 7 > co *« 3 ) is refuted bv wliat IY says here ; and 

/ / if 

his assertion that U is not prefixed to ,c_£IM (p. 947, col. 8), and that 

y ill ' 

one does not say <J& Jb or the like (p. 86, col. 3), is refuted by the 

verse at 1. 15 and by ATArjl's verse at p. 564, where the dim. of u££^* 
appears. 

P. 576, 11. 12-14. & has 3 dial. vars. f U* , Cm, and Ua (IY. 337). .. 
They are all of one sense, vid. . demonstratipn of place ; but they differ 



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( 93a ) 

Si 
in nearness and distance, the near place* being demonstrated by U* with 

Pamm, and the distant by the 2 others (MN, FA)— I 21. Read 1^,1 
and "on its," the prow, referring to the , U^» trackless UKMkmentioned in the 
verse preceding. 

P. 580, /, 6. This verse is cited by Skr in the DH as (AKB) by a 
man of Hadhail (DH, AKB). It belongs to the same poem as the lines 
cited in vol. II, p. 717, IL 1M2 and in the Note thereon at p. 29A. 
Numerous vars. of this verse and of the verses cited in p. 579, 11. 
16-17 and p. 580, I. 3 are given in the AKB. Read JeJ*-4. 10. The 
Lucknow ed. of the R gives iyo I j but the Teheran ed\ has 3yJ I unoi 

s 

charmed, which seems more appropriate. The Delhi ed. gives no vowels 

it 

IL 23-24. According to R, J is made det. by its expressed or con- 
structive prefixion to a del., not by its conj. (p. 586, 11. 13-15). 

P. 582, I. 13. Al'AinI says (AKB) it is by AlAkhtal (MN, FA, 
AKB) ; but I have searched diligently through his Divan without find- 
ing it (AKB). This poet was given the oognomen of AlAkhtal because 
of the bigness of his ears (MN, FA) : [but various other reasons are stated 
in the KA and AKB]. He was a Christian (KA, FA), of the people of 
AlJJlra (KA) ; and he belongs to the 1st class of Isliml poets (K A, MN, 
FA). He lived a long life until he went to Hell-fire (AKB)— I I. The 
saying of the Banu 'Ufcail or Hudhail |^IS ^yW | A*> They thai 
stood came (BS). 

P. 583, I. 2. Its author is RuTrn Ibn Al'Ajjaj : but is said by 
AZ and IAr to be a heathen man of the Banu 'Ukail ; though they differ 
about his name, which AZ says is Abu Harb AlA'lam, while IAr says 
something else. And Sgh says that the author is Laili alAkhyallya 
(MN). 

P. 583, /. 20. fete** with Tanwln from regard to its being a name 
of a JS~ phce (AKB). Either form suits the metre— 41. The verse 
is by Umayya Ibn Al Astaj or, *& is **"* ^7 U D and 3 * te author of the 



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( Wa > 

KA, Ibn Qurthan Ibn AlAskar [or AlAshkar (AGh, Is)], alKinanl [al- 
Laithi alJunda'I (AGh, Is)], a converted poet (AKB). 

P. 584, I. 1. 'Ukaz» Majanna, and Dhu-lMajaz were markets for 
Makka in the time of heathenism. 'Ukaz is a level plain. AU says (Bk), 
'Uk&zis between Nakhlaand AtT&'tf (Bk,ZJ, MI), one night's journey from 
AflYif and 3 from Makka (MI). It was taken as a market 15 years 
after [the year of] the Elephant, [in which the Apostle of God was born 
(SR, Tr, LM),] and was abandoned for ever in the year 129 (Bk). The 
market of 'Ukaz used to open on [the morning of (Bk)] the 1st of 
Dhu-H£i'da, and last 20 days (Bk, ZJ)— U. By a man of [the Banu 
(MN, FA)] Sakim (MN, FA, EC). 

P. 585, /. 20. Coptic by origin, freedman of the family of AzZubair 
Ibn Al'Awwara, b. 115 [or 120 (HH)], d. 197 (Syt). 

P. 587, 1. 9. £ais Ibn Jirwa (ID, T, AKB), a heathen poet (AKB), 
named 'Arifc because of this verse (T, AKB)— J. 15. An IslamI poet of 
the MarwanI dyuasty (AKB)—/. 20. Whence 

(K), by $awwal atf*'! (T, AKB), an IslamI poet, who lived at the 
end of the Umawl, and reached the 'Abbasl dynasty, Say ye two to this 
man, who has come collecting the poor-rate, Come on; for verily the sword 

(called *J JSkJ] in relation to the Masharif, which were certain towns 

where swords used to be forged) is with us instead of the camels fit to be 
taken in payment of the poor-rate (AKB). The Masharif were near 
IJauran : Basra was one of them (MI). 

P. 588, 11 18-19. Then he [the Fazart mentioned in the story told 
in the Note to p. 845, L 18] said to one of them, whose name was Mir- 
kama a Eat of it n ; but he refused. Than he smote him, aud cut off his 
head. Then eaid the other " Mirkama has perished ! •" Then said the 

A/sA/A/ A * A*/ ... ... ,, - _— _, 

Faz&rl i+jJS J J| cJk And thorn/thou swallow it not I IHb says "He 
r * 



Digitized 



by GOOgU 



( 9*A ) 

•A/A/ A/ A 

meant IfJU* jJ ^1 J but, having discarded the J , he threw the Fatfca on 

.« , - ,, £ . */ / w^/ / A**wJAs 

the f before the s , as they said** J(4 ; ^f; S^asJ | ^ JFo«fo 4/JBRra 

ani whatever men be in it f": he [IHb] supplies lib in £Jjj as mean- 

mg the 4uo* morsel or L^ ptectf ; otherwise [he would not supply it, 

because] there is no fern, in the preceding speech that the 1* may relate to 
(M<L I. 97-98). 

P. 590, 1. 2. An Islaml poet (MN)— J. 10. The capital of Khurl- 
stn (MI). 

P. 591, 11. 10-11. And ^^ JUL *** -JJ | JBT« whose paternal uncle 

is his maternal uncle is *Amr (IY). Both these exs. seem to be absurd, 

because the 2 prons. in eaoh of them relate to -i)| by hypothesis. 

P. 592, K. 10-15. This is Fs explanation (AKB)— I 11. By Al- 
Farazda^ The true version is 

l#Ri! ^ cuXi J\, J*) • ^ | J*S **> ; r 1,J ^>t, 

^iuf twi/y / am shooting a shot, i.e. glance, at her (of whom I say), Per- 
haps I, even if it, Le. the*Ao<, 6e hard for me, shall get her (AKB)— I. 14 
I* «i| Xj Perhaps I shall visit for is an originative prop., because it 
does not admit of being pronounced true or false [1] — I. 15. B ought 
to say Id 1*a> Af I ^UJ her {of whom I say), Perhaps t, even of her 
destination be far, shall visit her, in order that the reh of the conjunct 
may be obtained (AKB). 

P. 593, 1. I. Etaf?, the companion of Ks, 6. about 150, d. [245 
(TKh),] 246, or 248 (IHjr). 

P. 596, 2. 13. I.e. Dinar Ibn Hil&l (MN, FA, EC), a heathen poet 
(MN, FA). 

P. 599, II. 6-7. And by the Bdd (MAd. II. 233, I 6)— I 16. 

Psh/ * hi £,« #A/A*«s A*/ 

AlHudhall (AKB)— J. 20. In full *jl») r) 5| J$ \ uHk>l*»i I (AKB). 
P. 601, f. 4, Whence 



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( 96a ) 

(R), by AlKumait Ibn Zaid, satirizing Kaht&n, i.e. the tribes of AlYa-< 
man, Then, if I spare to satirize those women (that) are of, Le. dependen 
upon, men that have neglected, i.e. have not protected, them, I will not spare 

• 3* •* A 

mom men (that have neglected them), the eonu of ^SljDI being **U I .£*•, i.e. 

/I AS* / S ' + ' 

^Ul ^ ^* , while the conj. of ^wtWI is suppressed, because indioated 
by the previous mention of it [in ^^UJ Q>. of ~Ui , whioh is part of 
the preceding con;,], the full phrase being ^a^xUl ^H) (AKB), and 

s A/y «f / A// £#*/ S5«*/ /£#«/ 

ujw -,^ u ji c ^ } • ^ui, ^ii, u vt c>: 

(R) From those women (that have asserted etc.), and (from) that woman (that 
has asserted etc), and (from) those women that have asserted that I, verily 
my contemporaries have grown old, the conj. of the first two conjuncts being 
suppressed, because indicated by the conj. of the third (AKB)— Z. 7. 
Addressing Imra alljCais Ibn ljujr alRindl (Jsh) — I. 17. ISh says, 

t^jjj) and JJ\ are made fern, here because £&i,1jJ| calamity is fern. 

(AEB). They are [proper (Md)] names for [Great and Small (T)] Calamity, 
and therefore dispense with the conj., [and are transferred from being 
conjuncts (T),] as 

«<-£>/ //d<-* /S • # As// ••A/ • /A#« */ # A^/ A/// 

(T, Md), by Sulml [or Salmi (AKB)] Ibn Rabl'a [asSldl (AKB)], of 
the Banu-sSld [Ibn Malik Ibn Bakr Ibn Sa'd (AKB)] Ibn Pabba (T, 
AKB), a heathen poet, And assuredly I have reconciled the discord of the 
community among themselves, and have sufficed its wrong-doer against the 
great and small calamity that he has brought upon himself (AKB) ; but 
some say that their conjs. are suppressed, because indicated by [the cir- 
cumstances of] the case (T). 



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( 97a ) 

P. 605, J. 1. By Al'Uryan Ibn Sahla alJarml, a heathen poet. This 
yerae it one of three verses eited by AZ in his ftawadir ; but his version 
is not like that of the majority (A KB). The other two verses are the 
1st and 4th of the poem by Al'Uryan cited at p. 712 of the T and p. 181 
of the Calcutta ed. of the Hamasa, where the unmeaning words ^S 5 *1««J 

#/A/ #/A#A«0SS/ # £ A-/A««£'As P* 

s^i after J±fb J Jl^ seem to be a mistranscription for ^^saJi *4~ tf 
This verse, which is the 3rd in AZ's version, is not given in either ed. of 

85 

the %amasa—l. 5. F says that -jj | here may signify (1) the Ka'ba, 
• ^** * 

being made mate, as meaning cs^J) rt« ifcwwtf, in which case the [ace."] 
pron. in ^^ is suppressed, because this v. is Iran*., as is shown by the 
texfcj^ZsJ.i «-^x*Ji ^ ^*i II. 153. Then whoso performeth the 
pilgrimage to the House, or visiteth it ; and the sense is ^la. *sct, ^^j| 
too* (wto-A) J3a(im tow performed fa pilgrimage to : (2) God, in which 
case the full phrase is fjL s) ^ ^U] Sim (that) Hdtim has performed 
the pilgrimage (for the sake of). But IJ says on 

PPPhM* **h , A/A/ &.t // #/ * *A**3* " m /A/J 

fi aa) J &iu ^/xsj JJb | U, • *J £&?»> I g* hjjl Ji» 

[by Ziyad Ibn £amal, or Ibn Munfcidh, one of the Bal 'Adawiya, of the 
Banu Tamlm (T)], Ruwaika, verily I, I swear by that House which the 
pilgrims perform the pilgrimage to, or by that House (which) the pilgrims 
perform the pilgrimage to for the sake of obedience to Him, i.e. Ood, and 
by the raising of the shout lS&) [115] on the two sides of NakJda, [a place 
near the city of the Prophet (11) (T),] by the enterers into the Sacred 
territory, the 2nd U being infinitival, that, when the 1st U is held to 
be an expression for the House, the s in s) may denote (I) the House, h 
being Lq. 4«> m in XCIX. 5. [504], i.e. ^J | , [as though he said ^J | 

p p htO /A / * SS P h*+ A/ S3 &** h*K$a 

!p\ J1»W 5 c l*wM ^Jf ^ ^1 ^»W (T)]; (2) Corf, ie. 
*JU| X*ltf rf**aJl ** ^i «hwJ 1 5 > !>- e - *?*►]• Thu8 lt w known thak 

B's language is [derived from] one of Fs 2 explanations, ^Jj| being con- 



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( 98a ) 

fltrued to signify God (AKB). But, if so, R would supply si instead of &£ \ : 

z ' * 

and I think that he construes J£\ to signify the ffouu, but supplies 

i£\ in accordance with the construction cu&J I ,J| ^sw allowed by IJ 

and T— /. J. Ya'?ur or A^ur was father of a tribe, that Bihila belong- 
ed to (MN). See p. 27A. 

P. 616, 1. 22. The Banu Khalaf were AzZibrikan's kinsfolk, Khalaf 
being his great-grandfather, because he was AzZibri^an Ibn Badr Ibn 

Imra al^ais Ibn Khalaf. Ibn Sa'd Ibn Zaid Man&t Ibu Tamlm 

(AKB). 

P. 617, 1. 10. Hudba was an elegant superior poet from the desert of 
Aigijas (AKB). He had killed Ziyada Ibn Zaid aVUdhrl ; and, when 
he was carried to Mu'&wiya, 'Abd ArRa^man, brother of Ziyada Ibn Zaid, 
advanoed with him, and prosecuted him. Then said Mu'&wlya to him,. 
"What sayest thou 1" He said "Likest thou that the answer be in 
poetry or prose V He said ",Nay, in poetry ; for verily it is pleasant er. n 
Then said Hudba (Mb). Here follow some verses, of which this is one. 

P. 618, 1. 6. Praising AUarrafr Ibn 'Abd Allah [alHakaml (IAth, 
ITB)], Governor of Khurasan. He was Commander of AlBa?ra» and 
afterwards became Governor of Armenia. He penetrated into the lands 
of the Khazar, and was martyred there (Dw) in 112 (IAth, ITB) — U. 
14-15. £a§lr Ibn Sa'd (ID, IAth, KF) of Lakhm (ID, IAth) Ibu Mdl 
(ID). See Md, II. 123 and P. II. 450. 

P. 621, /. 18. Mawlya is one of the names of women, among them 
M&wlya, the wife of ?atim of Tayy* ; and this verse is similar to his 
poetry, but I have not known it attributed to him (AKB). It is not 
in his Diwan as given in the FDw. 

P. 622, 1. 18. flatlm Ibn 'Abd Allah atT*% celebrated for his mu- 
nificence, and one of the poets of heathenism (AKB). 

P. 623, I. 16. And aU J is transmitted (ML). This verse is 
part of a Dffiya ode by JJassan Ibn Thabit (MN, AKB) al An?an (MN) 
a9§oVab! : but its rhyme has been perverted by IJ, who transmist 



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( 99A ) 

^JUi ^ ; and he is followed by many, among them IHsh in the ML, 
who says " And .Ua is like oU ; in measure and meaning n (AKB,)— 
I. 17. Ibn Pirlr, cousin and contemporary of Zald alFawIris Ibn 
tfusain Ibn piritr a^pabbl (T. 279), who was a heathen (A KB)— J. 18. 
Ath says that IJassan composed this poem upon Rafai' Ibn Jgfeift Ibn 
'Abid, who was killed as an unbeliever on the day of Badr (AEB) in the 
year 2 (Tr, LM, TKh)— /. 23. The poets called AlKumait are 3 of the 

Banu Asad Ibn Khuzaima,(l) AlKumait alAkbar Ibn Thalaba 

Ibn Jafcwtn Ibn Fafc'as [Ibn Tanf Ibn Altfarith Ibn Thalaba 

Ibn Dudftn Ibn Asad Ibn Khuzaima alAsadff, a Convert, says AU, as 
AlMarzubinI mentions (Is)] ; (2) AlKumait Ibn Ma<ruf Ibn AlKumait 
alAkbar [alFafc 'asl, a Convert, says AlMarzubinI (Ib)] ; (3) AlKumait 

Ibn Zaid Ibn Sa'd Ibn Tha'laba Ibn Dudan Ibn Asad (AKB), a 

poet of the UmawS dynasty, A 122 (Is) [or] 126 (ITB). The verses at 
p. 616 of vol. II. and pp. 297 and 367 of this vol. are all from one ode by 
AlKumait Ibn Zaid alAsadl (MN. III. Ill) ; and the verse at p. 112 of 
this vol. is by the same poet (MN. I. 534) : while the verses at pp. 623 
and 712 of vol. IL are by AlKumait Ibn Ma'ruf (MN. IV. 109, 320, 
Jsh) ; though IAr says that the last verse is by AlKumait Ibn Tha'laba 
alFaVasl (MN. IV. 321). 

P. 624, 1. 20. D. [104 (Nw),] 105 (1Kb, IAth, IKhn, Nw, TH), 
106 (IKhn, Nw, TH), 107 (IKhn, Nw, TH, IHjr, TKh), 108 (ITB), or 
115 (IKhn), at tfcfe age of 80 (1Kb, IKhn) or 84 (IKhn)—/, 23. D. 156 
(IHjr). Not [to be confounded with 'lea Ibn TTmar] athThafcaft, the 
Basri Grammarian, who also is one of the leading Headers (DM). 

P. 625, 1. 3. The last word is i Jffi)\ speech, which Dm has mis-spelt 
• Ujjj slaughter. The verse is from an ode composed by Ka*b Ibn Malik, 
poet of the Apostle of God, in answer to 2 pieces that Ibn AzZiba'ra and 
'Amr Ibn Al'A? had glorified themselves with on the day of Uhud 
(AKB) in the year 3 (Tr, IAth, LM). Ka*b Ibn Malik [as §afcabl (Nw)] 
alAns&rt (Agh, Nw, AKB) alKhazraj! asSalaml (AGh, Nw), of the Banu 
Salima (AGh) Ibn Sa'd (IHb, Dh) Ibn 'All ...Ibn AlKhazraj (IHb), 



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( 100a ) 

one of the poets of the Apostle of God (AGh, AKB), d. 50 or 53 (Nw/ 
AKB) at the age of 77 (AKB). The Prophet's poets were Qass&Q Ibn 
Th|bit, Ka<b Ibn Malik, and 'Abd Allah Ibn Rawftfca (AGh). See SR, 

•pp. 623-625 for the ode. Read j^lL-fl. 5-6. For "then (DM)" 

read " then for what does speech abound ? (AKB)"-— I. 12. Insert "knew" 
before " that n —l 13. Or conjunct, knew thai which my Lord hath for- 
given me (K, B). The ^ depends upon Oi if U be interrog., and upon 
^jJLj if U be infinitival or conjunct (B). 

P. 629, I 1. Suwaid Ibn Abi K&hil ['Ufcuf or (Is, AKB) J Shabfb 
alYashkuri, a converted poet (KA, Is, AKB), who lived some time in 
heathenism, and [for 60 years after the Eijra (AKB)] in Allsltm until 
the time of AlJJajj&j (Is, AKB) : so in the Is (AKB;. 

P. 631, /• 5. Alljfurashl aJAsadl (Nw, Is) alMadanl as9afcabi (Nw), 
k [treacherously (Is)] on the day of the Camel, in the year 36, 
at the age of (1Kb, Nw, Is) 60 (1Kb), 64 (1Kb, Nw), 66, or 67 (Nw, Is), 
by [<Amr (Is)] Ibn Jurmaz (1Kb, Is), a man of the Banu Tamlm 
(Is). 

•A / «2 # 

P. 636, 1. 2. : ya> may be in the gen., governed by ^ understood 
after Jj ; or in the ace, coupled to J ; £ (AAz). On the form vlu^jj 
see § 646. 

P. 637, 1 2. Shumair, so spelt by AZ, or Sumair, so spelt by Akh 
and Sgh, Ibn Aiparith atfPabbi, a heathen poet, author of the verse &' 
jA\ yyL l-M 5 [153] (AKB)— I. 3. This is one of 4 verses transmitted 

by AZ, and attributed by him to Shumair Ibn AlHarith atfPabbl, or 
as Akh says, Sumair (AKB). [The next verse is cited in vok II, p. 
296.] It is also transmitted, with the version btlf* \y*> May your 
life be pleasant at morn t , as part of a poem rhyming in ~» ; and is then 
attributed [without dispute (N)] to Jidh* Ibn Sin&n alGhass&nl (N f 
AKB), a heathen poet (AKB). The poem rhyming in f is also attributed 
to Ta'abbata Sharr* (N). 



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( 10U ) 

P. 639, U. 8-9. See the 2nd explanation in the Note on p. 169, I. 
17, where the qualified, when treated as compounded with the qual. 
into one «., is considered to be uninJL upon Fatfc, not infl. in the ace., 
as R here says. 

P. 640, i 7. The disconnection is produced by the repetition of 
if , which makes a fresh prop. 

P. 643, /. 15. Nasr Ibn Sayyar, governor of Khurasan (Jsh). 

P. 644, 1 13. R supplies *post. *• in imitation (seep. 647, h 21). 

P. 645, /. 21. By Ghassau Ibn 'Ula (MN, FA, J, Jsh) Ibn Murra 
(M N, Jsh) Ibn 'Ubftd (MN). Murra Ibn 'Ubad was of £ais Ibn Tha'laba 
(1Kb). [There was a poet named] Ghass&n Ibn Wa'la, one of the Banu 
Murra Ibn 'Ubftd (T). [The name of] the author of this verse has 

not reached me : IAmb says "AASh transmits it with Pammof ^> 1 
" on the authority of Ghass&n, who is one of those on whose authority 
" the classical language is derived from the Arabs " ; so that Ghass&n 
is the author of the verse : but IHsh asserts that it is by a man of 
Ghass&n j and God knows best ! (AKB). 

P. 646, I 3. Harun Ibn Musi [alAadl al'Atakf, their freedman 
(IHjr), a Jew, who afterwards become a Muslim (1Kb, NA),] alA'war 
[the <me-eyed], the [Baarl Grammarian and (NA, IHjr)] Reader (1Kb, NA, 
IHjr). He transmitted readings from IIU (IKhn). The Follower (Nw 
ITB) T^t a IbnMu§arrif [alYamI(Nw,IHjr),oralIyiml (Nw),alHamdani 
(Nw,ITB)], the Kaft Reader, d. [110 (Nw),] 112 (1Kb, Nw, IHjr, 
ITB), or 113 (Nw). Yam or Iyam is a clan of Hamdan (LL)— I 4. 
After " alHarri" insert " the master of Fr. " This is MIM. 

P. 651, I 1. This is one of the 50 verses of S whose authors are 
not known : but is asserted by Al'Ainl, who is followed by Syt in the 
SM, to be part of an ode by AlMuthal^ib al'Abdl ; whereas there is no 
foundation for this (AKB). It is by Sufcaim Ibn Wathll arRlyafel (MN 

FA, N), from the same ode as £*! ** tf\ U| [149] (N)— I 2. An an- 
cient heathen poet, contemporary with 'Amr Ibn Hind ; so says 1Kb 



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( 102A ) 

(AKB). His name, [as 1Kb says, was Mifcsan Iba Tha'laba; but, 
as IAmb says (AKB),] was 'A'idh Ibn Mifc$an (ID, MN, Nw, AKB) Iba 
Thalaba (MN, AKB). 

P. 652, I 10. Tbe pi. are superfluous to the attribution — I 19. 
The l Ak%k [pi J*ikka(KF)] is every channel [of water (MI)] that [the 
water of (KF)] the torrent has cloven (MI, KF) in the earth, and then 
enlarged and widened. The lands of the Arabs contain many A'ikka ; 
and the mention of the *Aklk in poetry is frequent (MI). 

P. 653, I 3. By LafcH Ibn Zurira (AKB), h. on the day of Jabala 
(SR, ID). 

P. 654, I 1 See p. 659, I 15. 

P. 655, B. 4-6. This is the opinion of IH (p. 652, B. 2-3) and R 
(B. 8-9 below). 

P. 656,1.13. Read "197". 

P. 657, 1 10. Js&' (Th, IY, KF, MAd) or J»k* (Th, KF) or 

JsbW (MAd). 

P. 660, K. 3-4. This is one of 7 verses by 'Antara, the author of 
the Mu'allaVa [see AhL 35] ; and is also transmitted as by Khuzaz Ibn 
Laudhftn asSadttsl. Both of them were heathens. 'Antara addressed 
these verses to his wife, who ceased not to mention his horses, and to 
reproach him about a steed which he used to prefer above the rest of 
his horses, and to which he used to give mUk to drink (AKB)*-/. 5. 

£>?*i\ is a name for dates, a proper name (AKB). For "wine" read 

"dated*. 

A /A* A g/ * //A <#sA#A 

P. 661, 1 3. ^ ; | (R) : v*~>, (K. 1071). jM^t pi of &>p\ 

' /A# 

(N), which is Persian (Jk), arabicized (Jk, KF) from *f (KF) : 
UW ; a| (K, R), pi. of <~*k/ , like /** , which is a **4^ , i. e. ^armen* 
having a nap. This verse is from an ode by Mu'afclpr Ibn Aua 
idAzdl alBlrifci, [a heathen poet (ID),] praising the Banu Numair, and 



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( 1031 ) 

mentioning what they did to theBanuDhubyftn atthe Pass of Jabala, 
where a battle took place between the Banu DhubyjLn and the Band 
*Amir, in which the Band 'Amir were victorious. Numair was the 
progenitor of a tribe of gais, vid. Numair Ibn 'Amir Ibn §a<ga'a ; and 
Mu'akkir was a confederate of theirs. The day of Jabala was 59 years 
before Islam, and 19 years before the birth of the Prophet, [who began 
his Mission at the age of 40 (SR, Tr, LM)] : so in the K A by AFI (ARB). 
Jabala was a [huge (Bk)] red mountain in Najd (Bk, MI) -ft. 4-5. Ho 
says Many a Dhubydnl woman was there that hade her sons take plenty of 
these two things as booty, if they should overcome their enemies; and that 
because of their neediness, and the fewness of their goods ( AKB). MDE, 
who says that she enjoined her sons to take eare of the coats, etc., seems to 
have misunderstood the verse, probably from not knowing the occasion ; 
but this is strange, because the K has " as though he said, that bade 
them tale them as boot \tf\ 

JP. 662, I. 5. The word "mostly" is a reservation of such as ^. 
P. 665, U. 22—23. Umm Salim was his beloved (AKB). 
P. 668, 1.1. Dele the full stop after "Th'\ 

P. 670, I 10. Lane (p. 1350, col. 1), citing the KF aa his authority, 

• /A/ 

says "The word ^*y» is used as a simple enunciative [placed before 
u its inchoative], and also as an enunciative denoting wonder*: but 
this rendering of the KF involves serious errors, because (1) it gives 

# /A/ 

ijU^» a place in inflection, vid. that of a nom. as an enunc., whereas 
the majority of GG hold that the verbal n. has no place in inflection ; 
while those who give it the place of a nom. make it an inch., not an 
enunc. (p. 658 above) ; (2) if it were an enunc., it would not be placed 
before its inch., because, since, like other verbal ns., it governs an ag+ 

f sAs 

(j>* 661), the post-pos. inch, would be taken for an ag. ; so that !*S c ^;*», 

$Ax • £ 

like &i) fl3 t would not be allowable as enunc. and inch. (p. 111). 
The words of the KF are *& \^y Uiaa* \j*£» J***-*> i^/"* 



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( 104a ) 

u**aa*iJ | ^y** -4 ltd ^1*/* & used ox a simple enunciation, [i. c. $i*kri w] ; 
aa<£ a« an enunciation containing the tense of wonder, [i. e. /Tot* 2*tdfc is/ ] : 

ty^ meaning enunciation, the corre/. of command ; not **«*&, the corrA 
of tnoA. 

P. 672, J. 19. 1. e. AlFatfl Ibn tfudama (ID, KA, SM, AKB), who 
contended with Al'Ajj&j in reciting poetry of the Rajaa metre, And was 
contemporary with [the Khalifa (Nw, ITB)] Hiahim Ibn 'Abd AlMalik 
(AKB) alKurashi alUmawI adDimashfcl (ITB), 6. 72 (Nw), a. 105, 4 
125 (Nw, ITB). 

P. 673, 1 2. By Zaid Ibn 'Amr Ibn Nufail fdgurashl ai'Adawl, A 
5 years before the Mission : but attributed to his son Said Ibn Zaid 
[a^Satabl (Nw)], d. 50 or 51 or 52, at the age of 70 and odd, ox of 73, 
years; and to Nubaih Ibn AlQajjSj. Nubaih and his brother Munabbih 
were chiefs [of the Banu Sahrn (ID)] of £uraish ; and were killed, [with 
Al'A? son of Munabbih (SB),] on the day of Badr as unbelievers (AKB) 
— I. 20. The Khalifa Sulaimftn Ibn 'Abd AlMalik [alUmawi (ITB), 
h 60 (FW, TKh)], a. 96, d. 99 (MDh, FW, ITB, TKh) at the age of 
[39 (MDh),] 45 (MDh, ITB), or 53 (MDh). 

P.' 674, It. 6-7. The verbal and inf. ns. may both be said to act as 

substitutes for the v. ; but with the latter the v. is, and with the former 

it is not, supplied—/. 11. Of Khuni'a Ibn Sa'd Ibn Hudhail (DH)— I 

15. 'AH Ibn Mas 'fid al Azdl [alGhassinl (Tr, I Ath)] was brother of 'Abd 

Manat Ibn Kinana on the side of his mother [Fukaiha Bint Hani (Tr, 

I Ath)] ; and, when 'Abd Manat died, he brought up 'Abd Manit's 

children, whose origin was therefore traced to him (DH), so that the 

Banu 'Abd Manat were called Banu 'All (Tr, IAth). 

a # 

P. 675, 1. 3. /« Journey thou (R)— I. 5. !>;*- Journey ye (B)— tt 

*A/ s /A/* 

17-19. It is sometimes pre. to the ag., as ]±i) ^S±i» [161, 187, 560]. 

P, 676, 1. 6. v** (T) : v^ (Md). s^j is in the *n<J., the prop. 

being supposed to bo anacoluthic and in ceptvei [423], ananswer to 



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( 105a ) 

55/ 

an assumed question "Why should I leave it alone V [1] ; and v--** 
is in the apoc., as carrel, of the command, there being no uJ [421]. 

Lane (p. 2221, col 2) apparently considers v~*£ to be in the #*$/. : for he 
says " ( j^> being understood, according to the explanation of Meyd", 

i. e. Md ; while the apoc does not occur after ^j^ [414]. But Md's 

words f±> f\ **soj$ *LA! «-# J*& fk\ *£* J& J^ *** ^f 
i e. Leave it alone until etc. (see the next Note) are an explanation of the 

sense, not of the syntax ; for the $ubj. is not governed by ^j^ [410], but 

ht 
by ^ necessarily understood after it [411, 413, 501] ; while the subj. 

hi 3' 

governed by ^1 understood after ^y^ understood is a thing unheard 

of. Moreover, even with the uJ , the subj. does not occur in the correl. 

of the requisitive verbal n. [187, 411, 421] : and, without the cJ, the 

subj. is impossible after a requisitive v. [420J, suoh instances as « w# 
*• a* • 
fojksaj being anomalous, not to be taken as precedents [418. A]; and 

much more then after a requisitive verbal n. — Z. 7. ^J^ w*c He 
remained a night with us , i. q vsjI* , like v^ i J and hence their saying 
u^xj j«AJ| «^j»^ (KF), L e. Leave it alone until some days pass over it, 
so that thou mayst see how its end will be, whether it wiU be praised or 
blamed: or it may mem Leave the poetry alone: it will keep back from the 

people, from L ^aai] i^i The fever intermitted, when it keeps back for a 
day, Le. Repeat not thy poetry to them incessantly, so that they weary of it 
(Md). See Md. L 253 and P. I. 522. 

#/A • #• A • 

P. 677,1 5. £w (IY. 507) : <~«* (IY. 511). " 



P. 680, 1 11. wJU (DA. 117, D. 140). 



r 

P. 683, 2. 4. Mua&feim Ibn AUSftrith, or, as the author of the K A 
considers more correct, Ibn 'Am* tt> n Hurra Ibn AlQ&rith, al'UVaili, 
of the Ban* 'Ufcail Ibn Ka^ j^ Jtabl'ft B)n 'Amir Ibn §aV*, an els- 



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( 106a ) 

gant Isl&mi poet of the desert, contemporary witfc Jarlr and AlFaraadafc 
(AKB) — L 10. IJarmala Ibn AlMundhir, or, as is said (KA, Is), 
AlMundhir Ibn Harmala, [the former being correct (KA),] afTi'l, a 
Christian poet [in the beginning of AlLsUm (AKB)], who is said to have 
lived 150 years (KA, Is, AKB), and remained till the days of Mu'awiya 
(Is, AKB). 

P. 684, 1. 3. He was one of the one-eyed men of $ais, who were 
5 poets, Tamlm Ibn Ubayy Ibn Mukbil, ArRa'I, AshShammikh, Ibn 
A^mar, and Qumaid Ibn Thaur. ISh says that he was one of the poets 
of heathenism, and reached Allslftm : and IHjr says in the Is (AKB), 
AlMarzubinI says that he was a Convert, and died in the time of ' tTthm&n 
after having attained a great age ; but AFI says that he was one of 
the renowned poets of heathenism, and afterwards became a Muslim, 
and praised the Khalifas that he met, vid. 'Umar and his successors 
down to 'Abd AlMalik Ibn Marw&n, which . is contrary to the saying 
ef AlManubEnI, that he died in the time of 'Uthman (Is, AKB): and 
God knows I (Is) — 11. 16-18. What shows it to be a verbal ik is the 
saying of Ibn Harma 

{The slow (beast) steps out, token the drivers sing to him, witli the step of 
the fleet (courser) : let alone the full-grown, higlhbred (camels) /, for they, 
with singing, go faster than others (AKB)], because here it puts what 
follows it into the ace. : whereas in the saying of the other, [Ab& 
Zubaid atT&'I anNagranl (AKB),] 

& J** f^' d J*" tt >1*1/«A«3l c ^UJ| UUy^L*^ 

C* U ^ J^*&\(*&f\* **>} *J\ J*! J3S) jLa> 

{Who will convey to our distant people, since they have gone far away, 
that the heart is yearning for them, eagerly longing 2 (It is) the carrier of 
the loads of the people of the, i. e., my, love at (many) times. I give them 



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( 107a ) 

ike utmost effort of me : let alone what I can easily compass /, the rel 
being suppressed, Le. **~l (AKB)], U may be in the position of an ace., 
*k containing a pron. in the nom., [Le. £~J I £ -** (AKB)], as is shown 
by l^swJ ) ilaJ | *i* [above] ; or in the position of a gen, according to 

him that recites **-*$ * I *** [below], making *1> an inf. n. (IY), i.e. 
y 
hsh +h** hsh* y a*/ *y y Ay 

a^^U K Jj [or £"J I <-> /* , like «*j} O^ J ; or [in the position of a nom. 

,h, y h* Sh9K* y # Ayy 

as an *«dL, ^ being Lq. *-# , because] the sense may be <*~y I «-a^ 

t&*£\ I {Then) how is what I can easily compass, (that I give it not) 1 

y y 

(AKB) — U, 18 — 21. F says, What confirms its being an inf. n. is that 

AASb transmits )6S J**? ' *->#** U TF^z/ is the matter with thee that 

* * y 
thou dost not such a thing ?, i.e. ufl l* Ffca* a*& thee f (AKB). Lane 

••Ay y 

(p. 254, «>Z. 2) has lS& U ; and so apparently has the KF (p. 910), 
though here the vowel-mark is blurred ; and the AKB does not give 

Ay 

the vowel : but, since *** is infl. when an inf. n., Pamm seems necessary. 
P. 685, 7. 8. In the year 5 (SR, Tr, LM)— J. 9. See the ode in 

Ay A Ay A 

SR. 705-706— I 17 and /. 21. Jahn (IT. 513) prints *M&* and Jtf^; 

/Ay y Ay > A$ A 

but, *fe being tmtyL when i.q. L-i*/ , Fatfca, as in ^1 &• , seems 

correot ; and is said to be so in the tradition (p. 686, 11 12-H). See, 

however, the Note on p. 686, «. 14-15— J. 22. The SB* III, 309, 

followed by the K and B, gives this tradition in the exposition of the 

Sht £* * A#y y a£ • $ as s,hs s, 
text^l *;* ^ ^ <>*>I u u-^ f 4 ** » XXXII. 17. 2%en no* a soul 

shall know what delight of eyes hath been hidden for them, not of the * 

m 

J) ; so that Lane is wrong in inserting "[by these three letters]" after 
*Godsaya"(p. 686, 1. 1). 

P. 686, I 3. *fe [without ^J (SB, K, B); [and so in the #a£tj of 
Muslim:] but «i* ^ occurs in most of the MSS of the SB; and IHjr 



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( 108a ) 

A/ A 

says that, according to Sgb, the MSS of the SB agree upon *k &• 

ASA kt k*9k*kt * 

(AKB). f^Jfe | ye have been acquainted with (SB): (£*&> I (K, B, KF); 

and so in Z. 22 below — tf. 7-10. Shm says, In the version with the gen. 

*l> may be an inf. n., i.q. c-?j*M » and &• causative, i.e. on account 

of their abandoning what ye have become acquainted with, vid. mm ; and in 
this case it is not excluded from the preceding [meanings] (Amr, DM). 
The prep, and gen. have been interpreted by the phrase " It is as though 
He said, Let atone what ye have become acquainted with ; (for it i$ easy by 
the side of what has been treasured up for them)" : but this is appropriate 

*h* A 

only to the exposition of *k not preceded by ^ ; whereas, when it is 

A /A/ $Al A/3 

preceded by &*, it is said to be i.q. l-*^ , Ja>| [not Ja>! ,as in the 

KF], yifi or ^y* , and J-** (AKB). The &• in this version, as explained 
by IHsh, seems to be expl, as in XXXII. 17. (Note on p. 685, 1 22)— 

Ax 

U. 14-15. The Kasra of d* may be a Kasra of uninflectedness, which is 
corroborated by what AH says in the Ir, vid. that Fatlji and Kasr of the 

/A/ 

* have been heard in *k (AKB)— J. 15. u^iJJ) in DM. L 166, I. 23 
appears to he a mistake for £*aJ| — L 22. This is a piece of a tradition, 

vid. "God says, £*! ^W cuu*i [above] " (AKB). 
P. 687, 1. 8. The poet says 

/ /Af • / /A/A»« // •$ • /• A • /* 

IaJ! ; ,I ^jJ J*±J| ^ U| * \f\f £ ^ tfy- 
(IT) Leave them, namely camels (the accpron. being expounded by the sp. 

A 

governed in the yen, by the «qat ^ , because the pron. is not preceded 

by what it relates to), leave them. Dost thou not see the horsemen at their 
hmnAcs 9 This was the saying of Tufeil Ibn Tazld alQ&rithl, a 
heathen poet, and horseman! when Kinda bad made a raid upon his 



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( 109a ) 



camels. He came up with" them, saying £JJ W/, or, in another 
version, £ I Wj* J*t &* V^ Overtake them, ete. ; and, bearing dowta 
upon the stallion of the camels, hamstrung him, whereupon the camels 
circled round him : then the Bantt-lffcrith Ibn Kat>, coming up with 

* AyA 

Tufail, rescued his herd, while Kinda were put to flight (AKB). ,J*£df 

/A/A 

(IY) : *>r*\ death (Mb. 269, AKB. II. 354). The fighting occurs at 
the hinder parts of the camels, because the raiders drive them, and 
urge them on ; while the owners hinder them from tha't (AKB). 
P. 688, 1. "8. By Abu-nNajm al'Ijll, an IslEml Rftjiz (AKB), 
P. 689, I. 15. R has followed the author of the Si^at in his 

relating the verse thus. It is compounded of 2 verses : for the verse 

•• a • * 
containing J1}* «>**> , which is by Zohair lbn Abi SulmA, has for its 

1st hemistich 

{ / A$ Aw * $ A * /A • • 

tat e^u | *y*) I yte* f**i ) 

And assuredly most excellent is the padding, i.e. wearer, of the coat of mail, 

thou, when; while £J I £?»~t «**' j is the 1st hemistich of a verse by 
AlMusayyab Ibn 'Alas, the 2nd hemistich of which H 
aS •* a j/ # / £ 0* 9** 

the cry for help occurs, and etc The latter verse, which is from an ode 
praising Kais Ibn Ma'dlkarib alKindl, who died in heathenism, whence 

±i I jl^jj I lJuoj [80], is attributted by As to AlMusayyab Ibn 'Alas 
alJuma'l, who was maternal uncle of AlA'sha Maimfln, and was a 
heathen poet, who did not reach Allslam ; but by AU, ID, and others 
to his sister's son AlA'sha MaimUn (AKB). 

P. 690, l 20. An admirable minor heathen poet (AKB). 

P. 691, H 6-7. AtTaimi, a teathfln poet, retortiag upon LafcH 
lbn Zur&ra atTamlml, who had satirteed f Adl and Tarm. He upbraids 



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( 110a > 

Laklt with hating fled in a battle where his brother Ma*bad Ibn Zorirm 
had been taken prisoner ; and attributes his flight to greediness for 
food and drink (AKB)— 1 15. See the ode in SR. 723— J. 16. In the 
year 6 (LM)— tt. 19-20. Because the form of the inf. m. is not that of 
the da. f which is really an ep. [76] (IY. 241). 

P. 692, «. 20-2L See Md. IL 16± and P. IL 547, IIL 285. 

P. 693! II. 5-10. See the Note on/>. 38, 11 8-4 ; and see p. 698, 
11. 10-18— i 21. Bead u £\ *J?£> I [497J'. 

P. 694, 1. 15. Mb does not say " used in the non-voc" ; but implies 
these words by the form of his cx$., ,J& tj y*^> and ^JS t» ^il^ f the 

voc phrase ^ H being added to show that /*%> and ^^ are not 
wet. themselves. 

P. 695, I 16. Ibn Ja'far Ibn Kilab ^SR). He was a heathen 
(IAth. L 416). 

P. 696, 1. 15. The reference is top. 691, 1 5-4. 16. R cites this 
hemistich to show that &w is h/em. ep. made to deviate from *a>*a* , 
Le. S ; AL« ; but this is contrary to the saying of S, who cites it to show 

that *U* is made to deviate from a/m. in/. »., not from an «/>. ; and 
o|*^ occurs also as an imp. verbal ». : so that, according to this, <4o* 

is of 8 kinds (AKB) : but R's explanation obviously fails when *Jd* 
occurs as a d.s. to a masc,, as in the verse of QassSn at p. 691 ; whereas S r a 
explanation, which is adopted by IY, applies in the case of both genders. 
P. 697, Z. 1. Sajftfe Bint Aigarith [Ibn Suwaid (MDh, IAth)] at 
Tamlmfya, [of the Banu Yarbu' (1Kb),] who set up as a Prophetess in 
the Apoetacy, and was followed by some peeple [of the Banu Tamftn 
(1Kb)]. She afterwards made peace with Musailima, and married him ; 
but, after his death, she returned to Allslftm. She lived till the Khilafa 
ofMu'awiyatfs)— Z. 2. Musailima [Ibn JJablb (SR, 1Kb) al?anafi 
(SR) of the Banu 'Adl Ibn ?antfa Ibn Lujaim (1Kb)], the Impostor o£ 



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4 



( UlA ) 

AlYamiraa, I. 11 (MDh)— & 56. See Md. I. 161, P. I. 82g-J.f7 
King of Alljlra, commonly called AlMcmdbir Ibn MA asSami after his 
mother Miwlya Bint f Auf Ibn Jusham, who received the cognomen of 
Mi asSami [Water of Heave*] on account of her beauty (AF)— I 14. 
See Md* I. 79, P. I. 151— fi. 16-lT. Sgh Bays, La*af is the name of a 
water in a place between Atakka and AlBagra belonging to the Band 
Yarbfl' of the tribe of Tamlra : Bk says (AKB), Las&f, says Ath, is a 
water belonging to the Banu Yarbfi' (Bk, AKB). 

P. 698, t 1 By Abu ttuhawwish Rabl'a, or £aut, Ibn Ri'ab alAsadi 
[alFal^as! (Mb)], mentioned by IHjr in the Is among the Converts 
who reached the Prophet, but did not see him. The poet is satirizing 
Nahshal Ibn IJarri (AKB) — I T. The version *& , [which occurs in the 
ID. 137,] is transmitted by Jhand Sgh; and the version W by many, among 
them ISk, Kl, AAMr, and Bk (AKB)— I 15. The reference is to p. 
-tM/JL5-10. See the Note on p. 38, U. 34— I 18. "like JM*" 
means "governed by the rules laid down in p. 699, /. 20—^. 701, 1 3." 

P. 700, 1 1. The father of tfanlfa and 'Ijl (MN). See Md. I. 160* 
But see too p. 27 A, /. IS— I. 22. One of the champion poets of 

heathenism, who was named \->f* I *^U* TheCymbalut, or Harper, of the 
Arab* on account of the excellence of his poetry, fie reached Allsllm 
at the end of his life ; and set out, during the peace of AlQudaibiya, 
[concluded between the Prophet and Kuraish in the year 6, and broken 
in the year 8 (SR, LM),] on a journey to the Prophet, in whose praise 

he composed an ode beginning ^1 ^j***** ^ I [126]:buthewasdissuaded 
by Abu Sufyan at Makka from carrying out h» intention ; and went 
away to AlYamima, where he was thrown by a camel and killed. The 
ode is an excellent one, numbering 24 verses, most of which are cited 
. by the ML, while not one of them occurs among these Evidentiary 
Verses. [It is given at length in pp. 255-256 of the SR.] AlA'aM in 
lexicology is he that $ee$ not by night, but sees by day, [i.e. blind by night] ; 



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( H8A ) 

and this A'sha became [altogether] blind towards the end of biff life. 
The number of poets who were blind by night is 17 (AKB). 

P. 701, 1, 1* Iram is the name of a tribe ; and 'Ad too is a tribe, 
i vid. the people of [the Prophet (IBd)] Had (peace be upon him I) (AAs). 

HewasHadlbu'Abd Allih ...Ibn'Adlbn 'Au$ Ibn Iram lbs 

Sam Ibn Nab (1Kb, Tr, IBd, B on VII. 63); or, as is said (Tr, B) bj some 
genealogists (Tr), Had was [\Abar (Tr)} Ibn Sh&lakh Ibn Arfekhshad 
Ibn Sftm (Tr, K on VIL 63, B) Ibn Nat (Tr, K), [grand] son of the 
uncle of the father of 'Ad (B). These two tribes, 'Ad Ibn 'Aug Ibn 
Iram and Thamad Ibn J&thar Ibn Iram, were descended from Iram; 
and they were the indigenous Arabs (Tr). Historians, however, divide 
the Arabs into 3 kinds, (1) extinct, i. e. the first Arabs, the details of 
whose histories have gone from us on account of the antiquity of their 
epoch, vid. 'Ad, Thamad, Jadts, Tasm, and the 1st Jurhum, who were 
in the time of 'Ad ; whereas the 2nd Jurhum were among the children 
of $abt&n :'Ja) Noah carried [in the Ark] those that God had com- 
manded him to oarry : and among them were the 3 sons of Noah, vid. 
Shem, Ham and Japheth, and their wives ; and some say that he 
carried 6 [other] persons also, and some say 80 men [and women (Nw)] f 
one of whom was [the 1st] Jurhum, ail of the children of Seth (MAB) : 
(b) 'Ad son of 'Au? Ibn Iram (SR), Thamad and Jadls, sons of 
[Jftthar or] 'Athar Ibn Iram, and Tasm, ['Imllfc or (KF)] ' Imlafc and 
Umaim, sons of Lftwadh Ibn Sam Ibn Nat, were all of them Arabs 
(SR, TKh) : so in the SR (TKh) : (2) indigenous, i. e., the Arabs of 
AlYaman, vid. the Banu Safoan Ibn 'Abar Ibn [Shftlakh or]Sh&lafc Ibn 
Arfakhshad Ibn Sim Ibn Nafc, whence the Banu Jurhum Ibn Rafetftu 
and the Banu Saba Ibn Yashjublbn Ya'rub Ibn £abt*n • (3) insititions, 
i. e., the children of Ismt'Il Ibn Ibrihlm, who, when Abraham had 
settled him at Makka, joined the 2nd Jurhum, who were residing in the 
neighbourhood of Makka, and took a wife from them, [vid. Rala (SB 
KA. XIII. 108, TKh) asSayyida (Tr), daughter of MuW Ibn 'Amr 
alJurhuml (SR, Tr, KA, TKh)] ; so that he and his children are called 
insititious Arabs, because Ishmael's origin and language were Hebrew 



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j 



( 113a ) 

(MAB), and be [and his children (IAth)] learnt Ambio from Jurhuin 
(lAth, IKhld, TKh) : (a) Kaidhir Ibn IsmE'Il was the father of the [in- 
sititious] Arabs (KF); and the tribes of the children of Ishmael branched 
out from 'Adntn (SR, TKh), who, according to the pedigree preferred, 

'Adntn Ibn Udd Ibn Udad Ibn Kaidhftr Ibn Isma'll (MAB). 



;)l Amt [the name of Abraham's father (K)] is most probably [a foreign 
proper name (B)] upon [the measure of (K)] J*l* , like \^f> (K),] ^U 

(X, B on VI. 74), ;)l* , jfe (K) [or] ^Jl£ (B), £»l* , and similar names 

d theirs (K)— J. 2. KM says (Bk), Wabfr was a country [193] 

belonging to c Ad (Bk, AAz), between AlYaman and the sands of 

Yabrtn (Bk) : so in the ?ifc*b : but some say that WabSr [Ibn Umaim 

(Tr, MDh)] is the name [of the progenitor] of an ancient people 

of the indigenous Arabs, that perished like 'Ad and Thamnd (AAs)-^/. 

13. Qumaid Ibn Kais [alAsadl, their freednian (Nw),] alMakkl al A 'raj 

(Nw, IHjr), the Reader, d. in or after 1 30 (IHjr). The A'raj celebrated 

for reporting Abu Huraira is 'Abd ArRafeman Ibn Hurmuz alA'raj, a 

MadanI Follower, a guraishi, freednian of Rab! ( a Ibn AlJJarith Ibn <Abd 

AlMutfalib or of 'Umar Ibn Abi Rabl'a, d. 117, or, as is naid, 1 10, the 

former being the true [date] (Nw)—^. 16. The Mu'adhdhin Abu ffaiwa 

Shuraih Ibn Tand alHaframl alljim$l, d. 203 (IHjr)—/. 17. Ka'nab 

^.Tamlml alKflft, of the 6th class of Tradition is t8, vid. those who were 

contemporary with the 5th, but are not authentically recorded as having 

met any of the Companions, like [the Follower of the Followers (Nw)] 

«Abd AlMalik Ibn <Abd Al'AsIz Ibn Juraij [altfuraishl (Nw)] alUmawf 

their freedman, alMakkl, the Jurist, d. [149 (Nw),] 150, [151, or 160 

(Nw),] being then past 70, or, as is said, past 100, which is not 

authentic (IHjr). 

P. 703, IX In some MSS fyi day is found instead of fyi fn both 
places (MAd). 8o too in tb* M, IY, AAz, and AKB. III. 56. The 

Sb, Mr. I. 152, YS. II. 205, MAd, and MKh. II. 105 have^Ji % 



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( IHa ) 

R 704, 1 1. AlA'sha Maimao (AEB)— J. 2. ISB says that 5ayy*n 
and Jabir were sons of 'Amlra of the Banu Hanlfa, and that 9ayjaa 
was a boon companion of AlA'sha (AKB) — I 7. A freedman of [the: 
Banu (JEhn)] Sulaira (IKhn, AEB), as is said (IKtin) ; or, us is said, 
one of the Banu Jadhlma Tbn Malik Ibn Nasr Iba Ku<ain (AKB), of 
the Banu Asad Ibn Ehuzaima (1Kb, ID) : and Qod knows ! (IEhn). 
He was a born poet. The cause of the ode was that Habl'a had praise^ 
Yazld Ibn Usaid, who was then Governor of Armenia, in an excellent 
poem ; but Tazld failed to reward hjm properly : whereas, when h* 
praised Yazld Ibn Hatim, the latter was extremely liberal to him 
(AEB). 

P. 708, I 1. Praising AnNu'man Ibn AlMundhir (AEB)— U. M. 
AZ transmits the saying of the Rfijiz 

A//# *' * K&^ Sm $ A/ • f * ** i** *A/ 

A\# I, f^M »&.] • *JUii l> ufl ,U l«, 

(IY, AEB) Go on, let the people, or mankind, ransom thee, OFadala ! Mai* 

**' . 
him trail the spear, anfi be not dismayed, where As* has literally no a?^ 

but the ag. is understood from the contest, i.e. (j^Wl *+J<>*^ and the 
like (AEB) — tf. 17-19. *b$ is a verbal ». transferred from the fta/. * 
[187]. F says " It is nninfl. beoause it implies the sense of the p., vid. 
<< the imp. J * since <->J A±* is constructively cJjAp ; ft is *nw± 
"upon Easr, because it denotes the imp., and the imp., when vocalised. 

" is vocalized with Easr [66*] ; and they pronounce \t with TanwXn 

«' because it is indet. 9 ' (AEB). 



J. 703, 1 20. See SB. I. 475. 

P. 710, J. 22. l3^/* means ^ 
a#/ 



P. 710, J. 22, lJjIC* means i-fclC* r jil ^ %*&« (R) ; [and sol 
XlC* X. 29. means ffcK* Iy*)J! fcep your pfocu ^ b) : but these' are 
explanations of the sense, not of the construction, otherwise the pre.n\i# 
u&U* and f#U* would be a direct ohj., an notacfr. 



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( 115a ) 

P. T12, I 16 and I 17. "what" moans "the state of the pron. a. 
ag., obf, or gen" 

P. 714, 1 24. I do not know who Jahm was; and God knows! 
(AKB). 

P. 715, U. 5-6. The [whole] verse ooours in the poems of 2 poets, 
(1) 'Uwaif al£awEft, i. e. 'Uwaif Ibn Mu'awiya [alFazarl (KA)], a minor 
poet of the Umawl dynasty : (2) Sufcaim, or, as some name him, rjayya, 
the black Abyssinian slave of the Banu-lrjasfcas, who, says Ibn Hisblm 
in the SR, were of Asad Ibn Kbusaima, a [celebrated (Is)] converted 
poet, who reached heathenism and, Allslam, and was killed in the 

Khilafa of 'Utbmari ; bnt in his poem the version is ^j **, | 5 4 na * fa 
that rode behind me cried (to the camels). And the 1st hemistich occurs 
in the beginning of a verse in an ode by Mutfarris Ibn Rib1.,..,.Ibn 

fa^'as Ibn Asad Ibn Khuzajma, a good heathen poet, describing 

wmels ] and is followed by 

And taid to their driver, Art thou waiting for him t (AKB>— I 9. This 
js the meaning generally assigned ; but sozne say that he means by the, 

i-i&) his follower of the Jinn ; for, when the rhymes crowded together 
in his mind, and whispered to him, men used to say he had a devil 

that whispered to him ; and, in this case, the pron, in ^»Ua belongs, 
to the rhyme, i.©. My devil caUed the rhyme*, and they answered him, 
pud poured out upon him, meaning that Poetry obeyed Km (A KB). 

P. 722, 1. 17. I am not acquainted with the name of the author of 
this verse (MN). Fr says, It was recited to me by one of the -Baa* 
#Ufcail.(AKB)— 1. 18* AlAzd, or,^JAsd, was the. lather of a tribe of 
AlTaman, vid. AlAzd Ibn AlGhauth Ibn Na,bt Ibn Malik [Ibn ZaioJ 
(1Kb, KAb, Dh)] Ibn #afetan Ibn Saba, one of whosa branches wif 

galled ^^jl A*i Shanv'a, from *>?+* meaning keeping ttte/./ta* 



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( 116a ) 

poOmtiotu; tad sometimes, says ISk, iji£ oj| 4*J Skanuwa (AKB)— L 
20. This is the last of 5 verses by Yasld Ibn 'Amr Ibn Khuwailid 
as§a«ik alKiltbl ; bat Al' Aim says its author is 'AM Alllh Ibn Ya*rub 
Ibo Ma'iwiya Ibn 'Ubtda Ibn AlBakki [Rabl<a (IKhn)] Ibo 'Amir [Ibn 
Babt<a Ibn 'Amir Ibn $a'sa<a (I^b, IKhn)]. It is generally related, 

[as by Al'Ainl in the MN and FA,] with j**sJI AJ^wUkhtd, [or aa 
some say, eoM (MN, FA),] tsottr ; bat Thi and Z relate it with jUI* 

uriyJ | , which perhaps is from another poem (AKB), 

P. 723, 1 6. Acoording to B, Jp and *P mean the same, og. J*5 
t-ft* 6</brd (tat), both being intended to be understood aa pre. : bat 

J& is uninfl. because the potL is suppressed ; while *V is wyi beoauso 
the po*. is, as it were, expressed by means of the compensatory Tanwln. 

P. 724, 1 15. Part of a poem recited by Ma'n Ibn Ana allfuzanr 
in the presence of Mutwiya and 'AM AU&h Ibn AsZubair (Mb. 357). 

, S sA sS / 

P. 725, i. 1, There is another yersion f*\'y tf *W TViga /&s 

0#A £*A 

lfiaa**»(MN)-- &4-5. Bead'Srith^^, [for r ki .£«,] making it 

As A S *f A , a 

fate., like a**^ > J* 5 ^ [above], J* ^ [below], and the like; bat** 
— I 14. "[the sign of] the aost. and «cc" bare (R. II 81, i 5) is a loosa 
expression for "Qamm or the sign of the am" 



P. 726, 1 15. And also, if it were pre., ^ &• meaning fir<m 
abovtwu would be said, because the sense requires that, not d* <*• 
(DM). 

P. 728, 1 6. IBr says that this Bajaa is by Gha&in Ibn Qaraith 
arRabai ; bat I have not met with any information about Ghailtn 
(AKB)— J. 7. The A'sha of Bthila was 'Amir Ibn AlQirith, a celebrat- 
ed heathen poet, author of an elegy on his half-brother by his mother's 



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( H7a ) 

side, AlMuntashir Ibn Wahb, as AU says, or Ibn Hubaira Iba Wabb, 
as As says (AKB). 

P. 732, 1 7. On the clause " the saying ytfi ' being a solecism n 
(p. 730, IL 7-8) the DM has a Note to the same effect as this passage 
from the Fk ; and from this Note the word9 " like R " have been 
abstracted. 

P. 733, 118. The dm. " this ", as appears from the Sn, may include 
the two usages of v ,l » % > ** *» i^det. «P« an ^ M a P™™* substantive. 

P. 735,2.20. See Mb. 693, B, 2-6. 

P. 736, 1 2. The n. of time is said to be in sense the adv. of the 
inf. *, of, Le. implied by, the prop., because it denotes the time qf the 

occurrence indioaied by the inf. n., as LI. 13., where fyi denotes the 

h* 
time qf their being burnt, contrary to IV. 50., where J*> does not denote 

the time qf Our deforming. It is not in letter the adv. of the inf. n., 
because it is not governed in the aoe. by that inf. n. [64]. 

P. 738, 1 19. This verse is from an ode by Abu $ais [9aifl (ID)] 

Ibn 'Amir alAslat Ibn Jusham Ibn AlAus [alAns&rf (AGh) 

alAusI (Is)], a heathen poet The author of the KA says his name 
has not come to my knowledge ; but IHjr in the Is says his name 
was §aift or AlQ&rith or *Abd Allah or §irma or something else ; [and 
the first 3 names are given in the AGh]. He died 10 months after the 
Hgra : or, [when the Prophet arrived at AlMadlna (Is),] he fled to 
Makka, and abode with guraish until the year of the Conquest, [Le. 
the year 8 (SB, LM)]. But Z attributes the verse to AshShammtkh ; 
some of the Commentators of S to a man of Einftna ; and a learned 
foreigner to Abu gais Ibn Rift 'a aLAnsin. No one, however, called 
Abu £ais Ibn Rift'a is to be found in the Books of the Companions : 
but only 1 or 2 Companions called $ais Ibn Rift'a, the 1st being $ais 
Ibn RhVa alAnsirl [alAusl] alWlfcift, of the Banu W&fcif. [whose name 
was M&lik (Nw),] Ibn Imra al$ais Ibn Malik Ibn AlAus, mentioned 
in the MSh ; and the 2nd Kaia Ibn Bift'a ....Ibn Numair alAnslrr, 



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( 118a ) 

who was a poet, and, says IHjr, may perhaps be the same as the pre- 
ceding (AKB). The name of Abu l£ais Ibn Rife'a alAns&rl was 
Dfnftr (Jsh). 

P. 739, I 8, Jj composed a Commentary, which he named the 
Stughnt, on the Idah of F (HKh) — /. 18. This hemistich is from a long 
ode by AlFarazdaV satirising Jarlr, of which we must mention' two verses 
in order that its meaning may become manifest, vid. 

S$'** h***'*h*m»* ' » A^O/A »»K* * ****** * 

Verify we m&e *Ae fceai of etfery tribe / ani tty father, behind his tke-cu*. 
UQs Uce. His squeeze vtith the thumb and forefinger crushes the smatt 

As 

lice beside the testicles. etc / The 6&* is a mode of counting with the 
fingers of the two hands; and he means the tf&& I «&le counting of thirty, 
which is effected by placing your thumb at the end of the fore-finger, 
i.e. by joining their tips, like the holder of a needle (AKB). 

P. 743, 1 8. This text is somewhat garbled in the R (voL II, 
p. 84, 1 19). 

P. 746, 11 10-11. l*^ by something else (ML), le. &* y& 
f DM). Lane (p. 683, col 2) says " by another prep", thus making 

^ J in the subsequent ex. a prep. 

P. 746, I. 14. Lane (p. 683, col. 3) has "where I saw Zeyd". 

*< ** $*•' +*' 

P. 747, U. 6-7. Iii> represents the 2 regs. of \ji , e.g. ^ U*) ; 

stf a/ • 

and mI with its 2 re#e. is renderable by a single term, . e.g. **; J& , 

# A • '' ' 

post, to *^^ 9 From the place, Le. circumstance or /a**, *Aa< ^airf « 

# A • 

standing, i.e. o/ ZaW* standing, i.e. Whereas Zaid is standing, vi**^ 

S# * A/ A ^ 

place in ^1 ^Sk^ ^ signifying circumstance or /ae*, like b» pfo* ^ 
the similar Persian expression tf laailjj iW» that place, i,e., ctrcttmetosee or 



k 



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J 



( 119a ) 

f*ct, that, i.e., Whereas— I 11. An [excellent (KA, MN) Islaml (AKB)] 
poet, contemporary with the Umawl and 'AbbasI dynasties (KA, MN", 
AKB), d. in the year 180 odd (AKB). 

P. 755, 1.1. Insert " but the 2 doctrines [of redundance and verifi- 
cation (DM)] are of no account, [because they involve the assertion of 
exclusion of a word from its well known meaning without any evidence 
(DM)] :" before "while/' 

P. 756, 7/ 4-5. This is what determines that "the text" [in p. 
755, I I and p. 756, I. 3] must be taken to refer to XLI1I. 38. (DM) ; 
and not, as Lane (p. 39, col. 1, U. 47-52) supposes, to II. 28. 

P. 757, 1 12. I have seen in the KA what indicates that this verse 
is by 'Abd Allah Ibn AlMd'tazz ; though its last hemistich is cited in 
the form of 

kt*jf ^Ujl Z*A*> ; »*J| j 

When the home was uniting us times and times [211] : but I have seen 
the verse attributed to one of the Arabs in the Nawadir of AZ, who 
cites it in the same form as IHsh ; and AZ died before 'Abd Allah Ibn 
AlMu'tazz was born (SM), See KA. IX. 142. 

P. 758, 1 3. See Md. II. 219 and P. II. 677. 

P. 759, 1. 16. I. e. Having already the sense, Jil now acquires the 

A s Z 

government, of ^)l though the affixion of t* (seep. 771, 1. L)—l 19. The 

£ /A 

argument is that, the government of the apoc. by Ui* not being expli- 
cable on the ground of composition, U«5' must be an apocopative p. — 

ZJ. The author of the 2 verses [cited in § 589] is said [by S and 
others (AKB)] to be 'Abd Allah Ibn Hammam asSalull (S, AKB), of 
the Bauu Hurra Ibn Sa'sa'a of Kais 'AilSn, who are kuown as the Banu 
Salsl, their mother being SaM Bint Dhuhl Ibn Shaiban Ibn Tha'laba, 
wife of Murra Ibn Sa'sa'a. This 'Abd Allah was an Islaml poet of the 
Followers. The poet traces his lineage to Fahm [Ibn 'Amr Ibn Kais 
Ibn 'Allan (IHb, 1Kb)] and Ashja' [Ibn Raith Ibn Ghajafan Ibn Sa'd 



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( 120a ) 

Ibu Kais (IHb, 1Kb)], though he was of Saltil, because they were all of 
Kais [Ibn] 'Ailftn Ibn Mu<Jar (AKB). 

P. 760, I. I. Dele the semicolon. 

P. 761, /. I The construction of this text mentioned by IHsh does 
not occur in the language of Z (DM). [The latter indeed says on X. 

AS*#<0/ ** i' ****** A/ A k**h * * 

22.,] It is as though He said ^ I £J) !)l*l* >\y***>tf> f»UA; IM > 
{&* And, when We have mercy on them after a hardship, they suddenly 

fall to the occurrence of plotting proceeding from them (K) ; but the 

contoxt bhows that this is intended as an explanation of the sense of 

* 
haste in the 2nd l*i! , not of its op. 

P. 764, I. 1. In XXX. 24. the 1st IM is eond. (K) ; and the 2nd 

denotes suddenness of occurrence, and [therefore (B)] supplies the place 

of the <— » in the correl, (K, B) of the 1st (B), [i.e.] of the condition (E) 

A 

— I 15. By Ka'b Ibn Zuhair (S). &• is abstractive [1] (N). Trans- 
late / rouse in her (the she-camel), at the end of the night, a terrified wild 
lull, MDE's rendering in the text being a paraphrase. 

P. 765, /. 18. This verse is from an ode containing more than 10 * 
verses by 'Abd Kais Ibn Khufef, of the Barajim, [a people of the children 
of Hanzala Ibn Malik (KF),] an Isl&ml [poet] ; but I have seen these 
verses attributed to IJaritha Ibn Badr alGhudinl atTamlml (SM). 

P. 766, 1. 18. An Islaml poet AHm says he was of the Bann 

Kinana Ibn Alljfain Ibn Kuda'a, and lived 200 years; and he is 

mentioned by IHjr in the Is among the converts, who reached the 
itme of the Prophet, and become Muslims, but saw him not (AKB) ; 
and AUd says he was a heathen (Is). 

P. 769, 1. 7. After "the J " insert "of inception". Z and B 
also hold the J in this text to be the J of inception, for the same 
reason as in LXXY. 1. (see the Note on Vol. II, p. 116, 1. 2); and they 
meet the objection that the J of inception, when prefixed to the aor., 
gives the sense of the present with the reply that, wTm combined with 



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( 12U ) 

cJj*« , it is divested of the sense of the present, and denotes were cor- 

roboration [404], as the art. in *^l ^ [52] is divested of the sense of 

*t 
determination, and becomes a mere compensation for the Hamza of 4f : 

but IHsh declares that this is an unnecessary elaboration ; and asserts 
that the <J of the oath is sometimes necessary when the ^ is disallow- 
ed, vid. when the aor. is conjoined with the p. of amplification, as in 
XIX. 67. (see the K and B on XIX. 67., and the ML on the J). 

P. 771, 1 10. The Banu Fak'as were a clan of the Banu Asad 
(T, AKB) Ibn Khuzaima. These verses are attributed also to 'Amr 
Ibn Asad alFak'asI ; and God knows ! (AKB). 

P. 772, 1 7. Abu Laila is the surname of AlHarith IbnZalim alMurrl, 
a heathen (AKB)— ibid. The sense is *yvd ^3 (AKB). 

P. 773,8. 1,5. The gen. after U« in this verse, printed by Jahn 
(IY. 551) as the sole, and by Thorbecke (D. 64) as an alternative 
version, seems to be out of place here, beoause the discussion is about 

A • /Ay 

the propriety of introducing &\ and til into the eorrel. of U#, which 

has a corrcL only when it is pre,, as in the version with the nom., to a 
prop. (seep. 778, XI. 8-10); not when it is pre., as in the version with 
the gen., to a single term — I 10. It is related [by H in the D (TKhn, 
HH) on the authority of IKlb (D)] that 'Abld [or 'Umair (AGh, Is, CD), 
which perhaps is due to a mistake (Is, CD) in hearing (Is),] Ibn [Shartya 
(Is, CD) or] Sharya alJurhural, who lived [240 or, as is said (AGh, Is, 
CD),] 300 years, and reached Allsl&m, and became a Muslim, entered the 
presence of Mu'awiya [Ibn Abi Sufyan (IKhn, HH)] in Syria, when he 
was Khalifa. Then said Mu'awiya to him " Tell me the most wonderful 
" of what thou hast seen." He said " I passed one day by some people 
" burying a dead man of theirs ; and, when I had come up to them, 
u mine eyes filled with tears, and I quoted the saying of the poet." 
[Here follow 6 verses, of which the two in the text are the 1th and 



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( 122a ) 

5tb.] " Then said a man to me ' Dost thou kuow who is the author 
"'of this poemf I said 'No, [by God, except that I have beeu 
" 'reciting it for a long time ! (BH)]\ He said '[By Him thou swearest 
" 'by (HH),] verily the author of it is this [companion of ours (HH)}, 

" 'whom we have buried at this hour ! ' " Then said Mu'awiya to 

him " Verily thou hast seen a wonder : then who was the dead man 1 n 
He said " [He was (D, JIH)] ' Ithyar Ibn Labld al'tfdhrl " (D, IKhn, 
HH. II. 1 19). Bat to this there Is the objection that [the corpse on the 
bier and (SM)] the author of the verses was a man of [the Banu (CD)} 
1 Udhra called Iluraith Ibn Jabala (SM, CD) ; and that [fact] is 
positively asserted by Z in the Exposition of the Evidentiary Verses of S 
(SM). 'Abld lived till the Khilifa of 'Abd AlMalik Ibn Marwan (Is, CD>. 

P. 774, 1. 7. I. e. the full phrase in f 15 *•>} U# (see p. 776, I. 3). 

P. 776, 1 13. After "p*.," insert "[While etc, lo, he saw Hind,]" 
— I 21. alJurabi, of Juraib Ibn Sa'd Ibd Hudhail, a heathen poet 

(AKB)— I 23. 8,#U5 KutaHJa, [as is said (MI, AKB) by ISB (AKB),} 
is a [well known (ZJ, MI, N) narrow (AKB)] mountain-road (ZJ, MI, 
N, AKB) ; but As says that every mountain-road is a »^>li5 ; * an( 3 > accord- 
ing to his saying, its triptote declension [in the verse] is not duo to 
poetic license (AKB). 

P. 779, I 8. A minor IslamI poet (KA), reckoned by MIS in the 
2nd class of the Poets of AllBlam (AKB). He was a Christian (KA, 
AKB), and then became a Muslim ; and he was the sister's son of 
AlAkhtal (AKB). IA1 says that the first thing mentioned of him is 
that he arrived at Damascus in the Khilafa of AlWalld Ibn 'Abd 
AlMalik, or, as is said, of 'Umar Ibn 'Abd Al'Azlz (KA)— /. 14. Of the 
Banu-HJarith Ibn Hammam [Ibn Murra Ibn Dhuhl Ibn Shaiban ash- 
Shaibanl (T)], a gafcabl poet, mentioned by IHjr in the Is (AKB). 

P. 781, U. 15-16. See the whole poem at pp. 668-569 of the SR. 



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( 123a ) 

P. 784. I 20. Its author is said by Jh to be Abu-uNojm ; and by 
some to be Ru'ba Ibu Al'Ajjaj, but it is not in his Dxwan (MN) : and 
AZ says in his Nawadir that MD said " Abu-lGhfll recited it to me as 
by one of the people of AlYaman" (MN, AKB) ; but Akh says in the 
Exposition of the Nawadir that AHm said "Tasked AU about these 
" verses, and he said, ' Put a mark upon them : this is a forgery of 
MD'"(AKB). 

P. 785, 1 9. For " red." read "red. 1 *— I 14. The reference is to 
p. 568, I. 15. 

P. 786, 1. 19. Kl says that Rauh recited this peom in the presence 
of 'Abd AlMalik Ibn MarwSLu (MN). Raufc is mentioned by some 
among the Companions : but Companionship is not correctly attribute 
able to him ; though he may have been born in the time of the Prophet, 
for his father was a Companion. He is mentioned in the 2nd class 
- of the Followers of the people of Syria ; and is said to have been 
a Governor over Palestine. He died in 84 (Is). 

P. 787, 1. 11. For "bears" read "hears"—/. 20. Read "the 
Banu Tamim". 

P. 788, 1 19. From a Rajaz in the Nawadir of AZ, who heard it 
from the Arabs (AKB). 

P. 791, 1. 5. The celebrated poet (MAd). 

P. 794, /. 3. 'lfek: Ibn Murayy [alljCushairl, who had taken up his 
abode in the neighbourhood of Bfthila (AKB),] was seized in a famine 
by AlAfcdab Ibn 'Amr alB&hill, who roasted and ate him (KF, AKB). 

Ml f* 

^jy with Pamm of the f , Fat^i of the ; , and reduplication of the ^ 
(AKB) : ^ (KF)— I 4. > ^^ is /cm. of jM , and means Long-nechtd. 

4*" A/ A S«*/A/A«0 A • • 

Sgh says, > UuaJJ is Calamity, as > Ui*J I ** d> ; U» Calamity flew away with 
him, being orig. a Great Bird known in name, unknown in body. AHm 

S/ASA"0#*>/A,A 

says in the Book of Birds, As for *^*J I * UxaJJ , it is Calamity, not ono 



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( 124a ) 

of the birds that we know. And ID says, V >*♦ •* ^ is a phrase that 
has no foundation [in faot] : it is said to be [the name of] a Great Bird 
seen only [once] in ages; but was so frequently used that they named 

Calamity L?y*<*> Uis , as 

S A *S«w/As SS / h*o / A A /S • S* *h*o 9 /A/<# *h* * 

^ JU > UiLc r IsaJ I 6J i2 v* ** • cuSJL^ £a^1abJ | ..jl^U V 9 

4ni, ittf /or Sulaimdn the Khat\fa, a calamity from the hand of AlBajjaj 

§ as 
would have soared away with him. And ^>y*~ is an act. part, from 

* A*« i#5^» / /A* 

*M ^y J^y ' ^J*' w ^ en ** 0°* ^ r ** ** m ty i™ 6 ***** journeying ; 
and is ep. of *UU* , meaning far-flying: Sgh says that the 8 of 

femininization is elided in the same way as in yl* **U J. lank-bellied 

a* $ f 
. she-camel, i.e. *** «y|i possessed oflanbiess in the be&y [312] ; and so Z 

explains the masculinization of the ep. : but *4f* also is said (AKB). 

P. 795, 8. 1-2. IS is followed by his pupil F, who is followed by his 
pupQ IJ and by [another pupil] Abd (BS)— L 22. For " v." read " v." 

P. 798, 1 18. By ['Abd Allah] Ibn Hamm&m asSalOl! (S). 

P. 800, 1 22. Abu Abd ArRafcmftn 'Abd Allfih Ibn Hablb asSulamt 
(1Kb, IAth, IHjr, TH, TKh) alKttft (1Kb, IHjr, TH), the Reader (1Kb, 
IHjr, TH, TKh) of Al'Irak (TKh), one of the companions of 'All (1Kb), 
studied under ' Uthm&n and Ibn Mas'Qd (TKh), taught Reading 40 
years (TH, TKh), d. after 70 (IHjr, TH), in 74 (TKh), in 92 (TH), 
or in 105 at the age of 90 (IAth, TH). 

P. 801, 1 19. The reference is to^p. 85, 1 21—86, 1 12. 

P. 802, U. 14-15. If the n. were not complete, the verbal prop. 
would be its ep. [44] ; and, if this prop, did not contain the pron. of 
the cond. n. f it could be neither cnune. [27], nor ep. [114], of the 
latter. 



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( 125a ) 

P. 803, 1 15. The reference is to vol. Il,p. 679, U. 13-17. 

•A/ 

P. 805, ft 5-H. According to S, *-*** is an adv.; but, according 
to Akh and Sf, it is a non-adverbial n. (ML), 

P. 810, J. 6. 

«5$ A // / Sh /A! A S3/ xAx /A^ As/A$s 

J tc*8 assuredly make for the daughter of 'Uthman a tort (of altercation), 
or a wonderful matter. From where has the twenty (camels), from where f 
This verse is from a poem in the Rajaz metre transmitted from Th by 
Akh in the Exposition of the Dxwan of AZ. Akh says, Mb and Th 

say that by f>* he means <♦)*<•** ; but elides the I and ^ by poetio 
license, and pronounces its initial with Fatfc to indicate what is elided ; 

and Th says that by & he means a sort (of altercation). ISk says 
that these verses were a satire on a Collector of the poor-rate. And 

Sf says, The Rajas is by Mudrik Ibn Qugain ; to means a wonderful 

matter ; and &))&* means twenty (camels) (AKB). 

S /A* S SA$ 

P. 815, Z. 10. And (c) ^Ujl ^Ujl tfmw (and) times, says IJ (AKB. 
III. 346), as in the hemistich cited in the Note on p. 757, 1 12—1 18. 
Ibn ljujr alKindl (Jsh). The poets named Imra al$[ais are many, among 
them Imra all£ais Ibn Qujr alKindl, Imra all£ais ibn 'Anis alKindl, 
and Imra alKais Ibn Malik anNumairl (Mr). 

P. 816, 1 13. By Dtlbilbn Al?arith [atTamlml (AKB)] alBurjuml ' 
(Lane, p. 1380, coL 3), of the Banu Ghalib Ibn ?anzala, who reached the 
Prophet, and died in prison in the time of 'Uthman. AlBurjumi is a 
rd. n. to the BarSjim, who are 6 clans of the children of Qangala Ibn 
Malik Ibn Zaid Manat Ibn Tamlm, vid. gais, 'Amr, Ghalib, Ktdfe, 
Zlulaim, [sons of 9an?ala (1Kb, ID),] and Mukashir, who reoeived the 
cognomen of AlBarajim because a man of them named Qaritha Ibn 

fAmir said to them " Come; then let us oombine like the fttyflyfi* 



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( 126a ) 

joint*, [the sing, of which is *-•*>?> (ID),] of this my hand ;" whereupon 

they did so, and were then named j^t^J! , which are t/u joints of the 
fingers, 3 in each finger (AKB). 

P. 817, 1 1. By AlFarazdaV (AKB). 

P. 818, 1 7. Al'Amrl, one of the Banu 'Amr Ibn Alljarith Ibn 
Tamlm Ibn Sa'd Ibn Hudhail, an IslamI poet; a convert, according to 
what is mentioned in the Is on the authority of AlMarzubam ; but, 
according to the KA, a poet of the Umawl dynasty, one of their eulo- 
gists, who composed odes on 'Abd AlMalik Ibn Marw&n and 'Abd Al'Azlz 
Ibn Marwan, with the latter of whom he abode long in Egypt (AKB). 

P. 819, U. 4-5, 13, 21. See HH. I. 326. 

P. 822, 11. 13-15. I.e. S makes it uninfl. in both members, but Z 
only in the 1st member. 

P. 823, 1 16. See the Note on p. 14, 1 1— ft. 17-18. Saif adDaula 
Abu-lIJasan 'All Ibn 'Abd Allah Ibn ljamdan atTaghlabl, who became 
chief of Aleppo in 333, [and before that was chief of Wasij and those 
regions (ITB),] b. 301 or 303, d. 356 (IKhn, ITB). His sister Khaula 
died in 352 (ITB). 

P. 826, /. 1. Of the Madid [metre] (MN). tiy is post to *&6 

(DM) : but fh**) would violate the metre ; and I think that &y» f&*i) 

/ASS t* **'h 

is like tf& I ci>!&M (see pp. 363, 463, 489), meaning and how many 
prosperous men, subjects (see the next Note). 

A/ 

P. 829, I I. This verse, where the sp. of fS occurs pi and *ing. t 
combines both constructions (DM) ; and, but for the pluralization of 

the pron. in the enunc. !j^W [222], I should have translated the 2nd 
hemistich ani how many a prosperous subject (literally a prosperous, 
man, a subject) has perished I 



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( 127* ) 

P. 830, 1 22. After "riding-beast" insert an Italicized note of admi- 

AS A/ A 9 

ration— I 24. The sp. of fS is \*c>y2s** (A Az, MN) ; and the phrase 

j, hth,Os *3 / A/ A # Ayr 

i* constructively *V Jr } J t ^ U ; l* ^j^s** ^ 5 (AAz) : or rather, 
as I suppose, the sp. is **£* or the like suppressed, qualified by 
U ; tt Ki^yssa^ , the full phrase being l* ; U l*a 5 *aa * ^* ; l ! ^* &ub *^o ^ , 
otherwise it is difficult to account for the gendea of the pron. attached 

>/ A/ a s 

to >te , which is the og. of lf*3*J»* • 

P. 831, 1. 7. Its author is said to be Dhu-rRumma ; but I have not 
found it in his Dlwdn (MN) — 1. 12. The verse occurs anonymously in the 
S" and M ; and not one of their Commentators [except IY] has attributed 
it to .its author : but [IY followed by] Al'Ainl says it is by AlFarazdak ; 
andGodknows! (AKB)— I 15. This is one of some verses attributed 
by the author of the KA to Anas Ibn Zunaim alKinanl, a Saljabl poet r 
who said them to 'Ubaid Allah- Ibn Zlyad Ibn Sumayya, Governor of 
Al'Irafc, [k. 67 (1Kb, IAth)] : so say the author of the KA, the Ex- 
positors of the verses of S, and the Commentators of the Jumal. And 
the 1st verse [with a different version] is cited by R in the Commen- 

tary on the SH to show that g*y pret. of fa* has been heard [4821. 
The verses have also been attributed to 'Abd Allah Ibn Kuraiz, and to- 
Abu-lAswad adDu'all ; and God knows ! (AKB)— U. 23-25. This means 

A/ A* 

that, when the sp. of the iitierrog. £ wouldy. if £ were not separated 

A/ 

from it, be governed in the gen. [224], it is treated, when ($ is separated 

A* 

from it, in the same way as the sp. of the separated enunoiatory £ . 

P. 834, t 7. Read"Banu'V 

P. 840, 1 7. 'Ulnar, or Muhammad, [or 'Abd AUah (Dh),] Ibn 
'Abd ArRahm&n Ibn Mufcaism [asSahml (IHj*)], the Reader [of the 
people (IHjr)] of Makka (Dh, IHjr), who studied reading under 



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( 128a ) 
MujShid (r>h), a. 123 (IHjr)— I 16. The 1Y (p. 587,?. 14) has 2g 

'J* \ 

and £>i without repetition. 

P; 841, U. 9-12. I Br says, This diet i notion is the opinion of Th 
and his followers ; while Ehl and S and their followers make no distinc- 
tion between them : and H sometimes forgets what he says here, for he 

• A* 9* * h*/' A* •*»/ * *•/ y A/ A 9*h*+ 

says in his 3fakdmdt ct*>i y*s± ^s^c\ Mj is^f, u^aS" &• fjA** 

y A// # ' 

yu?i) 7%en Mey &t*r«* out laughing at such and such a story, and only th* 
announcement of such and such an affair made them laugh (CD). See HL 



0* Swft / 



235, where, however, I do not find fl\ UiJ 3 . Thorbecke(D. 99) omita 

• A/ • A/ • A/ • A> 

the 5 throughout, printing vj^a/ o^ and «a*>«5 vfi^^i ; but the Con- 
stantinople «J. (|? . 60) and the CD (p. 143) give it 

P. 842, U. 20-21. As 

■» .A * a 9 a //&/ m/A^oy S4»s y Ay S^y 

ci- ^J ^aa^i lJL** ».U • UUJ | 5 l«Si ^ m* 

(IY, R), by Manzflr Ibn Marthad al Asadl, praising a woman for fragrance 
of the mouth, As though between her jaw and the jaw were a hag of musk 

mi 9 *bmf * A* 

slit open in perfume of the kind ©ailed «— £** (AKB), meaning U^ && 
between her two jaws (IY, AKB). Manzflr Ibn Marthad, also oalled Ibn 
gabba, flabba being his mother, was a Rajiz of the Banu Asad Iba 

m * m 9 

Khuzaima (AKB). JU (IY) : <*S- with l?amm of the L y» (AKB). In 
vol II, p. 690, 1 1, read "5abha". 

P. 843, h 4. f l J I is a dial. var. of <kD I (AKB)— I fc A heathea 
poet. Zimman [Ibn Malik Ibn §a'b Ibn 'AH Ibn Bakr Ibn Wft'il in Rabl'a 
(IHb)j was one of the poet's ancestors, and was of the Banu JJanlfa 
(AKB) ; [or more oorreetly] the Banu Zimman were of Malik Ibn ga'b, 
but were reckoned among [their cousins] the Banu Qinlfo Ibn Lujaua 
lha§a«b(I&ty 



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[ 129a ) 

P. 845, t 17. By AlKumait Ibn fha'laba (Md, AKB) alAsadr, a 
Fak*a8l Asadl Islam! poet, called AlKumait alAkbar, grand-father 
of AlKumait Ibn tta'rtlf Ibn AlKumait alAkbar. He became a Muslim 
in the time of the Prophet, but did not join him ; and is mentioned by 
iHjr in the Is among the Converts on the authority of AU and 

AlMarzubanl (AKB). He has elided the * from % } ]y as it is elided in 
curtailment, although this is in the netwoc. [58] ; or he may have 

meant ^'f tf* , and then lightened the ^ of relation (Md) — I 18* 

The Banu Faaara are taunted With eating the penis of the he-ass (AKB), 
The story is that 3 men joined company together a Fazart, a Taghlabt, 
and a Kilabt. They found a [wild (AKB)] he-ass ; and, when the Fazart 
had gone away on one of his needs, they cooked and ate, but kept the 
yard of the he-ass for the Fazarl. On his return, they said to him 
"We have kept for thee [thy share (AKB)]: then eat". So he set 
about eating [it (Md)], but was [almost (Md)] unable to swallow it. 
Then [said he " Was all the roast-meat of the he-ass a penis P " ; and 
(Md)] they began to laugh. Then he perceived [the trick played, upon 
him] ; and took the sword, [and went up to them (AKB),] and said a Ye 
"shall assuredly eat [of (AKB)] it, or I will [surely (Md)] slay you" (Md, 
AKB). Then they refused ; so he smote one of them, and killed him ; 
and the other took it, and ate of it (AKB). For Md's ending of the story 
see tho Note on p. 588, IL 18*19— £ 19.— The 1st Fazara is the tribe 
of Fazara, and the 2nd is their eponymous ancestor. 

P. 846, 1 2. Khi$am, or Bishr, Ibn Nasr, of tbe Bann-lAbyad Ibn 
Mujashi' Ibn Da rim, the Rajix (AKB). 

P. 849, I 9. ^^U (M) : ^W« and ^fl* (IT) s ^th and ^^ 
(Mb. 59)— I 21. See Md. I. 151 and P. I. 301, 

P. 850, h 20. ** (A). 

P. 851, I 7. > I f Devotee (I A) : A ? Excellent reader (R). 



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( 130a ) 

P. 852, I 19. e)S;r^ U ( A )» apparently a misprint. 

P. 853, /. /. This verse is the last of an ode composed by AlFarazdafc 
at the end of his life, when repenting towards God of his excesses in 
his satirizing people ; and in it he blames lblls for having misled him 
in his youth (AKB). 

P. 854, 1 1. The du. pron. relates to lblls and his son (AKB) — I 
3. By " the barker " he means the poet that applies himself to satire and 

abuse ; and like it is " the howler" (AKB) — U. 4-5. )3 being orig. ^y* > 

/// // 

its du. ought to be k^i , but is !;3 ; so that its J is not restored : 

while the du. of **y)i , orig. «j|j3 , like *ly , is ^Iji ; so that the J , 
i.e. the t substituted for the ^ , is restored. R in another place (vol. 

I, p. 266) says " The J of >i is a ^ , as is proved by VU& and ^f;3 , 

" because the tat. of *z~tj° is more numerous than that of i^\ 9 and to 
"make it accord with the most prevalent is better"; and "the £ is 

"elided in e^li from frequency of usage " — I. 20. Abu Bilal Mircfes 
Ibn «Amr Ibu Sudair [aiganzall (IAth)], of [the Banu (ID)] Rabl'a Ibn 
IJanzala [Ibn Malik Ibn Zaid Manat Ibn Tamlm (Mb)], was known, like 
his brother 'Urwa, as Ibn Udayya, she beipg a [heathen (Mb)] grand- 
mother of theirs (1Kb, ID). He revolted against 'Ubaid Allah Ibn Ziyad 
(ID), and was killed in 61 (IAth). « Urwa was killed by 'Ubaid Allah 
Ibn Ziyad (1Kb, IAth) in 58 (IAth). For "Udayya" [in vol. II, p. 142, 
I, 15] oue MS [of the D] has "Udhaina," which is correot (CD). 'Urwa 
Ibn Udhaina alLaithl, [of the Banu Laith, a KinanI (T),] aljjijazl, the 
celebrated poet, d. about 130 (FW)— I. 21. ID, who is the authority 
in this matter, attributes the verse to c All Ibn Badd&l Ibn Sulaim ; and 
God knows 1 (AKB). 

P. 855, 1 12. Attributed by Sgh to Shu'ba Ibn ['Umair (Is) or] 
gumajr [atfTubawI, a heathen (Is), or] a converted poet, who [reached 
Allsl&m (Is), and] believed in the time of Prophet, but did not se; hi<u 



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( 13U ) 
mentioned by IHjr in the Is among the Converts (A KB). One ofx 

the 2 t-is i 8 re d., as in ^1 ^fjsv * [62/.540] (AAz)— I 20. alKalbl, 
an Islam I poet (A KB)* 

P. 856, 1 17. By AlFarazdafc, satirizing Jartr, whom he ridicules, 

and makes out to be a woman. He likens each half of the f$> [men- 
tioned 2 verses before, and] here meaning vulva, to the face of a Turk, 
the Turks being coarse, broad, and red. in the face (A KB) — IX The 
Mother of the Believers (Is), JJafsa Bint 'Umar Ibn AlKhaftab, i 8 said 
to have been born [when l£uraish were building the House (Nw),] 5 
years before the Mission [of the Prophet (Nw)] ; was married by the 
Apostle of God [after 'A'isha (Is)] in the year 2 or 3, [the latter date 
being preferable (Is)] ; and died in the year 27, [28 (Nw),] 41, 45, (Nw, 
Is), 47, or 50, at the age of 60 (Nw). Between the Hijra and the birth 
of the Apostle of God were 53 years 2 months and 8 days ; between the 
Hijra aud the Mission of the Apostle of God were 13 years 2 months and 

8 days ; and between the Hijra and the death of the Apostle of God were 

9 years 11 months and 22 days (AF). The Hijra is the beginning of 
the Islam! era (Nw, AF) ; and the first [person] that dated by the 
Hijra was 'Umar Ibn AlKhaftab in the year 17 of the Hijra (Nw). 
The Hijra occurred (AF, TKh) in the 14th year of the Mission (TKh), 
when AlMufcarram, gafar, and 8 days of Rabl' alAwwal had elapsed. 
So, when they resolved upon founding [the era of] the Hijra, they 
went back 68 days, and made the beginning of the era the 1st of 
AlMuljarram of this year. Then they computed from the 1st of 
AlMu^arram to the last day of the Prophet's life, and it was 10 years 
and 2 months ; whereas, when his age is really reckoned from the Hijra, 
he is found to have lived 9 years 11 months and 22 days after it, [the 

. difference between the 2 periods being 2 months and 8 days, i.e. 68 
days] (AF). [But the assertion that the period from thn 1st of 
AlMufcarram in the year of the Hijra to the last day of the Prophet's 
life was 10 years and 2 months is difficult to reconcile with the atat* 



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( 1324 ) 

# ment that] he died (God bless him, and give him peace t) in the forenoon, 
[or, as is said, at midday (AF),] on Monday, when 12 nights were left, 
[i.e. on the 18th,] of Rabf alAwwal in the year It [of the Hijra 
(Nw), i.e. 10 years 2 months and 18 days from, and including, the 1st 
6f AlMuljarram in the year of the Hijra], He died at the age of 63, % 
the [most correct and (Nw)] best*known [opinion] ; or, as is said, 65 or 
60 (Nw, AF). The preferable opinion is that he was sent [on his 
Apostolic Mission] at 40 years, and abode in Makka calling [the 
unbelievers] to Allslam 13 years and a fraction, and abode at AlMadtna 
after the Hijra nearly 10 years; and that is 63 years and some fractions 
(AF). If, then, IJafsa was born 5 years before the Mission, she was 
18 or a little more at the beginning of the Hijrl era ; so that, if she 
lived 60 years, she died in 41. 

P. 857, 11. 25-26, The truth is that these 2 verses are from a 
Eajaz by Khi^am alMujashi'I, an IslamI poet ; not by Himyan Ibn 
tfufcafa (AKB) the Rajiz (ID). 

P. 859, 1. 8. Abu 'Af& was a contemporary of the 2 dynasties : he 
praised the Band Umayya and the Band H&shim (KA). Yazld Ibn 
•Umar Ibn Hubaira [alFazarl (ITB), b. 87 (lKhn)], governor of the 2 
Iraks for Marwan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Marwan Ibn AlQakam [alljfurasht 
(TKh) alUmawI (TKhn, TKh) adDimashkl (TKh), known as alJa'df, 
and nicknamed AlQimar (IKhn), the last Khalifa of the Banu Umayya 
(IKhn, TKh), b. 72 (TKh) or 76 (Tr, IAth, ITB)], a. 127, h 132 at 
the age of [58 (MDh),] 59, [62 (IAth, MAB), 69 (MDh, IAth), or 70 
(MDh)], was put to death by Abu Ja'far alMans/r, [afterwards Khalifa,] 
at Wasit in 132 in violation of a capitulation (1Kb). The advice of Abu, 
Ja'far was to keep faith with him ; but Abu Ja'far's brother Abu-l'Abb&s 
'Abd Allah asSaffah Ibn Mufcammad [alKurashl (TKh) alHashiml 
(ITB) al'AbbasI (ITB, TKh), the 1st Khalifa of the Banu-1'Abbta 
(FW, ITB), 6. 108 (FW, TKh)], a. 132, d. [135 or (TKhj] 136 [at the age 
of 27 (TKh), 28 (Tr, IAth, FW, TKh), 29 (MDh), 32 (TKh), 33 (Tr, 
MDh, Utb, MAB> ITB, TKh), or 36 (Tr, IAth)], insisted upon Abu 



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( 133a ) 

Ja'far's putting him to death (IKhn). Marwau was called AUa«d« 
[because he had learnt (IAth, MAB)] from [his preceptor and master 
(TKh)] AlJa'd Ibn Dirham (IAth, MAB, TKh) the doctrines of the 
Creation of the Kur'in and of Predestination (IAth, MAB), etc. (IAth) ; 
and he was known as AlJIimar because of his bravery, from the saying 

v^ysJt ^ ;l^ \£+ fi*\ ijb Such a one is more patient than a he-ass 
in war ; for he used not to flag in waging war upon the rebels against 
him, and was the bravest of the Banu Umayya (TKh). It is said that 
AlJa'd Ibn Dirham published his doctrine of the Creation of the Kur'an 
in the days of Hisham Ibn 'Abd AlMalik, under whose order he was put 
to death by Khalid al^aarl, governor of Al'Iralj: (IAth). The Wasit of 
Al'Irafc was founded by Altfajjaj Ibn Yttsuf athThakaft between AlKafa 
and AlBasra ; and for that reason was named W$si$, because it was 
intermediate between the 2 cities, [the distance from it to each being 
50 parasangs (MI), i.e. leagues] : it was begun by him in 84, and 
finished in 86 (Mk)— Z. 12. The 1st hemistich is 

i^icT t/ 3 r* c5 U J^* 

My heart in on glowing embers of the wood called l*a£ ; and the verse is 
from an ode by AlMutanabbi : W says (AKB), He says My heart it on 
glowing embers from passion, i.e. on account of their bidding farewell and 
their departing ; and mine eye is revelling in the face of the beloved in a 

garden of beauty (W, AKB). ^ I ^ (W) for UwJ I ^ • 

• #A • 

P. 860, JL 2-3. JSU tfki The bottom, or low land, of'Ikti is [a 

place (MI)] on the road of the pilgrims of AlBasra between Ramatan 
and (Mk, MI) Amirra (Mk) [or] Immara (MI)— I. 4. 'A^il is said to 
be a mountain (Bk, ZJ) that 5ujr, the father of Imra alKais, used to 
dwell in (Bk). The author of the Mk, after enumerating 8 places 
named 'Akil, the 2nd of which he desoribes as " a mountain that the 
" children of [IJujr (KA) ] Akil alMurar, the ancestor of Imra alKais, 
" used to stop in", adds " But I do not find myself confident that they 



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( 134a ) 

"are 8 [separate] places ; and perhaps there is some intermixture id 
them n — I 8. See Md. II. 182 and P. II. 598— #. 16-17. The R (vol. 
II, p. 142, 1.1.) has "either because repetition of the v. is made a 
"substitute for dualization of the ag" 9 which, though it occurs in all 
3 eds., I have ventured to invert— U. 19-20. The 2 Indian eds. of the 
J&l(vol. iltp. 143,/. 2) have *A^t* his companion; but the Persiau ed\ 
has ig^l** Ids 2 companions. 

mP h*o h* Sa h, 

P. 861, 1. 1. |J$ f *W >)> £ju.«*J naming apart by the name of a whole 
(R), i.e., putting a whole for a part, as penes for penis and testicles for two 
testicles in the exs. given— I. 3. Read "two testicles" and "substitutions.'* 




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■■■JWS 



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